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Encyclopedia > Three Kingdoms
History of China
3 Sovereigns & 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
Zhou
Spring & Autumn Eastern Zhou
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The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: 三國; Simplified Chinese: 三国; pinyin: Sānguó) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. In a strict academic sense it refers to the period between the foundation of the Wu in 222 and the conquest of the Shu by the Kingdom of Wei in 263. However, many Chinese historians and laymen extend the starting point of this period back to the uprising of the Yellow Turbans in 184. Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... This article is about the extremely ancient Chinese dynasty whose existence has yet to be thoroughly confirmed by archaeology. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (Traditional Chinese: 戰國時代; Simplified Chinese: 战国时代; Pinyin: Zhànguó Shídài) covers the period from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part... The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BCE - 206 BCE) was preceded by the Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Later Han redirects here. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus), lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, followed the Song Dynasty and preceded the Ming... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China From a political point of view, the Peoples Republic of China had, for several decades, been known as the political entity that is often synonymous with Mainland China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ... The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) succeeded the Qing Dynasty in 1912, ending 2,000 years of imperial rule. ... // Note: dates prior to 841 BC are provisional and subject to dispute. ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... The military history of China extends from around 1500 BCE to the present day. ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... A method of making astronomical observation instruments at the time of Qing Dynasty. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Six Dynasties (六朝) is a collective noun for the six Chinese dynasties, namely the Kingdom of Wu, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Qi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a nation and several states throughout Chinese history of around the same region in China. ... Events Pope Urban I succeeds Pope Callixtus I Roman Emperor Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus Kingdom of Wu is established in China Sun Quan defeats Liu Bei at the Battle of Yi Ling Deaths March 11 - Roman Emperor Heliogabalus murdered Tertullian, theologian Pope Callixtus I Claudius Aelianus, teacher and rhetorician Ma... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... The Yellow Turban Rebellion (simplified Chinese: 黄巾之乱, traditional Chinese: 黃巾之亂) was an AD 184 peasant rebellion against Emperor Lingdi of the Han Dynasty of China. ... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ...


The three kingdoms were the Kingdom of Wei (魏), the Kingdom of Shu (蜀), and the Kingdom of Wu (). To distinguish these states from other historical Chinese states of the same name, historians prepended a character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong Wu (東吳). The term Three Kingdoms itself is somewhat of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed by an Emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han Dynasty, not by kings. Nevertheless the term has become standard among sinologists. The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a historical nation and several states in a region of China. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Later Han redirects here. ... Sinology is the study of China, which usually requires a foreign scholar to have command of the Chinese language. ...


The earlier, "unofficial" part of the period, from 190 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China. The middle part of the period, from 220 and 263, was marked by a more militarily stable arrangement between three rival states, Kingdom of Wei (魏), Kingdom of Shu (蜀), and Kingdom of Wu (吳). The later part of this period was marked by the collapse of the tripartite situation: first the destruction of Shu by Wei (263), then the overthrow of Wei by the Jin Dynasty (265), and the destruction of Wu by Jin (280). Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Events Wei Yuandi abdicates, end of the China. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ...


Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticised in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. It has been celebrated and popularised in operas, folk stories, novels and in more recent times, films, television serials, and video games. The best known of these is undoubtedly the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a fictional account of the period which draws heavily on history. The authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shou's Sanguo Zhi, along with Pei Songzhi's later annotations of the text. The culture of China is the result of over 5,000 years of artistic, philosophical, political, and scientific advancement. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... Chen Shou (陳壽) (233-297), courtesy name Chengzuo (承祚) was the author of the Sanguo Zhi, a historical account of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三国志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms, was the official and authoritative historical text on the Three Kingdoms Period compiled by Chen Shou during the Jin Dynasty (265-420). ...


The Three Kingdoms period is one of the bloodiest in Chinese history. A population census in late Eastern Han Dynasty reported a population of approximately 56 million, while a population census in early Western Jin dynasty (after Jin re-unified China) reported a population of approximately 16 million. Even taking into account the inaccuracies of these census reports, it is safe to assume that a large percentage of the population was wiped out during the constant wars waged during this period.


