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Encyclopedia > Three Principles of the People
This article contains Chinese text.
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Sun Yat-sen, who developed the Three Principles of the People.

The Three Principles of the People (Traditional Chinese: 三民主義; Hanyu Pinyin: Sān Mín Zhǔyì; Wade-Giles: San-min Chu-i), also translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. Its legacy of implementation is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China (ROC), which currently administers Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu Islands. This philosophy has been the cornerstone of the Republic of China's polity as carried by the Kuomintang regime. The principles also appear in the first line of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—the target text, also called the translation. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... The Pescadores Islands (Chinese: 澎湖群島; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Pinyin: Pénghú, from Portuguese, fishermen) are an archipelago in the Taiwan Strait. ... Kinmen (Traditional Chinese: 金門; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«nmén; Tongyong Pinyin: Jinmén; Wade-Giles: Chin-men; POJ: Kim-mnÌ‚g; also romanized Quemoy from Southern Min (in early Spanish romanization); literally Golden Door or Golden Gate), located at 24. ... The Matsu Islands (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Manuscript of the speech at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy, handwriting by Dr. Sun Yat-sen National Anthem of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國國歌, Simplified Chinese: 中华民国国歌, Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Míngúo gúogÄ“), is the current national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC). ...

Contents

Enumeration of the principles

The Principle of Mínzú

(Min²-tsu², 民族主義 "The People's Relation/Connection" or "Government of the People"): Nationalism. By this, Sun meant freedom from imperialist domination. To achieve this he believed that China must develop a "civic-nationalism", Zhonghua Minzu, as opposed to an "ethnic-nationalism", so as to unite all of the different ethnicities of China, mainly composed by the five major groups of Han, Mongols, Tibetans, Manchus, and the Muslims, which together are symbolized by the Five Color Flag of the First Republic (1911-1928). This sense of nationalism is different from the idea of "ethnocentrism," which equates to the same meaning of nationalism in Chinese language. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The center flag is the Five-Colored Flag of the Republic of China. ... National flag. ...


The Principle of Mínquán

(Min²-ch'üan², 民權主義 "The People's Power" or "Government by the People"): Democracy. To Sun, it represented a Western constitutional government. First, he divided political life of his ideal for China into two sets of 'powers':


The power of politics

(政權; zhèngquán): These are the powers of the people to express their political wishes, similar to those vested in the citizenry or the parliaments in other countries, and is represented by the National Assembly. There are four of these powers: election (選舉), recall (罷免), initiative (創制), and referendum (複決). These may be equated to "civil rights". Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The National Assembly (Traditional Chinese: 國民大會; Simplified Chinese: 国民大会; Pinyin: ) refers to several parliamentary bodies that existed in the history of the Republic of China. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


The power of governance

(治權; zhìquán): these are the powers of administration. Here he expanded the European-American constitutional theory of a three-branch government and a system of checks and balances by incorporating traditional Chinese administrative tradition to create a government of five branches (each of which is called a yuàn or 'court'). The Legislative Yuan, the Executive Yuan, and the Judicial Yuan came from Montesquieuan thought; the Control Yuan and the Examination Yuan came from Chinese tradition. (Note that the Legislative Yuan was first intended as a branch of governance, not strictly equivalent to a national parliament.) Separation of powers is the idea that the powers of a sovereign government should be split between two or more strongly independent entities, preventing any one person or group from gaining too much power. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... The Executive Yuan (行政院; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... The Judicial Yuan is located directly east of the Presidential Office in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City. ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... The Control Yuan building The Control Yuan main entrance The Control Yuan (監察院; pinyin: Jiānchá Yùan), one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei, is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the government. ... The Examination Yuan (考試院) is one of five government branches of the Republic of China and is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. ...


The Principle of Mínshēng

(Min²-sheng¹, 民生主義 "The People's Welfare/Livelihood" or "Government for the People"): this is sometimes translated as socialism, although the government of Chiang Kai-shek shied away from translating it as such. The concept may be understood as social welfare. Sun understood it as an industrial economy and equality of land holdings for the Chinese peasant farmers. Here he was influenced by the American thinker Henry George (see Georgism); the land value tax in Taiwan is a legacy thereof. He divided livelihood into four areas: food, clothing, housing, and transportation; and planned out how an ideal (Chinese) government can take care of these for its people. Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the Single Tax on land. ... Henry George Georgism, named after Henry George (1839-1897), is a philosophy and economic ideology that follows from the belief that everyone owns what they create, but everything supplied by nature, most importantly land, belongs equally to all humanity. ... Land value taxation (LVT), or site value taxation, is the policy of raising state revenues by charging each landholder a portion of the value of a site or parcel of land that would exist even if that site had no improvements. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ...


