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Encyclopedia > Thrombocytopenia
Thrombocytopenia
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 D69.6, P61.0
ICD-9 287.3, 287.4, 287.5
DiseasesDB 27522
MedlinePlus 000586
MeSH D013921

Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // P00-P96 - Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P04) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal factors and by complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery (P00) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal conditions that may be unrelated to present pregnancy (P01) Fetus and newborn affected by maternal complications of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Generally speaking a normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 and 450,000 per mm3. These limits, however, are determined by the 2.5th lower and upper percentile, and a deviation does not necessarily imply any form of disease. The number of platelets in a blood sample also decreases rather quickly with time and a low platelet count may be caused by a delay between sampling and analysis. In descriptive statistics, the pth percentile is a scale value for a data series equal to the p/100 quantile. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Often, low platelet levels do not lead to clinical problems; rather, they are picked up on a routine full blood count. Occasionally, there may be bruising, particularly purpura in the forearms, nosebleeds and/or bleeding gums. A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The gingiva, or gums, consist of the tissue surrounding the roots of the teeth and covering the jawbone. ...


It is vital that a full medical history is elicited, to ensure the low platelet count is not due to a secondary process. It is also important to ensure that the other blood cell types red blood cells, and white blood cells, are not also suppressed. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ...


Diagnosis

Laboratory tests might include: full blood count, liver enzymes, renal function, vitamin B12 levels, folic acid levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and peripheral blood smear. A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give a doctor or other health professional information about the state of a patients liver. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate, sed rate or Biernacki Reaction, is a non-specific measure of inflammation that is commonly used as a medical screening test. ...


If the cause for the low platelet count remains unclear, bone marrow biopsy is often undertaken, to differentiate whether the low platelet count is due to decreased production or peripheral destruction. A bone marrow biopsy is a medical procedure used as part of a test in the diagnosis of several conditions including leukemia. ...


Causes

Decreased platelet counts can be due to a number of disease processes:

  • decreased production
  • peripheral destruction
    • idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
    • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
    • hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)
    • disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
    • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
    • antiphospholipid syndrome
    • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    • medication-induced:
      • Many of the commonly used drugs may cause thrombocytopenia or low platelet counts. Some drugs like anticancer drugs and valproic acid causes thrombocytopenia in a dose dependent mechanism by causing myelosuppression. Some other groups of drugs cause thrombocytopenia by immunological mechanisms. Based upon the mechanism immunological drug induced can be caused by two types.
      • Example of the first mechanism is the quinidine group of drugs. This is caused by drug dependent binding of Fab part of the pathological antibody with the platelets, causing the destruction of platelets. The Fc portion of the antibody molecule is not involved in the binding process.
      • Example of the second mechanism is heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In this type the Fab portion of the pathological antibody binds to platelet factor 4 (PF4). When complexed with heparin or other drugs, the Fc portion of the antibody molecule binds to platelet receptors causing platelet activation. Since Fc portion of the antibody is bound to the platelets, they are not available to the Fc receptors of the reticulo-endothelial cells. This may explain, why severe thrombocytopenia not commonly seen in patients with HIT.
      • A list of known drugs causing thrombocytopenia is available at the linked website. Most of the elderly patients are on multiple medications and the intake of these drugs must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia.
      • heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT or white clot syndrome): this is a rare but serious condition that may occur in a hospitalized population especially in the cardiac units where they are exposed to large quantities of heparin. HIT may occur with a delay of 4 to 14 days after exposure to heparin. As mentioned above the heparin-PF4 antibody complex will activate the platelets, and this will lead to clotting. A term known as paradoxical thrombosis (HITT, where the last T is for thrombosis) is often used to describe this condition.
      • abciximab-induced thrombocytopenia

In some tropical countries, dengue fever infection is a known common cause of thrombocytopenia associated with fever. Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of a water-soluble B vitamin. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in British English) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (or EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that is a growth factor for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). ... Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP or Moschcowitz disease) is a rare disorder of the blood coagulation system that in most cases arises from the deficiency or inhibition of the enzyme ADAMTS13, which is responsible for cleaving large multimers of von Willebrand factor. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). ... Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. ... Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disease characterised by aplastic anemia, thrombosis and red urine in the morning due to breakdown of red blood cells. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ... Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan widely used as an injectable anticoagulant. ... Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) with or without thrombosis (HITT) is thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts) due to the administration of heparin. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Abciximab (previously known as c7E3 Fab), distributed by Eli Lilly under the trade name ReoPro®, is a platelet aggregation inhibitor mainly used during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty to prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery. ... Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ...


Treatment

Low platelet count does generally not warrant treatment, unless there is bleeding or the count is very low. In severe bleeding, platelet transfusion can be necessary.


Bleeding disorders can occasionally be treated by intranasal desmopressin (ddAVP), which increases plasma levels of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor, two coagulation proteins. Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minirin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone, also known as arginine vasopressin. ... Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. ... Von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein of the coagulation system. ... The coagulation of blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thrombocytopenia (0 words)
Thrombocytopenia has various causes, among which are both benign and malignant conditions.
In severe Thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow suppression, the goal of therapy is to treat the underlying cause of marrow suppression.
Thrombocytopenia due to HIV infection and its treatment with antiviral drugs are seen quite frequently.
Dr. Koop - Thrombocytopenia- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (1035 words)
Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which there is a deficient number of circulating platelets.
Acquired thrombocytopenia may result from the use of certain drugs, such as quinine, quinidine, rifampin, heparin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, histamine blockers, most chemotherapeutic agents, allopurinol and alcohol.
Thrombocytopenia may be accompanied by varying degrees of anemia (low red blood cells) and leukopenia (low white blood cells).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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