Despite (or perhaps, because of) the political disunity of this period, there are very notable technological advances. Zhuge Liang's invention of the wooden ox is suggested to be an early form of the wheelbarrow. In the Kingdom of Wei, there was the brilliant mechanical engineer known as Ma Jun, considered by many to be as brilliant as his predecessor Zhang Heng. He was the inventor of a hydraulic-powered, mechanical puppet theatre designed for Emperor Ming of Wei (Cao Rui), square-pallet chain pumps for irrigation of gardens in Luoyang, and the ingenious design of the South Pointing Chariot, a non-magnetic directional compass operated by differential gears. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... The Wooden Ox was created by Zhuge Liang while he served Shu-Han. ... A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... For the Technical Symposium of NITK Surathkal Engineer , see Engineer (Technical Fest). ... Ma Jun a certain officer serving under Wei that oversaw the construction of Chong Huas palace under the orders of Cao Rui. ... Zhāng Héng Replica of Zhang Hengs seismometer Houfeng Didong Yi For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Cao Rui, ch. ... Chain Pumps This is a kind of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it a series of circular discs. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Supposedly invented sometime around 2600BC in China by the Yellow Emperor Huang Di, the South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Ju 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... For the tool used to draw circles, see Compass (drafting). ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ...

Contents

Collapse of dynastic power

The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu.
The Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu.

What is traditionally thought of as the beginning of the "unofficial" Three Kingdoms Period is the Yellow Turban Rebellion led by Zhang Jiao in 184. The year long revolt devastated northern China, as Zhang's religious sect, the Way of Peace, battled the weakened Han Empire, whose army was led by He Jin. The Way of Peace was primarily composed of farmers who had suffered greatly under the corrupt government system and thus easily converted by Zhang Jiao to create a "new and peaceful world." The rebellion ended when Zhang Jiao died of illness, but the chaos the rebellion wrought, when combined with the natural disasters that had overrun China in the same period, destabilized the Han Dynasty and doomed it to fall. The rebellion also caused the central government to increase the allowance of military power of the local governments, which is one of the cause of the warring period that followed. Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu by Wei. ... Three Kingdoms in 262, on the eve of the conquest of Shu by Wei. ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (140-188) (Simplified Chinese: 张角; Traditional Chinese: 張角; Pinyin: Zhāng Jiǎo or Zhāng Jué) was the leader of the Yellow Turbans during the period of the late Eastern Han Dynasty in China. ... He Jin (? – 189) was the elder half-brother of Empress He, consort to Emperor Ling of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. ...


The series of events leading to the collapse of dynastic power and the rise of Cao Cao are extremely complex. The death of Emperor Ling in May 189 led to an unstable regency under General-in-chief He Jin and renewed rivalry between the factions of the eunuchs and regular civil bureaucracy. Following the assassination of He Jin, his chief ally the Colonel-Lieutenant of Retainers Yuan Shao led a massacre of the eunuchs in the imperial palaces in Luoyang. This event prompted the invitation of frontier general Dong Zhuo to enter Luoyang from the northwest boundary of China. At the time China faced the powerful barbarians of Qiang tribe to the northwest, and thus Dong Zhuo controlled a large army with elite training. When he brought the army to Luoyang, he was able to easily overpower the existing armies of both sides and took control of the imperial court, ushering in a period of civil war across China. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... A eunuch is a castrated human male. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: Dǒng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ...


