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Encyclopedia > Three Wise Men
Adoration of the Magi by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Adoration of the Magi by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo

In Christian tradition the Magi, also known as the Three Wise Men, The Three Kings, or Kings from the east, are sometimes considered to be Median, perhaps Zoroastrian priests, who were also proficient in astrology from Ancient Persia. The Gospel of Matthew states that they came "from the east to Jerusalem" to worship the Christ, "born King of the Jews". According to Matthew, they navigated by following a star which came to be known as the Star of Bethlehem. As they approached Jerusalem, Herod tried to trick them into revealing where Jesus was, so that he might be put to death. Upon finding Jesus, the Magi gave him an unspecified number of gifts, amongst which were three highly symbolic ones: gold, frankincense and myrrh. Because these three gifts were recorded, it is traditionally said to have been three givers; however, Matthew does not specify how many wise men came from the east. Adoration of the Wise Men by Murillo The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Adoration of the Wise Men by Murillo The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Murillo Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Seville, December 31, 1617 - Cádiz, April 3, 1682) was a Spanish painter, one of the most important figures in Baroque painting in Spain. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Mede nobility. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Ματθαίος, Matthaios), most often called Saint Matthew, is an important Christian figure, and one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Herod the Great. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... We Three Kings of Orient Are is a Christmas carol (technically an Epiphany carol) written in 1857 by Reverend John Henry Hopkins, Jr. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ...


The Magi were then warned in dreams that revealed Herod's deadly intentions for the child and decided to return home by a different route, in order to thwart them. This prompted Herod to resort to killing all the young children in Bethlehem, an act called the Massacre of the Innocents, in an attempt to eliminate a rival heir to his throne. Jesus and his family had, however, escaped to Egypt beforehand. After these events, the magi return home and passed into obscurity.[1] The story of the nativity in Matthew glorifies Jesus, likens him to Moses, and shows his life as fulfilling prophecy. Some critics consider this nativity story to be an invention of the author of Matthew[2]. The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ...


Three leaders of the Chinese Christian Church[3] cite an alternate proposal for the origin of one of the Magi. They state that many Chinese Christians believe at least one of the Magi came from China. They cite anecdotal evidence about Liu Shang, the chief astrologer during the Han dynasty in China at the time that Jesus was born. Liu Shang discovered a new star the Chinese called the "king star" - which was associated with the birth of a new king. The disappearance of Liu Shang from China's imperial court for two years shortly after this star was discovered, they interpret as perhaps traveling the Silk Road to Bethlehem. The Lords Prayer in Chinese language. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ...

Contents

Nature of the Magi

Astrology
Background
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History of astronomy
Astrology and astronomy
Traditions
Arab and Persian astrology
Babylonian astrology
Chinese astrology
Hellenistic astrology
Indian astrology
Western astrology
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Main article: Magi

Unlike Luke, the author of Matthew pays no attention to the actual birth of Jesus, focusing instead on what occurred before and after. Skipping the actual birth, Matthew introduces the Magi, who have come to pay their respects, while accidentally informing Herod of Jesus' existence. The word Magi is a Latinization of the plural of the Greek word magos (μαγος pl. μαγοι), which is a derivative from Old Persian Magupati. The term is a specific occupational title referring to the priestly caste of Zoroastrianism. As part of their religion, these priests paid particular attention to the stars, and gained an international reputation for astrology, which was at that time a highly regarded science, only later giving rise to aspects of mathematics and astronomy (as well as the modern practice of fortune-telling going by the same name.) Their religious practices and use of astrological sciences caused derivatives of the term Magi to be applied to the occult in general and led to the English term magic. Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Image File history File links Astrologyproject. ... The history of astrology encompasses a great span of human history and many cultures. ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Much of the survival of classical sciences like astronomy, mathematics, geography and philosophy in the Western world is due to the fact that it was preserved and used by the Arab world from about the 8th Century, when Europe was going through its Dark Ages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... Hellenistic astrology is a tradition of horoscopic astrology that developed in the Mediterranean region and specifically Hellenistic Egypt sometime around the late 2nd or early 1st century BCE. Endnotes Note 1: See David Pingree - From Astral Omens to Astrology from Babylon to Bikaner, Roma: Istituto Italiano per LAfrica e... It has been suggested that Indian astronomy be merged into this article or section. ... Western astrology is the system of astrology most popular in Western countries. ... This is a list of differentiated systems of astrology. ... Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology which uses a horoscope or chart to gain information from the position of cosmic bodies. ... Natal astrology, also known as genethliacal astrology, is the system of astrology based upon the concept that each individuals personality or path in life can be determined by constructing a natal chart for the exact date, time, and location of a persons birth. ... Electional astrology (called Muhurt or Muhurtha in Hindu astrology) concerns itself with finding the best time to do a particular activity. ... Horary astrology is a very old branch of astrology by which an astrologer will try to answer a question by drawing up an astrological chart or horoscope for the exact time and place at which that question came to mind or when it was put to them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Political astrology. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ...


The KJV translation as wise men may be somewhat politically motivated: the same word is translated as sorcerer to condemn "Elymas the sorcerer" in Acts 13, and is left untranslated to describe Simon Magus in Acts 8. Treating Simon Magus as being as wise as the Magi that visited Jesus could be viewed as heresy — Simon Magus was considered by many Christians as the founder of Gnosticism, a Christian group condemned as arch-heresy. It is unlikely that the New Testament would deliberately refer to Simon Magus in glowing terms; the name of the canonical crime of simony derives from the name of Simon Magus. This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit: Elizabethans who claimed magical knowledge A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, which can be described as either the act of entertaining with tricks that are in apparent violation of natural law, such as those... Elymas the sorcerer is struck blind before Sergius Paulus. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... For the film, see Simon Magus (film). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The phrase from the east is the only information Matthew provides on where the Magi came from, apart from identifying that they come from their own country rather than Judea. Traditionally the view developed that the Magi were Persian or Parthian, a view held for example by John Chrysostom, and Byzantine art generally depicted them in Persian dress. The main support for this is that the first Magi were from Persia and that land still had the largest number of them. Some believe they were from Babylon, which was the centre of Zurvanism, and hence astrology, at the time. Brown comments that the author of Matthew probably didn't have a specific location in mind and the phrase from the east is for literary effect and added exoticism. Though the Bible does not number the Magi, traditionally there were always seen to be three, as three of the gifts were specifically named. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BCE) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy History  - Established 247 BCE  - Disestablished 220 CE Parthia[1] was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Names

