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Encyclopedia > Thucydides
Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC) ([[Ancient Greek|Greek]) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (998x1735, 693 KB) Bust of the ancient Greek general and historian Thucydides from the Royal Ontario Museum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (998x1735, 693 KB) Bust of the ancient Greek general and historian Thucydides from the Royal Ontario Museum. ... The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM (rhyming with Tom), is a major museum for world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC 397 BC 396 BC - 395 BC - 394 BC 393 BC...

Contents

Life

Considering his stature as a historian, we know comparatively little about Thucydides' life. The most reliable information comes from his own History of the Peloponnesian War, and consists of his nationality, paternity, and native locality. Thucydides also tells us that he fought in the war, contracted the plague, and was exiled by the democracy. Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (Athens). ...


Evidence from the Classical Period

Thucydides identifies himself as an Athenian, tells us that his father's name was Olorus and that he was from the Athenian deme of Halimous.[1] Thucydides tells us that he contracted the plague that ravaged Athens,[2] a plague which killed Pericles and many other Athenians. He records that he owned gold mines at Scapte Hyle, a district of Thrace on the Thracian coast opposite the island of Thasos.[3] Olorus was the name of several kings of Thrace. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... Alimos (Greek: Άλιμος), Latin and older form: Alimus, is a suburb in the south southwestern part of Athens, Greece. ... The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Thasos or Thassos (Greek: Θάσος, Ottoman Turkish: طاشوز Taşöz, Bulgarian: ) is an island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ...


Because of his influence in the Thracian region, Thucydides tells us, he was sent as a strategos (general) to Thasos in 424 BC. During the winter of 424-423 BC, the Spartan general Brasidas attacked Amphipolis, a half-day's sail west from Thasos on the Thracian coast. Eucles, the Athenian commander at Amphipolis, sent to Thucydides for help.[4] Brasidas, aware of Thucydides' presence on Thasos and his influence with the people of Amphipolis and afraid of help arriving by sea, acted quickly to offer moderate terms to the Amphipolitans for their surrender, which they accepted. Thus when Thucydides arrived, Amphipolis was already under Spartan control[5] (see Battle of Amphipolis). Amphipolis was of considerable strategic importance, and news of its fall caused great consternation in Athens.[6] The fall of Amphipolis was blamed on Thucydides, though he claimed it wasn't his fault, that he had simply been unable to reach it in time. Because of his failure to save Amphipolis, Thucydides was sent into exile, as he wrote:[7] Bust of an unidentified strategos with Corinthian helmet; Hadrianic Roman copy of a Greek sculpture of c. ... Thasos or Thassos (Greek: Θάσος, Ottoman Turkish: طاشوز Taşöz, Bulgarian: ) is an island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Brasidas (Greek: Βρασίδας) (d. ... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (Greek, Ἀμφίπολις – Amphípolis) was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Cleon† Nicias Thucydides Brasidas† Clearidas Strength About 2000 About 2500 Casualties About 600 8 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Amphipolis was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. ...

It was also my fate to be an exile from my country for twenty years after my command at Amphipolis; and being present with both parties, and more especially with the Peloponnesians by reason of my exile, I had leisure to observe affairs somewhat particularly.

Using his status as an exile from Athens to travel freely among the Peloponnesian allies, he was able to view the war from the perspective of both sides. During this time, he conducted important research for his history.


This is all that Thucydides himself tells us about his own life. We are able to infer a few other facts from reliable contemporary sources. Herodotus tells us that Thucydides' father's name, Olorus, was connected with Thrace and Thracian royalty.[8] Thucydides was probably connected through family to the Athenian statesman and general Miltiades, and his son Cimon, leaders of the old aristocracy supplanted by the Radical Democrats. Cimon's grandfather's name was Olorus, making the connection exceeding likely. Another Thucydides lived before the historian and was also linked with Thrace, making a family connection between them very likely as well. Finally, Herodotus confirms the connection of Thucydides' family with the mines at Scapte Hyle.[9] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Olorus was the name of several kings of Thrace. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Miltiades Miltiades (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Olorus was the name of several kings of Thrace. ... Thucydides (Greek: Θουκυδίδης) was a prominent politician of ancient Athens and the leader for a number of years of the powerful conservative faction. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


