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Encyclopedia > Three point field goal
Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005
Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005

In basketball, a three-point field goal, three-pointer, three-point shot, or simply three is a field goal made from beyond the three point line, a designated semi-ellipsoid arc radiating from the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points given for shots made inside the three point line. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x1225, 908 KB) Description: Three point shoot by Sara Giauro (Phard Vomero Napoli) during FIBA Europe Cup Women Finals 2005 Source: self-made Location: Naples, Italy Photographer: Massimo Finizio File links The following pages link to this file: Basketball Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x1225, 908 KB) Description: Three point shoot by Sara Giauro (Phard Vomero Napoli) during FIBA Europe Cup Women Finals 2005 Source: self-made Location: Naples, Italy Photographer: Massimo Finizio File links The following pages link to this file: Basketball Metadata This... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... A field goal (formerly goal from the field) is a general term used in some sports wherein a goal may be scored either during general play (from the field) or via some sort of free shot. ... 3D rendering of an ellipsoid In mathematics, an ellipsoid is a type of quadric that is a higher dimensional analogue of an ellipse. ...


A traditional three-point play occurs when a shooter successfully scores a basket while being fouled, and then scores the ensuing single free throw. The phrase and one is commonly used to signify that the shooter's basket was good and that a single free throw will be awarded, indicating a possible three-point play. Wally Szczerbiak at the free throw line. ...

Contents

History

The three-point rule was first tested in a 1945 National Collegiate Athletic Association game between Columbia and Fordham. But professional basketball would be the first to adopt the rule on a permanent basis. The short-lived American Basketball League did so in 1961, and the Eastern Professional Basketball League followed in its 1963-64 season. The three-point shot later became popularized by the ABA after its introduction in 1968. During the 1970s, the ABA would use the three-point shot, along with the slam dunk, as a marketing tool to compete with the National Basketball Association (NBA). In the 1979–80 season, the NBA officially adopted the three-point shot. On October 12, 1979, Chris Ford scored the NBA's first three-point shot, and Fred Brown led the league in three point field goal percentage in that first season of adoption. The sport's international governing body, FIBA, introduced the three-point line in 1984. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] located in and around New York City. ... The American Basketball League played one full season, 1961-1962, and part of 1962-1963. ... The Continental Basketball Association or CBA is a professional mens basketball league in the United States. ... For information about the ABA that began in 2000 see American Basketball Association (21st century). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Christopher Joseph Ford (born January 11, 1949 in Atlantic City, New Jersey) is a former professional basketball player and head coach. ... Fred Downtown Brown (born August 7, 1948 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is a former professional basketball player. ... The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball), more commonly known by the French acronym FIBA (pronounced ), is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball. ...


The NCAA's Southern Conference became the first collegiate conference to use the three-point rule, adopting a 22-foot line in 1980. Over the following five years, NCAA conferences differed in their use of the rule and the distance they required for a three-point shot. The NCAA adopted the 19-foot, 9-inch line nationally in 1986. The Southern Conference (or SoCon) is a college athletic conference affiliated with the NCAAs Division I-AA for football and Division I for all other sports. ...


During the 1994–95 and 1995–96 seasons, the NBA attempted to address decreased scoring (due to tougher style defenses) by shortening the overall distance of the line to a uniform 22 feet (6.7 m) around the basket. Dennis Scott used this rule change to set a record for most three-pointers in a season: 267 in 1995–96. It has since been broken by Ray Allen. Also, the legendary Michael Jordan, who was never known for his three-point shooting, used this to his advantage as he established a career high of three-point field goal percentage of almost 43%. From the 1996–97 season, the line was reverted to its original distance. With the legalization of zone defense in 2001, the three-point shot became more important, because of its ability to stretch out a zone. Dennis Eugene Scott (born September 5, 1968 in Hagerstown, Maryland) is an American former professional basketball player. ... Walter Ray Allen (born July 20, 1975 in Merced, California) is an American professional basketball player for the NBAs Seattle SuperSonics, for whom he plays shooting guard. ... Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963) is a retired American professional basketball player. ... Zone defense is a type of defense used in sports which is the alternative to man-to-man defense; instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area, or a zone, to cover. ...