In the Eastern church a variety of different names are given for the three, but in the West the names have been settled since the 8th century as Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. The names of the Magi derive from an early 6th century Greek manuscript in Alexandria, translated into the Latin Excerpta Latina Barbari.[4] The Latin text Collectanea et Flores continues the tradition of three kings and their names and gives additional details of their clothes, coming from Syria. This text is said to be from the 8th century, of Irish origin. In the Eastern churches, Ethiopian Christianity, for instance, has Hor, Karsudan, and Basanater, while the Armenians have Kagbha, Badadakharida and Badadilma[5][6]. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Casper is a males given name of Persian origin meaning Master of the Treasure. It is one of the traditional names assigned by folklore to the anonymous Magi mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew account of the Nativity of Jesus. ... Melchior can refer to One of the Three Wise Men Malchior, a villain in the Teen Titans animated series. ... Balthazar can refer to One of the Three Wise Men A size of wine bottle, equal to 16 standard bottles, or 12 litres A 1909 book by Anatole France A 1958 novel by Lawrence Durrell Balthazar Getty, great grandson of J. Paul Getty Hans Urs von Balthasar - 20th c. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ...


None of these names is obviously Persian or is generally agreed to carry any ascertainable meaning, although Caspar is also sometimes given as Gaspar, a variant of the Persian Jasper — "Master of the Treasure" — from which the name of the mineral jasper is derived. One candidate for the origin of the name Caspar appears in the Acts of Thomas as Gondophares (AD 21 – c.AD 47), i.e., Gudapharasa (from which 'Caspar' derives via the contrived corruption 'Gaspar'). This Gondophares declared independence from the Arsacids to become the first Indo-Parthian king and who was allegedly visited by Thomas the Apostle. Christian legend may have chosen Gondofarr simply because he was an eastern king living in the right time period. Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... The early 3rd century text called Acts of Thomas is arguably the most Gnostic of the New Testament apocrypha, portraying Christ as the Heavenly Redeemer, independent of and beyond creation, who can free souls from the darkness of the world. ... Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ... This article is about the year 21. ... This article is about the year 47. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St...


In contrast, the Syrian Christians name the Magi Larvandad, Gushnasaph, and Hormisdas. These names have a far greater likelihood of being originally Persian, though that does not, of course, guarantee their authenticity. The first name Larvandad is a combination of Lar, which is in southern part of Iran, and vand or vandad which is a common suffix in Middle Persian meaning "related to" or "located in". Vand is also present in the names of such Iranian locations as Damavand, Nahavand, Alvand, and such names and titles as Varjavand and Vandidad. Alternatively, it might be a combination of Larvand meaning "the region of Lar" and Dad meaning "given by". The latter suffix can also be seen in such Iranian names as "Tirdad", "Mehrdad", "Bamdad" or such previously Iranian locations as "Bagdad" ("God Given") presently called Baghdad in Iraq. Thus the name simply means "born in", or "given by", Lar. The second name, Hormisdas, is a variation of the Persian name Hormoz which was Hormazd and Hormazda in Middle Persian. The name referred to the angel of the first day of each month whose name had been given by the supreme God (of Zoroastrianism) who, in Old Persian, was called "Ahuramazda" or "Ormazd". The third name, Gushnasaph, was a common name used in Old and Middle Persian. In Modern Persian, it is Gushnasp or Gushtasp. The name is a combination of Gushn meaning "full of manly qualities" or "full of desire or energy" for something and Asp, Modern Persian Asb, which means horse. Horses were of great importance for the Iranians and many Iranian names, including the presently used Lohrasp, Jamasp, Garshasp, and Gushtasp, contain the suffix. As a result, the second name might mean something like "as energetic and virile as a horse" or "full of desire for having horses". Alternatively, Gushn is also recorded to have meant "many". Thus the name might simply mean "the Owner of Many Horses". See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Lar (لار) is a city in Iran, in the Fars province and also name of a district in Tehran province of Iran. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Ahura Mazda (Persian هرمز (Hormoz) also transcripted as Ormazad, Ormuzd, Hormuz, Ormus, Ohrmizd) - The Wise Lord - is the god of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Tombs

Marco Polo claimed that he was shown the three tombs of the Magi at Saveh south of Tehran in the 1270s: Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Saveh is a small city in the Markazi Province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279. ...

In Persia is the city of Saba, from which the Three Magi set out and in this city they are buried, in three very large and beautiful monuments, side by side. And above them there is a square building, beautifully kept. The bodies are still entire, with hair and beard remaining.[7]

A Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral, according to tradition, contains the bones of the Three Wise Men. Reputedly they were first discovered by Saint Helena on her famous pilgrimage to Palestine and the Holy Lands. She took the remains to the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople; they were later moved to Milan (some sources say by the city's bishop, Eustorgius I[8]), before being sent to their current resting place by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I in AD 1164. The Milanese celebrate their part in the tradition by holding a medieval costume parade every 6 January. The Shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne cathedral. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Saint Eustorgius I (d. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A version of the detailed elaboration familiar to us is laid out by the 14th century cleric John of Hildesheim's Historia Trium Regum ("History of the Three Kings"). In accounting for the presence in Cologne of their mummified relics, he begins with the journey of Helena, mother of Constantine I to Jerusalem, where she recovered the True Cross and other relics: This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... John of Hildesheim or Johannes de Hildesheim (d. ... Flavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta or Helena of Constantinople (ca. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ...

Queen Helen… began to think greatly of the bodies of these three kings, and she arrayed herself, and accompanied by many attendants, went into the Land of Ind… after she had found the bodies of Melchior, Balthazar, and Casper, Queen Helen put them into one chest and ornamented it with great riches, and she brought them into Constantinople… and laid them in a church that is called Saint Sophia.

Gifts of the magi

Byzantine art usually shows the Magi in Persian dress (breeches, capes, and Phrygian caps). Mosaic, Ca. 600 Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy- restored.
Byzantine art usually shows the Magi in Persian dress (breeches, capes, and Phrygian caps). Mosaic, Ca. 600
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy- restored.