Dong Zhuo then manipulated the succession so that the future Emperor Xian could take the throne in lieu of his elder half-brother. Dong Zhuo, while ambitious, genuinely wished for a more capable emperor. On his way to Luoyang, he encountered a small team of soldiers protecting the two sons of Emperor Ling fleeing the war zone. In the encounter, Dong Zhuo acted arrogantly and threatening, causing the elder half-brother to be paralyzed with fear; the younger brother, future Emperor Xian, responded calmly with authority and commanded Dong Zhuo to protect the royal family with his army to return to the Imperial Court. Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


While Dong Zhuo originally wanted to re-establish the authority of Han Empire and manage all the political conflict properly, his political capability proved to be much worse than his military leadership. His behaviour grew more and more violent and authoritarian, executing or sending into exile all that opposed him, and showed less and less respect to the Emperor. He ignored all royal etiquette and openly carried weapons into the imperial court frequently. In 190 a coalition led by Yuan Shao was formed between nearly all the provincial authorities in the eastern provinces of the empire against Dong Zhuo. The mounting pressure from repeated defeat on the southern frontline against the Sun Jian forces drove the Han Emperor and later Dong Zhuo himself west to Chang'an in May 191. Combatants Anti-Dong Zhuo Coalition Dong Zhuo Commanders Yuan Shao Dong Zhuo The Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰) in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuos influence in the ailing Han court in China. ... Sūn Jiān (155 – 191) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Changan ▶(?) (Simplified Chinese: 长安; Traditional Chinese: 長安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-an) is the ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China. ...


Dong Zhuo once again demonstrated his political shortcomings by forcing millions of residents of Luoyang to migrate to Chang'an. He then set fire to Luoyang, preventing occupation by his enemies and destroying the biggest city in China at that time. In addition, he ordered his army to slaughter a whole village of civilians. The soldiers beheaded civilians and carried their heads into Chang'an to show off as war trophies, pretending to have had a great victory against his enemies. A year later Dong Zhuo was killed in a coup d'etat by Wang Yun and Lü Bu (who was Dong Zhuo's godson). A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Wang Yun was the father of Diao Chan, and is most famous for creating the great rift that led to the death of Dong Zhuo at the hands of Lu Bu. ... LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


The rise of Cao Cao

In 191, there was some talk among the coalition of appointing Liu Yu, an imperial relative, as emperor, and gradually its members began to fall out. Most of the warlords in the coalition, with a few exceptions, sought the increase of personal military power in the time of instability instead of seriously wishing to restore Han Dynasty's authority. The Han empire was divided between a number of regional warlords. Yuan Shao occupied the northern area of Ye and extended his power, by taking over his superior Han Fu with trickery and intimidation, north of the Yellow River against Gongsun Zan, who held the northern frontier. Cao Cao, directly to Yuan's south, was engaged in a struggle against Yuan Shu and Liu Biao, who occupied respectively the Huai River basin and Middle Yangzi regions. Further south the young warlord Sun Ce, taking over after the untimely death of Sun Jian, was establishing his rule in the Lower Yangzi, albeit as a subordinate of Yuan Shu. In the west, Liu Zhang held Yizhou province whilst Hanzhong and the northwest was controlled by a motley collection of smaller warlords such as Ma Teng of Xiliang, the original post of Dong Zhuo. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Ye was a city in ancient China. ... Han Fu (韓馥) was a bureaucrat during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... The Yellow River or Golden River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin:  ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 5464 km long [1]. Originating in the Bayankala... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... Yuan Shu (袁术; style name Gonglu 公路) (?? - 199) was a major warlord of the Later Han Dynasty who rose to prominence following the collapse of the Han court in 189. ... Liú BiÇŽo (劉表 142 – 208) was the governor of the Jing province in China towards the end of the Han Dynasty. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng... SÅ«n Cè (175 – 200) was a military general and warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... SÅ«n Jiān (155 – 191) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... This article is about the late Eastern Han warlord. ... Hanzhong (Simplified Chinese: 汉中; Traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Dong Zhuo, confident in his success, was slain by his own adopted son, Lü Bu. Lü Bu, in turn, was attacked by Dong Zhuo's supporters, Li Jue and Guo Si. He fled to Zhang Yang, a northern warlord, and remained with him for a time before briefly joining Yuan Shao, but it was clear that Lü Bu was far too independent to serve another. LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Li Jue (simplified Chinese: 李傕) (died 197) took command of Dong Zhuos empire after the latter was assassinated by Lü Bu, and with the help of Guo Si, Zhang Ji and Fan Chou he managed to take over Chang An, and secure power within the Imperial Court. ... Guō Sì (Simplified Chinese: 郭汜; Traditional Chinese: 郭汜) (146 – 197) was formerly a general under Niu Fu, who served under Dong Zhuo. ...