Influences

The ideology is heavily influenced by Sun's experiences in the United States and contains elements of the American progressive movement and the thought championed by Abraham Lincoln. Sun credited a line from Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, "government of the people, by the people, for the people," as an inspiration for the Three Principles. For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ...


Sun was also heavily influenced by Confucian ideologies. Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Canon

The most definite (canonical) exposition of these principles was a book compiled from notes of speeches Sun gave near Guangzhou (taken by a colleague, Huang Changgu, in consultation with Sun), and therefore is open to interpretation by various parties and interest groups (see below) and may not have been as fully explicated as Sun might have wished. Indeed, Chiang Kai-shek supplied an annex to The Principle of Mínshēng, covering two additional areas of livelihood: education and leisure, and explicitly arguing that Mínshēng was not to be seen as either supporting communism or socialism. Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Legacy

The Three People's Principles was claimed as the basis for the ideologies of the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, of the Communist Party of China under Mao Zedong, and of the Wang Jingwei Government. The Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China largely agreed on the meaning of nationalism but differed sharply on the meaning of democracy and people's welfare, which the former saw in Western social democratic terms and the latter interpreted in Marxist and Communist terms (though how well they both carried it out is subject to debate). The Japanese collaborationist governments interpreted nationalism less in terms of anti-imperialism and more in terms of cooperating with Japan to advance pan-Asian interests. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... The Wang Jingwei Government was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


There were several higher-education institutes (university departments/faculties and graduate institutes) in Taiwan that used to devote themselves to the 'research and development' of the Three Principles; in this aspect. Since the late 1990s, these institutes have re-oriented themselves so that other political theories are also admitted as worthy of consideration, and have changed their names to be more ideologically neutral (such as Democratic Studies Institute). The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


In addition to this institutional phenomenon, many streets and businesses in Taiwan are named "San-min" or for one of the three principles. In contrast to other controversial street names, there has been no major renaming of these streets or institutions in the 1990's.


Although the term "San-min Chu-i" has been less explicitly invoked since the mid-1980s, no major political party has explicitly attacked its principles. The Three Principles of the People remains explicitly part of the platform of the Kuomintang and in the Constitution of the Republic of China. The Constitution of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó SiànFǎ) is currently the basic governing document for the areas controlled by the Republic of China (ROC) , namely all of Taiwan Province, Taipei and Kaohsiung municipalities, and Kinmen county and part of Lienchiang county...


As for Taiwan independence supporters, some have objections regarding the formal constitutional commitment to a particular set of political principles. Also, they have been against the mandatory indoctrination in schools and universities, which have now been abolished in a piecemeal fashion beginning in the late 1990s. However, there is little fundamental hostility to the substantive principles themselves. In these circles, attitudes toward the Three Principles of the People span the spectrum from indifference to reinterpreting the Three Principles of the People in a local Taiwanese context rather than in a pan-Chinese one. Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the... Localization or Taiwanization (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Pe̍h-oē-jī: pún-thó͘-hòa) is a political term used within Taiwan to emphasize the importance of Taiwans culture rather than to regard Taiwanese as solely an appendage of China. ...


See also

‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ... Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital (and largest city) Taipei1 Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”), Taiwanese, Aborigine Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911   -  Republic established January 1, 1912... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...

External links

  • Entire text of San-min Chu-i by Dr. Sun Yat-sen (Traditional Chinese)

Bibliography

  • Sun Yat-sen, translated by Pasquale d'Elia.The Triple Demism of Sun Yat-Sen. New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1974.
Flag of the Republic of China Politics of the Republic of China
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Constitution of the Republic of China - Three Principles of the People
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Executive Yuan | Legislative Yuan | Judicial Yuan | Control Yuan | Examination Yuan
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Political status | Legal status | Chinese reunification | Taiwan independence

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