Later sources

The remaining evidence for Thucydides' life comes from less than reliable later ancient sources. According to Pausanias, someone named Oenobius was able to get a law passed allowing Thucydides to return to Athens, presumably sometime shortly after Athens' surrender and the end of the war in 404 BC.[10] Pausanias goes on to say that Thucydides was murdered on his way back to Athens. Many doubt this account, seeing evidence to suggest he lived as late as 397 BC. Plutarch claims that his remains were returned to Athens and placed in Cimon's family vault.[11] Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC - 397 BC - 396 BC 395 BC... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The abrupt end of Thucydides' narrative, which breaks off in the middle of the year 411 BC, has traditionally been interpreted as indicating that he died while writing the book, though other explanations have been put forward. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC 412 BC - 411 BC - 410 BC 409 BC 408...


Education

Although there is no certain evidence to prove it, the rhetorical character of his narrative suggests that Thucydides was at least familiar with the teachings of the Sophists. These men were travelling lecturers, who frequented Athens and other Greek cities. Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


It has also been asserted that Thucydides' strict focus on cause and effect, his fastidious devotion to observable phenomena to the exclusion of other factors and his austere prose style were influenced by the methods and thinking of early medical writers such as Hippocrates of Kos. Some have gone so far as to assert that Thucydides had some medical training. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ...


Both of these theories are inferences from the perceived character of Thucydides' History. While neither can be categorically rejected, there is no firm evidence for either.


Character

Inferences about Thucydides' character can only be drawn (with due caution) from his book. Occasionally throughout The History of the Peloponnesian War his sardonic sense of humor is evident, such as when, during the Athenian plague, he remarks that some old Athenians seemed to remember a rhyme that said with the Dorian War would come a "great death." Some claimed the rhyme was actually about a "great dearth" (limos), and was only remembered as "death" (loimos) due to the current plague. Thucydides then remarks that, should another Dorian War come, this time attended with a great dearth, the rhyme will be remembered as "dearth," and any mention of "death" forgotten.[12] History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the battles, conflicts, and politics of the Peloponnesian War, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens), written by an Athenian general who served in the war, Thucydides. ... The Plague of Athens was a devastating epidemic which hit the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC), when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ...


Thucydides admired Pericles, approving of his power over the people, and shows a palpable distaste for the more pandering demagogues who followed him. Thucydides did not approve of the democratic mob or the radical democracy Pericles ushered in but thought that it was acceptable when in the hands of a good leader.[13] Generally, Thucydides exhibited a lack of bias in his presentation of events, refusing, for example, to minimize the negative effect of his own failure at Amphipolis. Occasionally, however, strong passions break through in his writing, such as in his scathing appraisals of the demagogues Cleon[14] and Hyperbolus.[15] Cleon has sometimes been connected with Thucydides' exile, which would suggest some bias in his presentation of him: it should, however, be noted that this connection is first made in a (not entirely reliable) biography written centuries after Thucydides' death, and may equally be no more than a backwards inference from Thucydides' evident disapproval of Cleon. For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Cleon† Nicias Thucydides Brasidas† Clearidas Strength About 2000 About 2500 Casualties About 600 8 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Amphipolis was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. ... Cleon (d. ... Hyperbolus (in Greek Υπέρβολoς, Hybérbolos) was an Athenian politician active during the first half of the Peloponnesian war, coming to particular prominence after the death of Cleon. ... Cleon (d. ...


Also, Thucydides was clearly moved by the suffering inherent in war, and concerned about the excesses to which human nature is apt to resort in such circumstances. This is evident in his analysis of the atrocities committed during civil conflict on Corcyra,[16] which includes the memorable phrase "War is a violent teacher". (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ...


The History of the Peloponnesian War

Main article: History of the Peloponnesian War

Thucydides wrote only one book; its modern title is the History of the Peloponnesian War. His entire contribution to history and historiography is contained in this one dense history of the twenty-seven year war between Athens and its allies and Sparta and its allies. The history breaks off near the end of the 21st year. Thucydides wanted to create an epic that would depict an event of greater importance than previous wars the Greeks had fought.[17] Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (Athens). ... Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (Athens). ... Athenian War redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