Three-point field goals taken near the end of a close game, therefore deciding the game's outcome, make for dramatic finishes. Some notable occurrences of this include when:

  1. Chicago Bulls' John Paxson scored a three-point field goal to defeat the Phoenix Suns in the deciding game of the 1993 NBA Finals. This was the only three-point shot to win an NBA championship.
  2. Indiana Pacers' Reggie Miller scored consecutive three-point shots to beat the New York Knicks in the last seconds of the first game of the 1995 Eastern Conference Semi-Finals. As of 2005, Miller holds the NBA three-point field-goal record (2,560).
  3. New York Knicks' Larry Johnson put up a three-pointer and was fouled just after the shot was off by Indiana Pacers forward Antonio Davis in game 3 of the 1999 Eastern Confrence Finals. Johnson would go on to make the free throw, converting the shot into a four-point play, and the Knicks beat the Pacers by one point and eventually won the series.
  4. Los Angeles Lakers' Robert Horry scored a three-point shot on the buzzer in the fourth game of the 2002 Western Conference Finals to give the Lakers a 100–99 victory over the Sacramento Kings, tying the series at 2–2.
  5. Los Angeles Lakers' Kobe Bryant hit a game tying three-pointer against the Detroit Pistons in game 2 of the NBA Finals. The Lakers ended up winning the game in overtime, but could not win the series.
  6. Houston Rockets' Tracy McGrady scored thirteen points in 33 seconds against the San Antonio Spurs in the 2004 regular season to lead the Rockets to a 81–80 victory over the Spurs. McGrady scored four three-point shots, one of which involved a shooting foul by Tim Duncan to award McGrady a free throw.

Perhaps one reason for the three-pointer's popularity is the colorful calls made by sports broadcasters. Normal calls will be along the lines of "X pulls up for three!", "X for three!", or "Boom goes the dynamite!" Synonyms are "X from downtown!", "X buries a dagger!", "X dials long distance!" and "X nails a trifecta!", "Money ball in the air!", "Left corner three is good!", "X shoots from the parking lot!" The Chicago Bulls are a professional basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... John Paxson John Paxson (born September 29, 1960 in Dayton, Ohio) is a retired basketball player. ... The Phoenix Suns are a professional basketball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. ... The Indiana Pacers are a professional basketball team that plays in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Reggie Miller Reginald Wayne Miller (born August 24, 1965 in Riverside, California) is an American former professional basketball player. ... The New York Knickerbockers, or Knicks, are a professional basketball team based in New York, New York. ... The New York Knickerbockers, or Knicks, are a professional basketball team based in New York, New York. ... There are three professional athletes and a political commentator named Larry Johnson: Larry Johnson (baseball) Larry Johnson (basketball), a. ... The Indiana Pacers are a professional basketball team that plays in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Antonio Lee Davis (born October 31, 1968 in Oakland, California) is an NBA basketball player currently active on the Toronto Raptors roster. ... The Los Angeles Lakers are a professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California, who play in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Robert Horry (born August 25, 1970) is an American NBA basketball player recognized as one of the greatest clutch shooters in modern NBA history. ... The Sacramento Kings got beat down by the Los Angeles Lakers ... The Los Angeles Lakers are a professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California, who play in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Kobe Bean Bryant (born August 23, 1978 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American All-Star shooting guard in the National Basketball Association who plays for the Los Angeles Lakers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Houston Rockets are a professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas. ... Tracy Lamar McGrady, Jr. ... The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. ... Timothy Theodore Duncan (born April 25, 1976 in Christiansted, St. ...


Rule specifications

In FIBA, the three-point line is 6.25 meters from the center of the basket.
In FIBA, the three-point line is 6.25 meters from the center of the basket.

The three-point line is generally an arc at a set radius from the basket. In international basketball and in the WNBA, the three-point line is 6.25 meters (20 ft 6 in) from the basket. U.S. college basketball specifies a distance of 19 feet, 9 inches (6.02 m) from the basket, also used in U.S. high schools. In the NBA, the arc is 23 feet, 9 inches (7.24 m) from the basket, but near the sidelines, three-point line is straight and parallel to the sideline in order to allow room between the three-point line and the sideline. Hence, the distance varies near the sidelines; it is 22 feet (6.72 m) at its closest point in the corner. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x885, 1139 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Three-point field goal Portal:Basketball Portal:Basketball/Selected article ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x885, 1139 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Three-point field goal Portal:Basketball Portal:Basketball/Selected article ...


In order to attempt a three-pointer, a player's feet must be behind the three-point line. At the time of the shot or jump, the player may not be on the line or inside the line, or the basket is considered a two-point attempt; however, the player is allowed to jump from outside the line and land inside the line, as long as the ball is released in mid-air.


A referee raises his arm to signal the shot attempt. If the attempt is successful, he raises his other arm and holds up three fingers in both hands to indicate the points scored. The referee must recognize it for it to count as three points. This has often been an issue of contention, as many games have been decided by a last-second three-pointer. In these extreme circumstances, referees have often conferred before deciding on how to rule the shot. Video replay has sometimes been used, depending on league rules.