Upon meeting Jesus, the Magi are described as handing over gifts and "falling down" in joyous praise. The use of the term "falling down" more properly means lying prostrate on the ground, which, together with the use of kneeling in Luke's birth narrative, had an important effect on Christian religious practice. Previously both Jewish and Roman tradition had viewed kneeling and prostration as undignified, reserved in Jewish tradition for epiphanies; although for Persians it was a sign of great respect, often showed to the king. But inspired by these verses, kneeling and prostration were adopted in the early Church; while prostration is generally no longer featured, kneeling has remained an important element of Christian worship to this day. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2043 × 1625 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2043 × 1625 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... SantApollinare Nuovo: The 38. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Kneeling is a human position in which the weight is distributed on the knees and feet on a surface close to horizontal. ... Look up epiphany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Three of the gifts are explicitly identified in Matthew — gold, frankincense and myrrh — and have become one of the best known items from Matthew; it is often assumed that these three are the only gifts the Magi are described as giving. (It has been suggested by scholars that the "gifts" were in fact medicinal rather than precious material for tribute.[9][10][11]) They are often linked to chapter 60 of the Book of Isaiah and to Psalm 72. Both of these reports gifts being given by kings, and this has played a central role in the inaccurate perception of the Magi as kings, rather than as astronomer-priests. In a hymn of the late 4th-century hispanic poet Prudentius, the three gifts have already gained their medieval interpretation as prophetic emblems of Jesus' identity, familiar in the carol "We Three Kings" by John Henry Hopkins, Jr., 1857. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... For other uses, see Tribute (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was an Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (in Northern Spain) in 348. ... An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... We Three Kings of Orient Are is a Christmas carol (technically an Epiphany carol) written in 1857 by Reverend John Henry Hopkins, Jr. ...


Many different theories of the meaning and symbolism of the gifts have been advanced, since while gold is fairly obviously explained, frankincense, and particularly myrrh, are much more obscure. They generally break down into two groups:

  • That they are all ordinary gifts for a king — myrrh being commonly used as an anointing oil, frankincense as a perfume, and gold as a valuable.
  • That they are prophetic — gold as a symbol of kingship on earth, frankincense (an incense) as a symbol of priestship, and myrrh (an embalming oil) as a symbol of death. Sometimes this is described more generally as gold symbolizing virtue, frankincense symbolizing prayer, and myrrh symbolizing suffering.
One of the earliest known depictions from a third century sarcophagusVatican Museums, Rome, Italy
One of the earliest known depictions from a third century sarcophagus
Vatican Museums, Rome, Italy

John Chrysostom suggested that the gifts were fit to be given not just to a king but to God, and contrasted them with the Jews' traditional offerings of sheep and calves, and accordingly Chrysostom asserts that the Magi worshiped Jesus as God. This is believed to be unlikely by some, if the theory that they were members of a Zoroastrian priesthood is correct. However this possibility remains, since zoroastianism prophecies of a messiah type figure Saoshyant who would be born of a virgin. C.S. Mann has advanced the theory that the items were not actually brought as gifts, but were rather the tools of the Magi, who typically would be astrologer-priests. Mann thus sees the giving of these items to Jesus as showing that the Magi were abandoning their practices by relinquishing the necessary tools of their trade, though Brown disagrees with this theory since the portrayal of the Magi had been wholly positive up to this point, with no hint of condemnation. An alternative reading on the same lines is that the Magi gave the tools of their craft to Jesus to acknowledge him as one of them; Magi were near universally regarded at the time as being particularly wise, partly owing to their dedication to astrology, and the perception that Zoroastrians were always honest, owing to their religion: hence, by adding Magi endorsing Jesus as their equal, the author of Matthew was seeking to raise Jesus' own standing. Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 529 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Magi bear gifts to an infant Jesus in one of the earliest known depictions. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 529 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Magi bear gifts to an infant Jesus in one of the earliest known depictions. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... In the Zoroastrian religion, saoshyant refers to one who will make existence brilliant. Since He is (the One) to be chosen by the world therefore the judgment emanating from truth itself (to be passed) on the deeds of good thought of the world, as well as the power, is committed...


The gifts themselves have also been criticized as mostly useless to a poor carpenter and his family, and this is often the target of comic satire in television and other comedy. Clarke states that the deist Thomas Woolston once quipped that if they had brought sugar, soap, and candles they would have acted like wise men.[12] What subsequently happened to these gifts is never mentioned in the scripture, but several traditions have developed.[13] One story has the gold being stolen by the two thieves who were later crucified alongside Jesus. Another tale has it being entrusted to and then misappropriated by Judas. Another story is that the family quickly pawned or sold them and later used the money to finance their flight to Egypt; it seems probable that it would be the only way to pay for such a voyage. Thomas Woolston (1669 - January 21, 1731), English deist, born at Northampton in 1669, the son of a reputable tradesman, entered Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1685, studied theology, took orders and was made a fellow of his college. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other...


In the Monastery of St. Paul of Mount Athos there is a 15th century golden case containing purportedly the Gift of the Magi. It was donated to the monastery in the 15th century by Maro, daughter of the King of Serbia George Vragovitch, wife to the Ottoman Sultan Murat II and godmother to Mehmet II the Conqueror (of Constantinople). Apparently they were part of the relics of the Holy Palace of Constantinople and it is claimed they were displayed there since the 4th century AD. After the Athens earthquake of September 9, 1999 they were temporarily displayed in Athens in order to strengthen faith and raise money for earthquake victims. Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In Greek mythology, Maro raised Dionysus when he was an infant. ... This is the list of Serbian monarchs. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Murad II Murad II (1404–February 3, 1451) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century _ other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


At this point the Magi leave the narrative by returning another way so as to avoid Herod, and do not reappear. Gregory the Great waxed lyrical on this theme, commenting that having come to know Jesus we are forbidden to return by the way we came. There are many traditional stories about what happened to the Magi after this, with one having them baptised by St. Thomas on his way to India. Another has their remains found by Saint Helena and brought to Constantinople, and eventually making their way to Germany and the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... The Shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne cathedral. ...


Herod

A smiling Herod, played by Amerigo Bevilacqua, dispatches the magi in a scene from Pier Paolo Pasolini's The Gospel According to St. Matthew.

When the Magi first enquire about Jesus, Matthew says that they are overheard by "Herod the King", which is accepted as referring to Herod the Great who died in 4 BC. This is seemingly in contradiction with Luke's mention of a census and of Quirinius being governor of Syria, which both apply to some time after AD 6. The Magi claim to wish to pay homage (proskunesai in the Greek) to a King of the Jews. While proskunesai can mean honouring either a king or a God, King of the Jews is a clear and direct challenge to Herod's authority. Herod was renowned for his paranoia, killing several of his own sons who threatened him. As an Edomite, Herod would be especially threatened by a Davidic heir, who would automatically be more in favour with Jewish fundamentalists of the time, who had a particularly xenophobic attitude. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1551x993, 393 KB) Summary Scene from The Gospel According to St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1551x993, 393 KB) Summary Scene from The Gospel According to St. ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ... Il Vangelo secondo Matteo is a 1964 Italian film directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini. ... Herod the Great. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... King of the Jews may refer to: One of several historical kings of the Jewish people; see Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah A title of the Jewish Messiah King Herod the Great, declared King of the Jews by the Roman Senate A title used to refer to Jesus... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ...