Thucydides is generally regarded as one of the first true historians. Like his predecessor Herodotus (often called "the father of history"), Thucydides placed a high value on autopsy, or eye-witness testimony to events, and writes about many episodes in which he himself probably took part. He also assiduously consulted written documents and interviewed participants in the events that he records. Unlike Herodotus, he did not recognize divine interventions in human affairs. Certainly he held unconscious biases — for example, to modern eyes he seems to underestimate the importance of Persian intervention — but Thucydides was the first historian who attempted something like modern historical objectivity. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


One major difference between Thucydides' history and modern historical writing is that Thucydides' history includes lengthy speeches which, as he himself states, were as best as could be remembered of what was said (or, perhaps, what he thought ought to have been said). These speeches are composed in a literary manner. For example, Pericles' funeral oration, which includes an impassioned moral defence of democracy, heaps honour on the dead: Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ...

The whole earth is the sepulchre of famous men; they are honoured not only by columns and inscriptions in their own land, but in foreign nations on memorials graven not on stone but in the hearts and minds of men.

Although attributed to Pericles, this passage appears to have been written by Thucydides for deliberate contrast with the account of the plague in Athens which immediately follows it: This article is about the capital of Greece. ...

Though many lay unburied, birds and beasts would not touch them, or died after tasting them. … The bodies of dying men lay one upon another, and half-dead creatures reeled about the streets and gathered round all the fountains in their longing for water. The sacred places also in which they had quartered themselves were full of corpses of persons that had died there, just as they were; for as the disaster passed all bounds, men, not knowing what was to become of them, became equally contemptuous of the gods' property and the gods' dues. All the burial rites before in use were entirely upset, and they buried the bodies as best they could. Many from want of the proper appliances, through so many of their friends having died already, had recourse to the most shameless sepultures: sometimes getting the start of those who had raised a pile, they threw their own dead body upon the stranger's pyre and ignited it; sometimes they tossed the corpse which they were carrying on the top of another that was burning, and so went off.

Classical scholar Jacqueline de Romilly first pointed out, just after the second world war, that one of Thucydides' central themes was the ethic of Athenian imperialism. Her analysis put his History in the context of Greek thought on the topic of international politics. Since her fundamental study, many scholars have studied the theme of power politics, i.e. realpolitik, in Thucydides' history. Jacqueline de Worms Romilly (born March 26, 1913) is a French philologist Biography Born in Chartres in 1913, she studied at lycée Molière where she was lauréate of the Concours général de latin and second prize in Greek in 1930, the first year when girls... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ...


On the other hand, some authors, including Richard Ned Lebow, reject the common perception of Thucydides as a historian of naked real-politik. They argue that actors on the world stage who had read his work would all have been put on notice that someone would be scrutinizing their actions with a reporter's dispassion, rather than the mythmaker's and poet's compassion and thus consciously or unconsciously participating in the writing of it. Thucydides' Melian dialogue is a lesson to reporters and to those who believe one's leaders are always acting with perfect integrity on the world stage. It can also be interpreted as evidence of the moral decay of Athens from the shining city on the hill Pericles described in the Funeral Oration to a power-mad tyrant over other cities. Richard Ned Lebow is an American political scientist best known for his work in international relations and U.S. Foreign Policy. ... Realpolitik (German for politics of reality) is foreign politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics. ... The Melian dialogue is a passage found in Book V (85-113) of the History of the Peloponnesian War by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ...


Thucydides does not take the time to discuss the arts, literature or society in which the book is set and in which Thucydides himself grew up. Thucydides was writing about an event and not a period and as such took lengths not to discuss anything which he considered unrelated.


Leo Strauss, in his classic study The City and Man (see esp. pp. 230–31) argued that Thucydides had a deeply ambivalent understanding of Athenian democracy: on the one hand, "his wisdom was made possible" by the Periclean democracy, on account of its liberation of individual daring and enterprise and questioning; but this same liberation spurred the immoderation of limitless political ambition and thus imperialism, and eventually civic strife. This is the essence of the tragedy of Athens or of democracy — this is the tragic wisdom that Thucydides conveys, which he learned in a sense from Athenian democracy. More conventional scholars view him as recognizing and teaching the lesson that democracies do need leadership — and that leadership can be dangerous to democracy.[18] Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born Jewish-American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ...


