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Encyclopedia > Three pillars of the European Union

The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ...

Contents

The three pillars

  1. The first or 'Community' pillar concerns economic, social and environmental policies.
  2. The second or 'Common Foreign and Security Policy' (CFSP) pillar concerns foreign policy and military matters.
  3. The third or 'Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters' (PJCC) pillar concerns co-operation in the fight against crime. This pillar was originally named 'Justice and Home Affairs'.
European Union
  First pillar   Second pillar   Third pillar  
European Communities (EC) Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)

Foreign policy: The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, german Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (GASP), was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, german Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (GASP), was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... A single market is a customs union with common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of all the four factors of production (goods, services, capital and labour). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... Competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... This article covers the general information on the topic. ... The Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... TEN re-directs here; for alternate uses, see Ten. ... Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. ... The Sixth Framework Programme (abbreviated FP6) is the current (2002-2006) Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development set up by the EU in order to fund and promote European research and technological development. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... A refugee is a person who as defined under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. ... Schengen Treaty members are in dark blue, while signatories (where it is not yet implemented) are in light blue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ...

Security policy: Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... A security policy is a plan of action for tackling security issues, or a set of regulations for maintaining a certain level of security. ...

 

Within each pillar, a different balance is struck between the supranational and intergovernmental principles. The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is considered a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union. ... The European Union battle groups is a project done in the context of the European Security and Defence Policy, its aim being the creation of several rapidly deployable units for international intervention and tasks reaching up to full-combat situations. ... The European Union Rapid Reaction Force is a transnational military force managed by the European Union itself rather than any of its member states. ... UN Peacekeepers in Eritrea. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Weapons smuggling The illegal act of transporting weapons across borders of countries, then distributing them without a licence. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... A poster from the Canadian Department of Justice Trafficking in human beings is the commercial trade (smuggling) of human beings, who are subjected to involuntary acts such as begging, sexual exploitation (eg. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ...


Supranationalism is strongest in the first pillar. Its function generally corresponded at first to the three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Economic Community (EEC) and Euratom) whose organizational structure had already been unified in the 1960s through the Merger Treaty. Later, through the Treaty of Maastricht the word "Economic" was removed from the EEC, so it became simply the EC. Then with the Treaty of Amsterdam additional areas would be transferred from the third pillar to the first. In 2002, the ECSC ceased to exist because the treaty which established it, the Treaty of Paris, had expired. Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ...


In the CFSP and PJCC pillars the powers of the European Parliament, the Commission and European Court of Justice with respect to the Council are significantly limited, without however being altogether eliminated. The balance struck in the first pillar is frequently referred to as the "community method", since it is that used by the European Community. Sign in the entrance of the European Parliament building in Brussels, written in all the official languages used in the European Union as of July 2006 The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The debating chamber, or hemicycle, in Strasbourg The European Parliament building in Brussels The European Parliament (formerly European... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ...


Origin of the three pillars structure

The pillar structure had its historical origins in the negotiations leading up to the Maastricht treaty. It was desired to add powers to the Community in the areas of foreign policy, security and defence policy, asylum and immigration policy, criminal co-operation, and judicial co-operation. The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ...


However, some member-states opposed the addition of these powers to the Community on the grounds that they were too sensitive to national sovereignty for the community method to be used, and that these matters were better handled intergovernmentally. To the extent that at that time the Community dealt with these matters at all, they were being handled intergovernmentally, principally in European Political Cooperation (EPC). The European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 in response to the Davignon report and was formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. ...


As a result, these additional matters were not included in the European Community; but were tacked on externally to the European Community in the form of two additional 'pillars'. The first additional pillar (Common Foreign and Security Policy, CFSP) dealt with foreign policy, security and defence issues, while the second additional pillar (JHA, Justice and Home Affairs), dealt with the remainder.


Recent amendments in the treaty of Amsterdam and the treaty of Nice have made the additional pillars increasingly supranational. Most important among these has been the transfer of policy on asylum, migration and judicial co-operation in civil matters to the Community pillar, effected by the Amsterdam treaty. Thus the third pillar has been renamed Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters, or PJCC. The term Justice and Home Affairs is still used to cover both the third pillar and the transferred areas. The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of...

Evolution of the structures of the European Union.
European Union - treaties, structure, history
1952 1958 1967 1993 1999 2003 ?
EC - European Community... E U R O P E A N   U N I O N   ( E U )
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
European Economic
Community
(EEC)
European Community (EC)
...European Communities: ECSC, EEC (EC, 1993), Euratom Justice &
Home Affairs
 
Police & Judicial Co-operation
in Criminal matters (PJCC)
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community)
Treaty of
Paris
Treaties of
Rome
Merger
Treaty
Treaty of
Maastricht
Treaty of
Amsterdam
Treaty of
Nice
European
Constitution
"THREE PILLARS" - European Communities (EC, Euratom), Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal matters (PJCC)

History of the structures of the EU. Created by User:Aris Katsaris. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives from all EU Member States The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 (27 as of 1st January 2007) independent, democratic member states. ... This is the history of the European Union. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives from all EU Member States The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 (27 as of 1st January 2007) independent, democratic member states. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member-states. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, german Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (GASP), was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organisation composed of the members of the European Union. ... The Treaty of Paris, signed on April 18, 1951 between Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (the latter three as part of the Benelux) on March 25, 1957. ... The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965 and in force since 1 July 1967, first gathered together the organizational structures of the then three European Communities (European Coal and Steel Community, European Economic Community and Euratom). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...

Abolition of the pillar structure

The draft European Constitution, if ratified by all member states, is meant to simplify and unify the operations of the European Union. As such the European Community is to be fully absorbed into the European Union and the three pillars of the EU are to be merged into a single structure. The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ...


External links

  • The three pillars of the European Union European NAvigator

See also: European Union law The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - European Union - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (3927 words)
The Union was established under that name by the Treaty on European Union (commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty) in 1992.
The term European Community (or Communities) was used for the group of members prior to the establishment of the European Union.
The "European Community" is one of the three pillars of the European Union, being both the most important pillar and the only one to operate primarily through supranational institutions.
BIGpedia - European Community - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (481 words)
The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community.
European Communities is the name given collectively to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), when in 1967, they were first merged under a single institutional framework with the Merger Treaty.
The Treaty of Amsterdam enlarged the scope of the authority of the European Community by transferring to it the areas of illegal immigration, visas, and political asylum from the third pillar (then called Justice and Home Affairs).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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