The "Herod" referred to may instead have been Herod the Great's son Herod Archelaus, also renowned for cruelty, whose visit to Rome may be the event referred to in the Parable of the Talents. Coin of Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (23 BC – c. ... The parable of the talents, as depicted in a 1712 woodcut. ...


Why all Jerusalem should be troubled by an opponent to Herod is a more important question. Throughout this chapter Matthew shows the leaders of Jerusalem allied with Herod against Jesus, and so these passages have often been quoted in support of Christian anti-Semitism. That all Jerusalem is agitated also seems to conflict with later passages in the same Gospel, where the people are quite oblivious to Jesus' existence. Gundry sees this passage as influenced by the politics of the time it was written, as a foreshadowing of the rejection of Jesus and his church by the leaders of Jerusalem. Brown notes that another option, supported even in ancient times by John Chrysostom, is that Matthew is trying to portray Jesus as a new Moses; in Exodus all Egypt is troubled by Moses, not just the Pharaoh. Levin believes in a third option which sees Matthew as presenting a class war throughout his Gospel, with Jesus on the side of the poor and nomadic, against powerful city dwellers. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history of Christianity and anti-Semitism. ... Robert Horton Gundry is a noted Biblical scholar. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Most scholars take the reference to all the chief priests and scribes as referring to the Sanhedrin, however, there is a difficulty in taking this literally as there was only one chief priest at the time, so all the chief priests can only literally refer to a single individual. Taking it less literally, Brown notes that this phrase occurs in other contemporary documents, and refers to the leading priests and former chief priests, not only the current head of the priesthood. A more important difficulty with this passage is its historical implausibility, since records from the period show that Herod and the Sanhedrin were sharply divided, and their relations acrimonious. At the time the priests were largely Sadducees while the scribes were mostly Pharisees, thus both groups being present might be a deliberate attempt to tar both leading Jewish factions as being involved with Herod. Schweizer states that Herod consulting with the Sanhedrin is historically almost inconceivable, and he views their presence in the passage merely as a literary device to have someone able to subsequently quote an Old Testament prophecy. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...


After having consulted with these religious individuals, Herod is described as secretly meeting with the Magi, who subsequently sent the Magi to Bethlehem to discover where Jesus was so that he could worship him. Many scholars, such as Brown and Schweizer, find it improbable for this passage to be factual; Bethlehem is only five miles from Jerusalem and it is thus odd that Herod would need to use foreign priests that he had only just met for such an important task, trusting them implicitly despite his usual paranoia, even though he could easily give the task to his soldiers or others he trusted more. RT France defends the historicity of this story, theorising that soldiers might alarm the villagers, making it difficult to find the infant, though searching a village only five miles away, even with deeply distrusting villagers, is not so difficult a task when you have an entire army at your disposal. France has also proposed that Herod chose the magi to carry the task out since they were more likely to be gullible, as foreigners, or at least have less qualms than Jewish soldiers would about killing someone supposedly fitting a Jewish prophecy. The Schweizer Aircraft Corporation, located in Horseheads, NY, was incorporated in 1939 by three Schweizer brothers, who built their first glider in 1930. ... Richard T France, MA BD PhD is a New Testament scholar and Anglican Rector. ...


Birthplace

This narrative of the visit of the Magi is the first point in Matthew that Bethlehem, the place of Jesus' birth, is mentioned. That it is specified as being in Judea is ascribed by Albright and Mann to emphasise that it isn't the northern town also named Bethlehem (probably the modern town of Beit Lahna), though other scholars feel the main purpose of this mention is to assert that Jesus was born in the heart of Judaism and not in the unrespected backwater that was Galilee. According to the chronology in Luke, the family left Bethlehem soon after arriving, when Jesus was forty days old, but according to Matthew, the Magi visited Jesus in Bethlehem when he was at a house. This raises the question of how the family has its own home in the town when the Magi visit, having only been able to have a stable when Jesus was born. However, Matthew does not say the house belonged to Joseph and Mary. Arabic بيت لحم Name Meaning House of Lambs Government City (from 1995) Also Spelled Beit Lahm (officially) Bayt Lahm (unofficially) Governorate Bethlehem Population 29,930 (2006) Jurisdiction 29,799 dunams (29. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... House at Cúcuta, Colombia A house is a building typically lived in by one or more people. ...


It is also entirely possible that when the Magi visited, Joseph and Mary were no longer in Bethlehem. Matthew never actually says that they are in Bethlehem at the time of the visit of the Magi. Since Joseph and Mary traveled to Jerusalem for the circumsicion of Jesus and her offering after her purification 40 days later it is plausible that they were either in Zacharius and Elizabeth's house or had procured a house of their own within the two years from the time of Jesus' birth and the visit of the Magi.


Most modern scholars believe that the author of Matthew is fairly clear in this chapter that the family had lived for some time in the town, and was likely originally from Bethlehem, thus it is logical for them to have a house. This reading does contradict Luke's story of the emergency trip to the town, however, a view which those who believe in the inerrancy of the Bible naturally do not feel able to support. These inerrantists instead believe that either that the couple found a house very quickly, i.e. in less than forty days, while Mary had only just given birth, or that, contrary to the views of almost all scholars of linguistics, house should be translated instead as village. Those not willing to accept that one of the two Gospels is outright wrong, but still willing to accept that Matthew and Luke cannot be exactly synchronised, generally feel that the Magi visited several months after the birth of Jesus, and Luke has got wrong the length of time that the family stayed in Bethlehem.


Another theory is that the Magi visited about two years after the birth of Jesus, explaining why Herod, thwarted in his plans, later ordered the death of children aged two years and younger. For many, especially believers in inerrancy, this settles the seeming contradiction.