Thucydides versus Herodotus

Herodotus and Thucydides
Herodotus and Thucydides

Thucydides and his immediate predecessor Herodotus both exerted a significant influence on Western history writing. Thucydides does not mention Herodotus by name but his famous introductory statement [19] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

To hear this history rehearsed, for that there be inserted in it no fables, shall be perhaps not delightful. But he that desires to look into the truth of things done, and which (according to the condition of humanity) may be done again, or at least their like, he shall find enough herein to make him think it profitable. And it is compiled rather for an everlasting possession, than to be rehearsed for a prize.

is thought [20] to refer to him (translation by Thomas Hobbes). Herodotus records in his Histories not only the events of the Persian Wars but also geographical and ethnographical information, as well as miraculous and mythical stories ("fables") related to him during his extensive travels. If confronted with conflicting or unlikely accounts he leaves it to the reader to decide what to believe. [21] The work of Herodotus is reported [22] to have been read ("rehearsed") at festivals where prizes were awarded, such as the one at Olympia. Herodotus views history as a source of moral lessons, with conflicts and wars flowing from initial acts of injustice that propagate through cycles of revenge.[23] In contrast, Thucydides claims to confine himself to factual reports of contemporary political and military events, based on unambiguous, first-hand, eye-witness accounts ,[24] though - unlike Herodotus - he actually does not reveal his sources. Thucydides views life exclusively as political life and history in terms of political history. Morality plays no role in the analysis of political events while geographic and ethnographic aspects are, at best, of secondary importance. Hobbes redirects here. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ...


Thucydides was held up as the model of a truthful historian by subsequent Greek historians like Ctesias, Diodorus, Strabo, Polybius, and Plutarch. Lucian[25] refers to Thucydides as having given Greek historians their law, requiring them to say what had been done (ὡς ἐπράχθη). Greek historians of the 4th century BC accepted that history was political history and that contemporary history was the proper domain of a historian though, unlike Thucydides, they continued to view history as a source of moral lessons.[26] Some of them wrote pamphlets denigrating Herodotus, known to them as the 'father of lies',[27] though the Roman politician and writer Cicero does call Herodotus the "father of history."[28] Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Polybius (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Thucydides and Herodotus were largely forgotten during the Middle Ages but Herodotus became a very respected author in the 16th and 17th century, in part because of the discovery of America, where customs and animals were encountered even more surprising than those related by Herodotus, and in part because of the Reformation when the Histories provided a basis for establishing a biblical chronology, as advocated by Isaac Newton. Even during the Renaissance, Thucydides attracted less interest among historians than his successor Polybius.[29] However, though Niccolò Machiavelli, the 16th century Florentine political philosopher who wrote Il Principe (The Prince), in which he held that the sole aim of a prince (politician) was to seek power regardless of religious or ethical considerations, does not mention Thucydides very much, later authors have noted a close affinity between them.[30] In the 17th century, the English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes, the author of an influential book, Leviathan, that advocated highly authoritarian systems of government, was an admirer of Thucydides and wrote an important translation of Thucydides in 1628. Thucydides, Hobbes, and Machiavelli are together considered as founding fathers of the school of political realism, according to which states are primarily motivated by the desire for military and economic power or security, rather than ideals or ethics. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... One of the covers of the book Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine writer Niccolò Machiavelli, originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The reputation of Thucydides greatly revived in the 19th century. A Thucydides cult developed among German philosophers such as Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich Schlegel, and Friedrich Nietzsche who stated: "in him [Thucydides], the portrayer of man, that culture of the most impartial knowledge of the world finds its last glorious flower." Among leading historians, such as Eduard Meyer, Macaulay, and Leopold von Ranke who developed modern source-based history writing, Thucydides was again the model historian. They valued in particular the philosophical and artistic component of his work.[31]. However, the reputation of Herodotus was high as well among German historians: the history of civilization was increasingly viewed as complementary to political history.[32] Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 11, 1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Eduard Meyer (January 25, 1855 - August 31, 1930) was a German historian, born at Hamburg and educated at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877. ...