If a shooter is fouled while attempting a three-pointer and subsequently misses the shot, the shooter is awarded three free-throw attempts. If a player completes a three-pointer while being fouled, the player is awarded three points and one free-throw attempt, which, if completed, results in a four-point play.


Form

Proper form in shooting a three pointer is essentially the same as shooting a regular jump shot. Generally, due to the long range, the shooter must be able to get enough separation to make a full jump and extension, and will not be able to pump fake, delay the shot's release, or otherwise attempt to confuse the defender. Players with excellent form on their three-pointer include the Seattle SuperSonics' Ray Allen and Boston Celtics' Larry Bird. Reggie Miller has been cited as not having a good form on his three-pointer but he possessed an excellent touch. The Seattle SuperSonics (or simply Sonics or Supes) are a professional basketball team based in Seattle, Washington. ... Walter Ray Allen (born July 20, 1975 in Merced, California) is an American professional basketball player for the NBAs Seattle SuperSonics, for whom he plays shooting guard. ... The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Larry Joe Bird (born December 7, 1956) is an American former NBA basketball player. ... Reggie Miller Reginald Wayne Miller (born August 24, 1965 in Riverside, California) is an American former professional basketball player. ...


Coaching attitudes

The association of three point shooting with an offensive-oriented style of play is not universal, however. Mike Krzyzewski, coach of the Duke Blue Devils, is known as a defensive coach, yet runs many plays for three-point shots. In the mid-1990s, several NBA teams employed a "slow-down" style of play that emphasized taking three pointers late in the shot clock and shutting down the opposing fast break. This style was typified by the Cleveland Cavaliers coached by Mike Fratello. Mike Krzyzewski Michael William Mike Krzyzewski (sha-SHEF-skee) (born February 13, 1947 in Chicago, Illinois), often referred to as Coach K, is the head coach of the Duke University mens basketball team. ... Duke Universitys 26 varsity sports teams, known as the Blue Devils, compete in the Atlantic Coast Conference. ... The Cleveland Cavaliers (also known as the Cavs) is a professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Mike Fratello (born February 24, 1947 in Hackensack, New Jersey, United States) is a professional basketball coach. ...


Many coaches are known for disliking, even shirking, the three-pointer. Some of these coaches are known for their defensive "toughness" and affinity for grinding out low scoring games. Their reasoning in avoiding the three-pointer usually stems from its typically lower shooting percentage, the likelihood of a quick defensive rebound and fast break, and the missed opportunity of drawing shooting fouls (fouls on three-point shot attempts do occur but are very rare, as are all fouls on outside jump shots). Most notable from these line of coaches is perhaps Larry Brown.


Since the three-point line is closer in college and international play, it is generally much more widely used. For example, in the 2005 NCAA Final Four championship game, the losing team, Illinois, hoisted up over 40 three-point attempts. In the NBA, the three-pointer is a favored weapon of the Phoenix Suns and the Seattle SuperSonics, along with the Toronto Raptors, to name a few. The 1995 Houston Rockets won the NBA title utilizing a three-point centered, "inside-out" strategy, where any double team of Hakeem Olajuwon would result in a three point attempt. 2005 Final Four, Edward Jones Dome The 2005 NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Tournament involved 65 schools playing in single-elimination play to determine the national champion of mens NCAA Division I college basketball. ... Final Four is a sports term that is commonly applied to the last four teams remaining in a playoff tournament. ... NCAA Basketball logo The NCAA Mens Division I Basketball Championship is held each spring featuring 65 college basketball teams in the United States. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also known as UIUC and the U of I (the officially preferred abbreviation), is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The Phoenix Suns are a professional basketball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. ... The Seattle SuperSonics (or simply Sonics or Supes) are a professional basketball team based in Seattle, Washington. ... The Toronto Raptors are a professional basketball team based in Toronto, Ontario. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Houston Rockets are a professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Hakeem Abdul Olajuwon (born Akeem Abdul Olajuwon on January 21, 1963 in Lagos, Nigeria) is a former professional basketball player whose glory days were with the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association. ...


Utilization of the three-pointer in gameplay

More often than not, coaches and point guards will run specific plays to open up a good three-point shooter for a shot. Common plays to open up a player for a three often include multiple screens or a drive and dish, where one player will drive to draw the defense away from a shooter before passing to him. Creating one's own three-pointer off the dribble is a difficult skill that few possess since it requires a blend of strength, quickness and accuracy. The three-pointer is also often used only as a threat, to dare defenders to leave them open while letting teammates break down the defense. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Often during close games when time is running out, the losing team will begin hoisting up threes in an attempt to quickly score points. Whether this tactic is effective is controversial, as some say it is the best chance to even up the score or to pull ahead. Others will say that the losing team will just be digging itself into a deeper hole due to the lower shooting percentage under pressure. Sports commentators will often argue about whether a team needs a three at a certain point in the ballgame.