Star of Bethlehem

The Journey of the Magi by James Tissot
The Journey of the Magi by James Tissot
Main article: Star of Bethlehem

The Magi are described as having followed a star to Bethlehem, which thus traditionally became known as the Star of Bethlehem. Since at least Kepler's time there have been many attempts to link it to an astronomical event, with the most commonly cited being a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 7 BC, fitting in with Matthew's chronology pointing to Jesus being born before 4 BC, and unlike Luke's which points to AD 6. Although traditionally the Magi, coming from the east (apo anatolón, απο ανατολων), are described as having seen a star in the east (en te anatole, εν τη ανατολη), the Greek word in question is anatole, which many scholars feel more accurately translates as a star rising in the morning, meaning a heliacal rising[14]. The star was just above the horizon but hidden by the brightness of the sun. According to Austrian Professor Konradin Ferrari d'Occhieppo — in many books between 1965[15] and 2003 —, it was not only a triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 7 BC. The astronomer had interpreted the words "stood over" as a term that refer the retrogradation and stationing of the royal star Jupiter or Saturn in the sign of Pisces (= land in the west) in 12 November 7 BC since 854 (!) years.[16] In the astronomer’s opinion this rare event was certainly important for everyone. The term "stood over" is taken as detail faithful eyewitness report by the magi, refers to the star already standing and not moving — an astronomical technical term . The term "very large joy" refers without doubt to the end of the journey: the Magi, described as having followed a star to Bethlehem, finding the place of birth and the king wanted for a long time. Image File history File links Journey_of_the_Magi. ... Image File history File links Journey_of_the_Magi. ... James Joseph Jacques Tissot (October 15, 1836 – August 8, 1902) was a French painter. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a German astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... The heliacal rising of a star (or other body such as the moon or a planet) occurs when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon at dawn, after a period where it was hidden below the horizon or when it was just above the horizon but hidden by the... A triple conjunction is an astronomical event, where two planets or a planet and a star meet each other three times in a short period either in opposition or at the time of inferior conjunction, if an inferior planet is involved. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events... Prograde motion is the rotational or orbital motion of a body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within a given system, and is sometimes called direct motion. ... For other uses, see Pisces. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events...


John Chrysostom rejected the idea that the Star of Bethlehem was a normal star or similar heavenly body, because such a star could not have specified the exact cave and manger where Jesus was found, being too high in the sky to be that specific. Also, he notes that stars in the sky move from east to west, but that the Magi would have travelled from north to south to arrive in Palestine from Persia. Instead, Chrysostom suggested that the star was a more miraculous occurrence, comparable to the pillar of cloud mentioned in Exodus as leading the Israelites out of Egypt. In the Byzantine tradition, influenced by Chrysostom's writing and by palace etiquette, the star was interpreted as a palace official that led the foreign dignitaries to the king, and as such is depicted in Byzantine art. John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ...


In Matthew 2:9 it states that the star came and stood over where Jesus was, seemingly stating that the star pointed out the specific house or village that Jesus was in. Quite how it did this is unspecified in the text, and artists have portrayed a wide array of means. Hill comments that the star standing over a fixed location is an undeniably miraculous action which defies all attempts to rationalize the star as a natural nova or conjunction. However, it is perfectly possible for a previously moving star or conjunction to appear to halt its location in the sky — the sun freezes in its annual north-south motion for three days twice a year, at the winter and summer solstice (coincidentally due to precession of the equinoxes, 25 December was the winter solstice at the time). Artists conception of a white dwarf star accreting hydrogen from a larger companion A nova (pl. ... This article is about the astronomical event of winter solstice or midwinter. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... Precession of the equinoxes refers to the precession of the Earths axis of rotation. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ...


Astronomer Michael R. Molnar and others have taken the view that Matthew's statements that the star "went before" and "stood over" are terms that refer respectively to the retrogradation and stationing of the royal "wandering star" Jupiter. If Molnar's research is correct, this would require the birth to have taken place on 17 April 6 BC, and the standing over on 19 December, and the Magi would have had to arrive at some point thereafter. Prograde motion is the rotational or orbital motion of a body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within a given system, and is sometimes called direct motion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Planets#Etymology. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births Possible birthdate of Jesus, April 17. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time the notion of new stars as beacons of major events were common, being reported for such figures as Alexander the Great, Mithridates, Abraham, and Augustus. Pliny even takes time to rebut a theory that every person has a star that rises when they are born and fades when they die, evidence that this was believed by some. According to Brown, to many at the time it would have been unthinkable that a Messiah could have been born without some stellar portents beforehand. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The name Mithridates (more accurately, Mithradates) is helenized form of a Indo-Aryan Mithra-Datt, which means One given by Mithra. Mithra is the Indo-Aryan sun-god and Datt (Given by) derives from the Indo-European root da, to give. That name was borne by a large number of... Ώ // ---- Insert non-formatted text here]] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ...


According to John Mosley, the program supervisor for Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles, the key question is whether the account refers to "stars" or to "planets", though the distinction is not likely to have been meaningful to astrologers like the Magi at that time. If it was a planet then there are a number of celestial events that would have attracted the interest and fascination of anyone, like the Magi, who followed the stars. Mosley argued:

  • Historical records and modern-day computer simulations indicate that there was a rare series of planetary groupings, also known as conjunctions, during the years 3 BC and 2 BC.
  • On the morning of June 12 in 3 BC Venus could be sighted very close to Saturn in the eastern sky.
  • On August 12 in 3 BC there was a spectacular pairing of Venus and Jupiter in the constellation of Leo, which ancient astrologers associated with the destiny of the Jews.
  • Between September in 3 BC and June in 2 BC, Jupiter's retrograde motion caused it to appear to deviate from its path and loop around Regulus, a star in Leo. Astrologers considered Jupiter the kingly planet and regarded Regulus as the king star. This ties in with evidence of an October birthdate for Jesus.
  • On December 28 in 3 BC, all the planets formed the shape of the Star of David.[verification needed]
  • On June 17 in 2 BC, Jupiter could be sighted so close to Venus that with a naked eye they appeared to have merged.

Mosley's claims have been disputed by several astronomers as contrived, and inaccurate: for example, his claim that a cross shaped arrangement of the planets was the star fails to appreciate that the cross became a Christian symbol only in the 6th century. David Turner, professor of astronomy at St Mary's University, has argued extensively against Mosley's conclusions, and has stated that some of the claims are extremely tenuous. The date of Herod's death is generally accepted to be 5–4 BC, which would be before these astronomical events of 3–2 BC, but may have happened in 1 BC. In other words, Jesus was born, the Magi visited Herod, and went to Jesus, Herod caused Jesus to flee, and only then did the stars begin an astronomical event that had highly symbolic significance; suggesting that if that was indeed an event indicating the Messiah's birth, then the Messiah was an unknown individual born 1–2 years after Jesus. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prograde motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called direct motion, especially in astrology. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Herod the Great. ... AD redirects here. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about...