In August 195, Emperor Xian fled the tyranny of Li Jue at Chang'an and made a year-long hazardous journey east in search of supporters. By 196, when he was received by Cao Cao, most of the smaller contenders for power had either been absorbed by larger ones or destroyed. This is an extremely important move for Cao Cao with the suggestion from his primary advisor, Xun Yu, commenting that by supporting the authentic Emperor, Cao Cao would have the formal legal authority to control the other warlords and force them to comply in order to restore the Han dynasty. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... Xun Yu (荀彧) was one of Cao Caos greatest advisors during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


Cao Cao, whose zone of control was the precursor to the Kingdom of Wei, had raised an army in the winter of 189. In several strategic movements and battles, he controlled the Dui province and defeated several fractions of the Yellow Turban rebels and earned him the aid of other local militaries controlled by Zhang Miao and Chen Gong, who joined his cause to create his first sizable army. He continued the effort and absorbed approximately 300,000 Yellow Turbans into his army as well as a number of clan-based military groups particular to the eastern side of Qing province. In 196 he established an imperial court at Xuchang and developed military agricultural colonies (tuntian) to support his army. Although the system imposed a heavy tax in terms of the produces (40% to 60%) for hired civilian farmers, all the farmers were more than pleased to be able to work with relative stability and professional military protection in a time of chaos. This was later said to be his second important policy to success. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tuntian or Duntian system (屯田制) was a system of government-encouraged agriculture in Imperial China, the most famous example of which was practiced by the warlord Cao Cao during the Three Kingdoms Period. ...


In 194, Cao Cao went to war with Tao Qian of Xuzhou. Tao Qian received the support of Liu Bei and Gongsun Zan, but even then, it seemed as if Cao Cao's superior forces would overrun Xuzhou entirely. However, Cao Cao received word that Lü Bu had seized Yan province in Cao Cao's absence, and thus, he retreated, putting a halt to hostilities with Tao Qian for the time being. Tao Qian died that same year, leaving his province to Liu Bei. A year later, in 195, Cao Cao managed to drive Lü Bu out of Yan. Lü Bu fled to Xuzhou and was received by Liu Bei, and an uneasy alliance began between the two. Tao Qian (132 - 194) was governor of Xuzhou (徐州) province during the late Eastern Han Dynasty of China. ... Xuzhou (Chinese: 徐州; Hanyu Pinyin: ), known as Pengcheng (Chinese: 彭城; Hanyu Pinyin: ) in ancient times, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu. ... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ... LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ...


In the south, Sun Ce, then an independent general under the service of Yuan Shu, defeated the warlords of Yangzhou, including Liu Yao, Wang Lang, and Yan Baihu. The speed with which Sun Ce accomplished his conquests led to his nickname, "Little Overlord" (小霸王), a reference to the late Xiang Yu. In 197, Yuan Shu, who was at odds with Cao Cao, Yuan Shao, and Liu Bei, felt assured of victory with his subordinate's conquests, and thus declared himself emperor of the Cheng Dynasty. The move, however, was a tactical blunder, as it drew the ire of many warlords across the land, including Yuan Shu's own subordinate Sun Ce, who had advised Yuan Shu not to make such a move. Cao Cao issued orders to Sun Ce to attack Yuan Shu. Sun Ce complied, but first convinced Cao Cao to form a coalition against Yuan Shu, of which Liu Bei and Lü Bu were members. Attacked on all sides, Yuan Shu was defeated and fled into hiding. SÅ«n Cè (175 – 200) was a military general and warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... Wang Lang (? - 228?) was a politician during the end of the Han Dynasty and then into the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Yan Baihu was a bandit of the Wu territory. ... Xiang Yu (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsiang Yü; 232 BC - 202 BC) was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. ...