Due to its higher point value, the three is often the final shot by the losing team down by two or three points in an attempt to either win or force overtime. Field goals that are made when time expires are known as buzzer beaters (due to the sound of the horn to conclude a quarter) and buzzer-beating threes at the end of games make for dramatic finishes. Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours; these may be determined in several ways, by custom (what is considered healthy or reasonable by society), by practices of a given trade or profession, by legislation, or by agreement between employers and workers or their representatives. ... In basketball, a buzzer beater is a shot taken just before the game clock of a quarter or overtime period expires, when the buzzer sounds and the backboard lights up. ...


Players famous for three-point shooting

NBA players

WNBA players Michael Adams (b. ... Walter Ray Allen (born July 20, 1975 in Merced, California) is an American professional basketball player for the NBAs Seattle SuperSonics, for whom he plays shooting guard. ... Steve Kerr shoots the game-winning shot in Game 6 of the 1997 NBA Finals for the Chicago Bulls. ... Reggie Miller Reginald Wayne Miller (born August 24, 1965 in Riverside, California) is an American former professional basketball player. ... William Mark Price (born February 15, 1964 in Bartlesville, Oklahoma) is an American basketball player. ... Personal Full Name: Glen Anthony Rice Born: May 28, 1967, in Flint, MI Height/Weight: 67 (2. ... Stojakovic playing for the Kings Predrag Peđa Stojaković (born June 9, 1977) is a basketball star for the NBAs Sacramento Kings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Stockton John Houston Stockton (born March 26, 1962) is a former NBA player. ... Jeffrey John Hornacek (pronounced HOR-NA-SEK); (born May 3, 1963 in Elmhurst, Illinois) is a former NBA basketball player who played at the shooting guard position from 1986–2000. ...

NCAA players Suzanne Brigit Bird (born October 16, 1980) is a professional womens basketball player. ... Becky Hammon shooting a basketball during her visit to Ellsworth Air Force Base in South Dakota, February 2002. ... Diana Taurasi on the Phoenix Mercury. ... Katharine Marie Smih(Born:June 4,1974) is a WNBA basketball player for the Detroit Shock. ... Nykesha Sales on the Connecticut Sun Nykesha Simone Sales (born May 10, 1976 in Bloomfield, Connecticut) is a professional basketball player for the Connecticut Sun in the WNBA. Her primary position is the small forward. ...

International Players outside NBA Jonathan Clay J.J. Redick (born June 24, 1984 in Cookeville, Tennessee) is a professional basketball shooting guard who was selected 11th overall by the Orlando Magic in the 2006 NBA Draft. ... Adam Morrison (born July 19, 1984 in Glendive, Montana) is an American professional basketball player with the Charlotte Bobcats of the National Basketball Association. ... Steve Novak (born June 13, 1984 in Brown Deer, Wisconsin) is a basketball player who was selected in the second round of the 2006 NBA Draft by the Houston Rockets. ... Kevin Pittsnogle (born July 30, 1984 in Martinsburg, West Virginia) is a 6-foot-11 (2. ... Bryce Drew Bryce Homer Drew (born September 21, 1974 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is the assistant coach, and former member, of the Valparaiso University Crusader mens basketball team. ... Charles Salim Stoudamire (born October 11, 1982 in Portland, Oregon) is a pro basketball player. ... Steve Alford Stephen Todd Alford (born November 23, 1964) is the current head coach of the University of Iowa Hawkeye mens basketball team. ... Gerry McNamara. ... Keydren KeeKee Clark (born October 8, 1984 in Alabama) was one of the most prolific scorers in NCAA Division I history, amassing 3,058 points and averaging 25. ...

Allan Vito Flores Caidic (born June 15, 1963, Pasig City, Philippines) is a former professional basketball player from the Philippines. ... Oscar Daniel Bezerra Schmidt (born February 16, 1958 in Natal, Brazil), known as Oscar Schmidt, Oscar Schmidt Becerra in Spain, where he played for Fórum Valladolid for the 1993-94 and 1994-95 seasons, and simply Oscar or Mão Santa(Holy Hand) in Brazil, is considered by many...

External links

  • NBA.com's Top 10 three-pointers from past 25 years
  • NCAA basketball rule changes
  • Article on Columbia's experimentation with the three-point field goal decades before its official introduction
  • "Long Live the Three" by Steve Shutt, Basketball Hall of Fame

 
 

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