Some Christians have had difficulty with reference to the star, since elsewhere in the Bible astrology is condemned. Consequently, R.T. France has argued that the passage is not an endorsement of astrology, but rather an illustration of how God takes care in meeting individuals where they are. Other Christians interpret the star as a fulfilment of the "Star Prophecy" in the Book of Numbers, 24:17: The Star Prophecy was a Messianic reading applied by radical Jews and early Christians to a text from the Book of Numbers 24:17: —— which was often employed during the troubled years that led up to the Jewish Revolt, the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (70 CE) and... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...

There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

The Bethlehem prophecy

The text describes the Magi explaining to Herod about the purpose of their visit by use of a quote from the prophet:

But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are little among the thousands of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times. ― Micah 5:1-3 (according to the Masoretic text)

The quotation given in Matthew differs substantially from both the Septuagint and Masoretic texts of the same passage. The Septuagint and Masoretic refer to Bethlehem as Bethlehem Ephratah, which Matthew alters to Bethlehem, land of Judah, apparently to further emphasise that Jesus was born in Judea not Galilee, where he spent much of his ministry, an area that was viewed by most religious Jews as being unclean and lower than the half-cast people in the intermediate region. An even more important change is the almost total inversion of the meaning — Micah has you are little among the thousands of Judah whereas Matthew's quote of it has you are not least among the princes of Judah. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Ephrath or Ephratah is the Biblical name of the ancient city in the Judean Hills, south of Bethlehem, now called Efrat in the West Bank. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ...


Matthew also replaces the word ruler with shepherd, apparently to present the argument that a Messiah would be a religious figure rather than a political one. The portion of Micah where this quote is found is clearly discussing a Messiah and states that like King David, the Messiah would originate from Bethlehem. At the time it was not widely accepted that the Messiah would necessarily be born in Bethlehem, just that his ancestors would have been, and thus it was not considered essential for a Messiah to be someone born in that town, although it was considered a reasonable area for one to happen to originate from: certainly far more reasonable than the peripheral area of Galilee where Jesus grew up. This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ...


Religious significance

According to most forms of Christianity, the Magi were the first religious figures to worship Christ, and for this reason the story of the Magi is particularly respected and popular among many Christians. The visit of the Magi is commemorated by Catholics and other Christian churches (but not the Eastern Orthodox) on the observance of Epiphany, January 6. The Eastern Orthodox celebrate it on December 25 along with Christmas. This visit is frequently treated in Christian art and literature as The Adoration of the Magi. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Upon this kernel of information Christians embroidered many circumstantial details about the Magi. One of the most important changes was their rising from astrologers to kings. The general view is that this is linked to Old Testament prophesies that have the Messiah being worshipped by kings in Isaiah 60:3, Psalm 72:10, and Psalm 68:29. Early readers reinterpreted Matthew in light of these prophecies and elevated the Magi to kings. Mark Allan Powell rejects this view. He argues that the idea of the Magi as kings arose considerably later in the time after Constantine and the change was made to endorse the role of Christian monarchs. By AD 500 all commentators adopted the prevalent tradition of the three were kings, and this continued until the Protestant Reformation. An astrological chart (or horoscope) _ Y2K Chart — This particular chart is calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA. (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251) Astrology (from Greek: αστρολ&#959... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... This article is about the year. ... Reformation redirects here. ...


Though the Qur'an omits Matthew's episode of the Magi, it was well known in Arabia. The Muslim encyclopaedist al-Tabari, writing in the 9th century, gives the familiar symbolism of the gifts of the Magi. Al-Tabari gave his source for the information to be the later 7th century writer Wahb ibn Munabbih.[17] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


This positive interpretation of the Magi is not unopposed. The Jehovah's Witnesses[18] do not see the arrival of the Magi as something to be celebrated, but instead stress the Biblical condemnation of sorcery and astrology in such texts as Deuteronomy 18:10–11, Leviticus 19:26, and Isaiah 47:13–14. They also point to the fact that the star seen by the Magi led them first to a hostile enemy of Jesus, Herod, and only then to the child's location — the argument being that if this was an event from God, it makes no sense for them to be led to a ruler with intentions to kill the child before taking them to Jesus. Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ...


Traditions of the Epiphany

  • Holidays celebrating the arrival of the magi traditionally recognise a sharp distinction between the date of their arrival and the date of Jesus' birth. Matthew's introduction of the Magi gives the reader no reason to believe that they were present on the night of the birth, instead stating that they arrived at some point after Jesus had been born, and the Magi are described as leading Herod to assume that Jesus is up to 1 year old.
  • Christianity celebrates the Magi on the day of Epiphany, January 6, the last of the twelve days of Christmas, particularly in the Spanish-speaking parts of the world. In these Spanish-speaking areas, the three kings (Sp. "los Reyes Magos de Oriente", also "Los Tres Reyes Magos") receive wish letters from children and magically bring them gifts on the night before Epiphany. According to the tradition, the Magi come from the Orient on their camels to visit the houses of all the children; much like the Northern European Santa Claus with his reindeer, they visit everyone in one night. In some areas, children prepare a drink for each of the Magi, it is also traditional to prepare food and drink for the camels, because this is the only night of the year when they eat.
  • Spanish cities organize cabalgatas in the evening, in which the kings and their servants parade and throw sweets to the children (and parents) in attendance. The cavalcade of the three kings in Alcoi claims to be the oldest in the world; the participants who portray the kings and pages walk through the crowd, giving presents to the children directly.
  • A tradition in most of Central Europe involves writing the initials of the three kings above the main door of the home to confer blessings on the occupants for the New Year. For example, K + M + B 2007.*
  • In France and Belgium, the holiday is celebrated with a special tradition: within a family, a cake is baked which contains one single bean. Whoever gets the bean is "crowned" king for the remainder of the holiday.
  • This tradition also exists in Spain, but with one small variant; the cake, in this case actually a ring-shaped pastry or Roscón de Reyes, is most commonly bought, not baked, and it contains a small figurine of a Baby Jesus and a dry broad bean. The one who gets the figurine is crowned, but whoever gets the bean has to pay the value of the cake to the person that originally bought it.
  • In Mexico they have the same ring-shaped cake Rosca de Reyes, it contains figurines of the Baby Jesus. Whoever gets a figurine is supposed to buy tamales for the Candelaria feast on February the second.