Afterwards, Lü Bu betrayed Liu Bei and seized Xuzhou, forming an alliance with Yuan Shu's remnant forces. Liu Bei fled to Cao Cao, who accepted him. Soon, preparations were made for an attack on Lü Bu, and the combined forces of Cao Cao and Liu Bei besieged Xia Pi. Lü Bu's officers deserted him, Yuan Shu's forces never arrived as reinforcements, and he was bound by his own soldiers and executed along with many of his officers. Thus, the man known as the mightiest warrior in the land was no more.


In 200, Dong Cheng, an officer of the Imperial Court, received a secret edict from the Emperor to assassinate Cao Cao. He collaborated with Liu Bei on this effort, but Cao Cao soon found out about the plot and had Dong Cheng and his co-conspirators executed, with only Liu Bei surviving and fleeing to the Yuan Shao in the north. Dong Cheng, was given the task to assasinate Cao Cao by the Emperor. ...


After settling the nearby provinces, including a rebellion led by former Yellow Turbans, and internal affairs with the court, Cao Cao turned his attention north to Yuan Shao, who himself had eliminated his northern rival Gongsun Zan that same year. Yuan Shao, himself of higher nobility than Cao Cao, amassed a large army and camped along the northern bank of the Yellow river.


In 200, after winning a decisive battle against Liu Biao at Shaxian and putting down the rebellions of Xu Gong and others, Sun Ce was struck by an arrow and fatally wounded. On his deathbed, he named his younger brother, Sun Quan, as his heir. Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: Sūn Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ...


Following months of planning, Cao Cao and Yuan Shao met in force at Guandu. Overcoming Yuan's superior numbers, (actual numbers vary in different sources, but Yuan Shao having absolute superior number manyfolds is universally accepted) Cao Cao decisively defeated him by setting fire to his supplies, and in doing so crippled the northern army. Liu Bei fled to Liu Biao of Jing province, and many of Yuan Shao's forces were destroyed. In 202, Cao Cao took advantage of Yuan Shao's death and the resulting division among his sons to advance north of the Yellow River. He captured Ye in 204 and occupied the provinces of Ji, Bing, Qing and You. By the end of 207, after a lightning campaign against the Wuhuan barbarians, Cao Cao had achieved undisputed dominance of the North China Plain. The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... Ye was a city in ancient China. ... The Wuhuan (traditional Chinese: 烏桓; simplified Chinese: 乌桓; pinyin: Wūhuán) were a nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... The North China Plain (Chinese: 华北平原; Pinyin: Huáběi Píngyuán), also called the Central Plain (Chinese: 中原; Pinyin: Zhōngyuán), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ...


Red Cliffs and its aftermath

Traditional site of Red Cliffs.
Traditional site of Red Cliffs.

In 208, Cao Cao marched south with his army hoping to quickly unify the empire. Liu Biao's son Liu Cong surrendered the province of Jing and Cao was able to capture a sizeable fleet at Jiangling. Sun Quan, the successor to Sun Ce in the Lower Yangzi, continued to resist however. His advisor Lu Su secured an alliance with Liu Bei, himself a recent refugee from the north, and Sun Ce's sworn brother Zhou Yu was placed in command of Sun Quan's navy, along with a veteran officer of the Sun family, Cheng Pu. Their combined armies of 50,000 met Cao Cao's fleet and 200,000-strong force at Red Cliffs (also known as Chi Bi) that winter. After an initial skirmish, an attack beginning with a plan to set fire to Cao Cao's fleet was set in motion to lead to a decisive defeat on Cao Cao, forcing him to retreat in disarray back to the north. The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, and provided the basis for the states of Shu and Wu. Photo of the traditional site of Chibi, north of Wulin, taken in 2003. ... Photo of the traditional site of Chibi, north of Wulin, taken in 2003. ... For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... