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Encyclopedia > Thulium
69 erbiumthuliumytterbium
-

Tm

Md
General
Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f
Appearance silvery gray
Atomic mass 168.93421(2) g/mol
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 9.32 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 8.56 g/cm³
Melting point 1818 K
(1545 °C, 2813 °F)
Boiling point 2223 K
(1950 °C, 3542 °F)
Heat of fusion 16.84 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 247 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 °C) 27.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.25 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 596.7 kJ/mol
2nd: 1160 kJ/mol
3rd: 2285 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 175 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 222 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 676 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 16.9 W/(m·K)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers hardness 520 MPa
Brinell hardness 471 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-30-4
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of thulium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 0.748 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 1.679 168Er
169Tm 100% Tm is stable with 100 neutrons
170Tm syn 128.6 d β- 0.968 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β- 0.096 171Yb
References

Thulium is a chemical element that has the symbol Tm and atomic number 69 in the periodic table. A lanthanide element, thulium is the least abundant of the rare earths and its metal is easy to work, has a bright silvery-gray luster and can be cut by a knife. It also has some corrosion resistance in dry air and good ductility. Naturally occurring thulium is made entirely of the stable isotope Tm-169. General Name, Symbol, Number Erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 9066 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 6570 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... From fr:Image:Tm-TableImage. ... State at standard temperature and pressure those numbered in red are gases those numbered in green are liquids those numbered in black are solid Natural occurrence those without borders have not been discovered/synthesized yet those with dotted borders do not occur naturally (Synthetic elements) those with dashed borders naturally... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... A chemical series is a group of chemical elements whose physical and chemical characteristics vary progressively from one end of the series to another. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The ungrouped elements are the Rare Earth Elements or Metals, which currently lack a group number. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Thulium sample. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element (also known as the relative atomic mass or average atomic mass or atomic weight) is the average atomic mass of all the chemical elements isotopes as found in a particular environment, weighted by isotopic abundance. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle which carries a negative electric charge. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The degree Celsius (°C or ℃ (Unicode 0x2103)) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... It has been suggested that Saturation temperature be merged into this article or section. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The degree Celsius (°C or ℃ (Unicode 0x2103)) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The vapor pressure is the pressure (if the vapor is mixed with other gases, the partial pressure) of a vapor(this vapour being formed from molecules/atoms escaping from a liquid/solid). ... Rose des Sables (Sand Rose), formed of gypsum crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation state or oxidation number is defined as the sum of negative and positive charges in an atom, which indirectly indicates the number of electrons it has accepted or donated. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base, also known as an alkaline compound, is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction that an atom has for the bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The hot butt sexis the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outmost stable electron orbital in a atom that is at equilibrium. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 100 pm and 1 nm (10-10 m and 10-9 m). ... Picometre (American spelling: picometer) is an SI measure of length that is equal to 10−12 of a metre. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 100 pm and 1 nm (10-10 m and 10-9 m). ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, λ, is the intensive property of a material which relates its ability to conduct heat. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, λ, is the quantity of heat transmitted, due to unit temperature gradient, in unit time under steady conditions in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, when the heat transfer is dependent only on the temperature gradient thermal conductivity = heat flow rate / (distance × temperature... The coefficient of thermal expansion is used in two ways: as a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient as a linear thermal expansion coefficient These characteristics are closely related. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... The modulus of elasticity can also be measured in other units of pressure, for example pounds per square inch (psi). ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where p is pressure and V is volume. ... When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. ... The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s and uses a pyramid-shaped indenter made of diamond. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Thulium (Tm) Standard atomic mass: 168. ... Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number–-the number of protons in the nucleus--but different atomic masses because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for chemical elements that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive elements that can decay by... General Name, Symbol, Number Erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 9066 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 167. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for chemical elements that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive elements that can decay by... General Name, Symbol, Number Erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 9066 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 167. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 116 days and 1157 days or 3. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 6570 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 173. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... (Redirected from 1 E s) An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 6570 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 173. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is the class of atoms which contain the same number of protons. ... The atomic number (Z) is a term used in chemistry and physics to represent the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A rare earth is an oxide of a rare earth element. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms ions (cations) and has metallic bonds, and metals are sometimes described as a lattice of positive ions (cations) in a cloud of electrons. ... Corrosion, atmospheric and biologic (Barnacles) Corrosion is deterioration of useful properties in a material due to reactions with its environment. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents


Applications

Thulium has been used to create lasers but high production costs have prevented other commercial uses from being developed. Other applications, real and potential, include: The range of sizes in which lasers exist is immense, extending from microscopic diode lasers (top) to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion. ...