This article is about the Christian feast. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... The Cavalcade of Magi is a typical parade of coaches, in all Spanish cities, even in the smallest, and also Mexican some, in that the Magi (Melchior, Gaspar and Baltasar) and his page boys and assistants throw candies to the children who fill the streets. ... Panoramic photograph of Alcoi taken in 1925. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized figurines found in modern-day Israel A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) is a statuette that represents a human, deity, or animal. ... ...

Adoration of the Magi in art

Adoration of the Magi by Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi

The Magi most frequently appear in European art in the Adoration of the Magi; less often The Journey of the Magi has been a popular topos, and other scenes such as the Magi before Herod and the Dream of the Magi also appear in the Middle Ages. In Byzantine art they are depicted as Persians, wearing trousers and phrygian caps. Crown appear from the 10th century. Medieval artists also allegorised the theme to represent the three ages of man. Beginning in the 12th century, and very often by the 15th, the Kings also represent the three parts of the known (pre-Columban) world in Western art, especially in Northern Europe. Balthasar is thus represented as a young African or Moor and Caspar may be depicted with distinctive Oriental features. Adoration of the Magi by Bartolomé Estéban Murillo The Adoration of the Magi is the name traditionally given to a Christian religious scene in which the three Magi, almost always represented as kings, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh... Download high resolution version (1888x1864, 1673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1888x1864, 1673 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Fra Angelico, (c. ... Madonna and Child 1440-45, tempera on panel National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Fra Filippo Lippi (1406 October 8? – 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, is a well-known Florentine painter of the Italian 15th century school. ... In mathematics, a topos (plural topoi or toposes) is a type of category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ...


An early Anglo-Saxon picture survives on the Franks Casket, probably a non-Christian king’s hoard-box (early 7th century, whalebone carving); or rather the hoard-box survived Christian attacks on non-Christian art and sculpture because of that picture.[19] In its composition it follows the oriental style, which renders a courtly scene, with the Virgin and Christ facing the spectator, while the Magi devoutly approach from the (left) side. Even amongst non-Christians who had heard of the Christian story of the Magi, the motif was quite popular, since the Magi had endured a long journey and were generous. Instead of an angel, the picture places a swan, interpretable as the hero's fylgja (a protecting spirit, and shapeshifter). The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Runic Casket) is a little whalebone chest, dateable from its pagan elements to the early 7th century, decorated with images and Futhorc runic inscriptions. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... A fylgja (literally: she, who follows) was, according to Scandinavian mythology, a supernatural creature which accompanied a person. ... Shapeshifter was a program wich would allow you to edit and make your own themes for the mac computers but this is now out of date ...


More generally they appear in popular Nativity scenes and other Christmas decorations that have their origins in the Neapolitan variety of the Italian presepio or Nativity crèche; they are featured in Menotti's opera Amahl and the Night Visitors, and in several Christmas carols, of which the best-known English one is "We Three Kings". In the film Donovan's Reef, a Christmas play is held in French Polynesia. However, instead of the traditional correspondence of Magi to continents, the version for Polynesian Catholics features the king of Polynesia, the king of America, and the king of China. Further sentimental narrative detail was added in the novel and movie Ben-Hur, where Balthasar appears as an old man, who goes back to Palestine to see the former child Jesus become an adult. According to Howard Clarke, in the United States, Christmas cards featuring the Magi outsell those with shepherds. The Twentieth-century poet T.S.Eliot wrote a poem The Journey of the Magi (1927). In Michael Ende's children books Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver and Jim Button and the Wild 13, one of the Three Kings plays a major role in one of the main character's background. A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Origin A neologism created in reaction to comments made by State Senator Bill Napoli (R-SD). ... Gian Carlo Menotti, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Gian Carlo Menotti (July 7, 1911 – February 1, 2007) was an Italian-born American composer and librettist who wrote the classic Christmas opera Amahl and the Night Visitors among about two dozen other operas intended to appeal to popular taste. ... Amahl and the Night Visitors is an opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti on an original English libretto by the composer. ... For the short novel by Charles Dickens, see A Christmas Carol. ... Donovans Reef is a 1963 American action/comedy motion picture from director John Ford, about a snooty young woman from Boston who comes to a South Pacific isle in search of her missing father and encounters a pair of old sailors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Inculturation the incarnation of the Gospel in native cultures and also the introduction of these cultures into the life of the Church Source: John Paul II, encyclical Slavorum Apostoli, June 2, 1985, No. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third version of Lew Wallaces novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Some christmas cards A Christmas card is a greeting card that is decorated in a manner that celebrates Christmas. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888–January 4, 1965) was a poet, dramatist and literary critic, whose works, such as The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, and Four Quartets, are considered major achievements of twentieth century Modernist poetry. ... The Journey of the Magi is a topos of Christian painting and literature. ... Michael Andreas Helmuth Ende (November 12, 1929 - August 29, 1995) was a German writer of fantasy novels and childrens books. ... Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver (original title: Jim Knopf und Lukas der Lokomotivführer) is a German children fantasy novel written by Michael Ende, published in 1960, where it scored a tremendrous success. ... Jim Button and the Wild 13 (original Title: Jim Knopf und die wilde 13)is a novel written by the german author Michael Ende. ...


Cultural references

  • In the video game Chrono Trigger, the three wise men: Balthasar, Gaspar, and Melchior help the main characters in various ways throughout their journey through time in order to stop the destruction caused by Lavos.
  • The game Xenogears, which also credits Hironobu Sakaguchi as being on the design team, also contains three wise men characters with the same names, though their involvement in the events is more direct than in Chrono Trigger.
  • In the anime Neon Genesis Evangelion, the names of the three supercomputers in NERV (collectively referred to as MAGI, and individually as Casper, Balthasar and Melchior) correspond to the three Magi.
  • A "Three Wise Men" is an alcoholic drink containing equal parts Jim Beam, Johnnie Walker, and Jack Daniels. Three different types of whiskey.
  • In Monty Python's film Life of Brian, the Three Wise Men accidentally bring their gifts to the wrong baby, mistaking him for Jesus.
  • In Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino, the Three Wise Men are said to have come from the kingdom of Prester John, a land to which the titular hero and his friends journey in the guise of the Wise Men.