In the 20th century, a different mode of historiography was pioneered by Johan Huizinga, Marc Bloch, and Braudel that was no longer inspired by Thucydides. Instead, it emphasized the study of long term cultural and economic developments, and the patterns of everyday life, over that of political history. The Annales School, which represents this direction, has been viewed as extending the tradition of Herodotus [33]. At the same time, the influence of Thucydides became increasingly prominent in the area of international relations through the work of Hans Morgenthau, Leo Strauss[34] and Edward Carr [35]. The tension between the Thucydidean and Herodotean traditions extends beyond historical research. According to Irving Kristol, considered to be the founder of American Neoconservatism, Thucydides wrote "the favorite neoconservative text on foreign affairs,"[36] and Thucydides is a required text at the Naval War College. On the other hand, author and labor lawyer Thomas Geoghegan recommends Herodotus as a better source than Thucydides for drawing historical lessons relevant for the present.[37] Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Johan Huizinga (b. ... Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (July 6, 1886 – June 16, 1944) was a French historian of medieval France in the period between the First and Second World Wars, and a founder of the Annales School. ... Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902 - November 27, 1985) was a historian who revolutionized the 20th century study of the discipline by considering the effects of economics and geography on global history, a prominent member of the Annales School of historiography, who concentrated on meticulous historical analysis in the social sciences. ... The Annales School (Annales is pronounced // in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was an International Relations theorist and one of the most influential to date. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born Jewish-American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... Irving Kristol (born January 22, 1920, New York City) is considered the founder of American neoconservatism. ... This article is about neoconservatism in the United States, for neoconservatism in other regions, see Neoconservatism (disambiguation). ... The Naval War College. ... Thomas Geoghegan (b. ...


Thucydides in popular culture

In 1991, the BBC broadcast a new version of John Barton's 'The War that Never Ends', which had first been performed on stage in the 1960s. This adapts Thucydides' text, together with short sections from Plato's dialogues. More information about it can be found on the Internet Movie Database.


Quotations

  • "But, the bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it."[38]
  • "The strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must."[39]
  • "It is a general rule of human nature that people despise those who treat them well, and look up to those who make no concessions."[40]
  • "War takes away the easy supply of daily wants, and so proves a rough master, that brings most men's characters to a level with their fortunes."[41]
  • "The cause of all these evils was the lust for power arising from greed and ambition; and from these passions proceeded the violence of parties once engaged in contention."[42]

Quotations about Thucydides

  • ... the first page of Thucydides is, in my opinion, the commencement of real history. All preceding narrations are so intermixed with fable, that philosophers ought to abandon them, to the embellishments of poets and orators. (David Hume, „Of the Populousness of Ancient Nations“)

For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Pericless Funeral Oration Pericles Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War. ... The Melian dialogue is a passage found in Book V (85-113) of the History of the Peloponnesian War by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides. ... Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (Athens). ... The Speech of Hermocrates at Gela is a speech recorded by the historian Thucydides in book four of his History of the Peloponnesian War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Thucydides, 4.104.4; 1.1.1.
  2. ^ Thucydides, 2.48.1–3.
  3. ^ Thucydides, 4.105.1.
  4. ^ Thucydides, 4.104.1.
  5. ^ Thucydides, 4.105.1 – 106.3.
  6. ^ Thucydides, 4.108.1 – 7.
  7. ^ Thucydides, 5.26.5.
  8. ^ Herodotus, 6.39.1.
  9. ^ Herodotus, 6.46.1.
  10. ^ Pausanias, 1.23.9.
  11. ^ Plutarch, Cimon 4.1.
  12. ^ Thucydides, 2.54.3.
  13. ^ Thucydides, 2.65.
  14. ^ Thucydides, 3.36.6; 4.27; 5.16.1.
  15. ^ Thucydides, 8.73.3.
  16. ^ Thucydides, 3.82 – 83.
  17. ^ Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic by Barbara Graziosi,2002,ISBN 0521809665-page 118,"Thucydides defines himself simultaneously against Homer and against Herodotus ,though he explicity mentions only Homer.In this respect as in many others the beggining of the Histories is programmatic.He starts by describing his subject matter the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians and by stating the reason why he chose it ; it is the greatest event that ever happened . He adds that what happened before the war (Heordotus subject matter ) and the remote past cannot be known but do not seem to have been as great as the present events.In order to make this claim plausible Thucydides must undermine the Greek vs Barbarian dichotomy .Otherwise he would be open to objection that while Homer and Herodotus depict a war fought by the whole of Greece against the Barbarian world Thucydides is only concerned with an internal Greek affair."
  18. ^ Russett, p.45.
  19. ^ Thucydides I,22
  20. ^ Lucian, How to write history, 42
  21. ^ Momigliano, pp. 39 and 40
  22. ^ Lucian Herodotus 1-2
  23. ^ Ryszard Kapuscinski, Travels with Herodotus, pg.78
  24. ^ Thucydides I,23
  25. ^ Lucian 25,41
  26. ^ Momigliano, Ch.2,IV
  27. ^ Plutarch, On the Malignity of Herodotus
  28. ^ Cicero, Laws 1.5
  29. ^ Momigliano Ch.2, V
  30. ^ J.B.Bury, The Ancient Greek Historians (London, MacMillan, 1909), pp.140-143
  31. ^ Momigliano, pg.50
  32. ^ Momigliano, pg.52
  33. ^ Stuart Clark, ed The Annales school : critical assessments, Vol.II, 1999
  34. ^ see essay on Thucydides in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss – Essays and Lectures by Leo Strauss. Ed. Thomas L. Pangle. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989.
  35. ^ see for example. E.H.Carr The Twenty Years' Crisis
  36. ^ The Neoconservative Persuasion
  37. ^ History Lessons | The American Prospect
  38. ^ Thucydides, 2.40.3.
  39. ^ Thucydides, 5.89.
  40. ^ Thucydides, 3.39.5.
  41. ^ Thucydides, 3.82.2.
  42. ^ Thucydides, 3.82.8.