  • When stable thulium (Tm-169) is bombarded in a nuclear reactor it can later serve as a radiation source in portable X-ray devices.
  • The unstable Tm-171 could possibly be used as an energy source.
  • Tm-169 has potential use in ceramic magnetic materials called ferrites, which are used in microwave equipment.

Core of a nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate (as opposed to a nuclear explosion, where the chain reaction occurs in a split second). ... Radiation has a variety of different meanings. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Ferrites are ferromagnetic ceramic materials, compounds of iron, boron and barium or strontium or molybdenum. ... This page is about the radiation; for the appliance, see microwave oven. ...

History

Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements (this was the same method Carl Gustaf Mosander earlier used to discover some other rare earths elements). Cleve started by removing all of the known contaminants of erbia (Er2O3) and upon additional processing, obtained two new substances; one brown and one green. The brown substance turned out to be the oxide of the element holmium and was named holmia by Cleve and the green substance was the oxide of an unknown element. Cleve named the oxide thulia and its element thulium after Thule, an ancient Roman name for a mythical country in the far north, perhaps Scandinavia. This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... Per Teodor Cleve (Stockholm February 10, 1840 – Uppsala June 18, 1905) was a Swedish chemist and geologist. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovö, Stockholm County 15 October Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 9066 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... Thule is in classic sources a place, usually an island, in the far north, often Scandinavia. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ...


Occurrence

The element is never found in nature in pure form, but it is found in small quantities in minerals with other rare earths. It is principally extracted from monazite (~0.007% thulium) ores found in river sands through ion-exchange. Newer ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have led to easier separation of the rare earths, which has yielded much lower costs for thulium production. The metal can be isolated through reduction of its oxide with lanthanum metal or by calcium reduction in a closed container. None of thulium's compounds is commercially important. This article is about minerals in the geologic sense; for nutrient minerals see dietary mineral; for the band see Mineral (band). ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger, an insoluble solid or gel. ... Reduction or reducing has several meanings: In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired simpler format. ... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ...


Isotopes

Naturally occurring thulium is composed of 1 stable isotope, Tm-169 (100% natural abundance). 31 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Tm-171 with a half-life of 1.92 years, Tm-170 with a half-life of 128.6 days, Tm-168 with a half-life of 93.1 days, and Tm-167 with a half-life of 9.25 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 64 hours, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 2 minutes. This element also has 14 meta states, with the most stable being Tm-164m (t½ 5.1 minutes), Tm-160m (t½ 74.5 seconds) and Tm-155m (t½ 45 seconds). Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number–-the number of protons in the nucleus--but different atomic masses because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The isotopes of thulium range in atomic weight from 145.966 u (Tm-146) to 176.949 u (Tm-177). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, Tm-169, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before Tm-169 are element 68 (erbium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element 70 (ytterbium) isotopes. ... AMU redirects here, but may also refer to the Arab Maghreb Union The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for chemical elements that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive elements that can decay by... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 9066 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block NA, 6, f Density, Hardness 6570 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 173. ...


Precautions

Thulium has a low-to-moderate acute toxic rating and should be handled with care. Metallic thulium in dust form presents a fire and explosion hazard. For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ...


See also Ytterby. Ytterby is a village near Vaxholm in Sweden. ...


References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry Division: Periodic Table – Thulium
  • Guide to the Elements – Revised Edition, Albert Stwertka, (Oxford University Press; 1998) ISBN 0-19-508083-1
  • It's Elemental – Thulium

External links

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Thulium Summary (2069 words)
Thulium is a rare earth element, one of the elements found in row 6 of the periodic table.
Thulium is one of the elements discovered in yttria, a mineral first found by a Swedish army officer named Carl Axel Arrhenius (1757-1824) in 1787 near the town of Ytterby, Sweden.
Thulium is a chemical element that has the symbol Tm and atomic number 69 in the periodic table.
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