Chrono Trigger ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game console. ... Balthazar can refer to One of the Three Wise Men A size of wine bottle, equal to 16 standard bottles, or 12 litres A 1909 book by Anatole France A 1958 novel by Lawrence Durrell Balthazar Getty, great grandson of J. Paul Getty Hans Urs von Balthasar - 20th c. ... The name Gaspar can be used as: an alternate spelling of Casper; a males given name a city in Brazil; Gaspar, Santa Catarina a character in Chrono Trigger; Gaspar This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Melchior can refer to One of the Three Wise Men Malchior, a villain in the Teen Titans animated series. ... Lavoss outer shell. ... Xenogears ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ... Hironobu Sakaguchi ) (born November 25, 1962) is a Japanese game designer, game director and game producer. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 No. ... The standard white Jim Beam label Jim Beam is a brand of bourbon whiskey, distilled in Clermont, Kentucky. ... Johnnie Walker is a brand of Scotch whisky produced in Kilmarnock, Scotland. ... The distinctive bottle of Jack Daniels whiskey is familiar around the world. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Monty Pythons Life of Brian is a 1979 comedy written and performed by the Monty Python comedy team. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Baudolino is a 2000 novel by Umberto Eco about a young man named Baudolinos adventures in the known and mythical Christian world of the 12th century. ... Preste enthroned on a map of East Africa in an atlas prepared for Queen Mary, 1558. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This list of names for the Biblical nameless compiles names given in Jewish or Christian mythology for characters who are unnamed in the Bible itself. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The history of astrology encompasses a great span of human history and many cultures. ... Christianity and astrology are seen as incompatible by modern orthodox Christian teachings (Christian doctrine). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... For other uses, see Nicholas. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... For the film, see Simon Magus (film). ...

References and notes

Citations
  1. ^ Eliza Marian Butler, "The Myth of the Magus By Eliza Marian Butler". Cambridge University, 1993. 281 pages. Page 20. ISBN 0521437776
  2. ^ J. Duncan and M. Derrett, "Further light on the narratives of the Nativity". Novum Testamentum 17.2 (April 1975), pp. 81-108: "Jean Danielou's conclusion that the Magi were an invention of Matthew"
  3. ^ Hattaway, Paul; Brother Yun; Yongze, Peter Xu; and Wang, Enoch. Back to Jerusalem. (Authentic Publishing, 2003). retrieved May 2007
  4. ^ Kehrer, Hugo, Die Heiligen Drei Könige in Literatur und Kunst, Band I, 1908, 1976², pp. 66–71: At that time in the reign of Augustus, on 1st January the Magi brought him gifts and worshipped him. The names of the Magi were Bithisarea, Melchior and Gathaspa.
  5. ^ Acta Sanctorum, May, I, 1780.
  6. ^ Concerning The Magi And Their Names.
  7. ^ POLO, Marco, The Book of the Million, book i.
  8. ^ http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/70600
  9. ^ Page, Sophie,"Magic In Medieval Manuscripts". University of Toronto Press, 2004. 64 pages. ISBN 0802037976Page 18.
  10. ^ Gustav-Adolf Schoener and Shane Denson [Translator], "Astrology: Between Religion and the Empirical".
  11. ^ "Frankincense: festive pharmacognosy". Pharmaceutical journal. Vol 271, 2003. pharmj.com.
  12. ^ Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel.
  13. ^ Lambert, John Chisholm, "A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels". Page 100.
  14. ^ d’OCCHIEPPO, Konradin Ferrari, Neue Argumente zu Aufgang und Stillstand des Sterns in der Magierperikope Matthäus 2, 1–12, in Sitzungsber. Abt. I I (1997) 206: 317–44. Vienna: 1998.
  15. ^ Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften ÖAW.SmnII/173, Wien 1965, pp. 343–76, in: d’Occhieppo, Der Stern von Bethlehem in astronomischer Sicht, 1994, p. 7.
  16. ^ http://wwwapp.bmbwk.gv.at/kalender/1224/augen1224d.html and a photo (Jupiter and Saturn are left).
  17. ^ We, three kings of Orient were.
  18. ^ http://www.watchtower.org/library/w/2000/12/15/article_01.htm
  19. ^ Franks Casket.
General references
  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Alfred Becker: “Franks Casket. Zu den Bildern und Inschriften des Runenkästchens von Auzon (Regensburg, 1973) pp. 125–142, Ikonographie der Magierbilder, Inschriften.
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke. London: G. Chapman, 1977.
  • Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Bloomington.
  • Chrysostom, John "Homilies on Matthew: Homily VI". circa fourth century.
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Gundry, Robert H. Matthew a Commentary on his Literary and Theological Art. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
  • Hastings, J., Selbie, J. A., Davidson, A. B., Driver, S. R., & Swete, H. B. (1898). A dictionary of the Bible: dealing with its language, literature, and contents, including the Biblical theology, "Magi".. New York: C. Scribner's sons. Page 203 - 206.
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • Lambert, John Chisholm, A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels. Page 97 - 101.
  • Levine, Amy-Jill. "Matthew." Women's Bible Commentary. Carol A. Newsom and Sharon H. Ringe, eds. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.
  • Molnar, Michael R., The Star of Bethlehem: The Legacy of the Magi. Rutgers University Press, 1999. 187 pages. ISBN 0813527015
  • Powell, Mark Allan. "The Magi as Wise Men: Re-examining a Basic Supposition." New Testament Studies. Vol. 46, 2000.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975.
  • Watson, Richard, A Biblical and Theological Dictionary Page 608 - 611.

William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... The Anchor Bible Series is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that has been setting a high standard since the early 1960s, when individual volumes of the series began publication. ... Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 - August 8, 1998), was an American Roman Catholic priest and Biblical scholar. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Robert Horton Gundry is a noted Biblical scholar. ... Henry Barclay Swete (Bristol, March 14, 1835-Hitchin1917) was an English Biblical scholar. ... Eduard Schweizer was a Swiss New Testament scholar who taught at the University of Zurich for an extended period. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biblical Magi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2939 words)
The Three Wise Men are given the names Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this late 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy.
In Christian tradition the Magi, also known as the Three Wise Men or Kings from the east, are magi who according to Matthew 2:1 came "from the east to Jerusalem", to worship the Infant Jesus, him "that is born King of the Jews".
The cavalcade of the three kings in Alcoi (a city located not in Catalonia but in Alicante, in the autonomous community of Valencia) claims to be the oldest in the world; the participants who portray the kings and pages walk through the crowd, giving presents to the children directly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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