...

References and further reading

Primary sources

  • Herodotus, Histories, A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1920). ISBN 0-674-99133-8 .
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, Books I-II, (Loeb Classical Library) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918). ISBN 0-674-99104-4. .
  • Plutarch, Lives, Bernadotte Perrin (translator), Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd. (1914). ISBN 0-674-99053-6 .
  • Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. London, J. M. Dent; New York, E. P. Dutton (1910). .

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Alfred Denis Godley (1856--1925) was a classical scholar and author of humorous poems. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ...

Secondary sources

  • Cochrane, Charles Norris, Thucydides and the Science of History, Oxford University Press (1929).
  • Connor, W. Robert, Thucydides. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1984). ISBN 0-691-03569-5.
  • Dewald, Carolyn. Thucydides' War Narrative: A Structural Study. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0520241274).
  • Forde, Steven, The ambition to rule : Alcibiades and the politics of imperialism in Thucydides. Ithaca : Cornell University Press (1989). ISBN 0-8014-2138-1.
  • Hanson, Victor Davis, A War Like No Other: How the Athenians and Spartans Fought the Peloponnesian War. New York: Random House (2005). ISBN 1-4000-6095-8.
  • Hornblower, Simon, A Commentary on Thucydides. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon (1991-1996). ISBN 0-19-815099-7 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-19-927625-0 (vol. 2).
  • Hornblower, Simon, Thucydides. London: Duckworth (1987). ISBN 0-7156-2156-4.
  • Kagan, Donald. (2003). The Peloponnesian War. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03211-5.
  • Luce, T.J., The Greek Historians. London: Routledge (1997). ISBN 0-415-10593-5.
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo, The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography. Sather Classical Lectures, 54 Berkeley: University of California Press (1990).
  • Meyer, Eduard, Kleine Schriften (1910), (Zur Theorie und Methodik der Geschichte).
  • Orwin, Clifford, The Humanity of Thucydides. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1994). ISBN 0-691-03449-4.
  • Romilly, Jacqueline de, Thucydides and Athenian Imperialism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (1963). ISBN 0-88143-072-2.
  • Rood, Tim, Thucydides: Narrative and Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1998). ISBN 0-19-927585-8.
  • Russett, Bruce (1993). Grasping the Democratic Peace. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03346-3. 
  • de Sainte Croix, The origins of the Peloponesian War (1972). London: Duckworth. 1972. Pp. xii, 444.
  • Strassler, Robert B, ed. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York: Free Press (1996). ISBN 0-684-82815-4.
  • Strauss, Leo, The City and Man Chicago: Rand McNally, 1964.

Clifford Orwin is a Canadian scholar of ancient, modern, contemporary and Jewish political thought. ... Leo Strauss Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a Jewish German-American political philosopher who has been greatly influential in America. ...

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NAME Thucydides
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Θουκυδίδης; Thoukudídēs
SHORT DESCRIPTION Greek historian
DATE OF BIRTH 460 and 455 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Alimos, Greece
DATE OF DEATH c. 400 BC
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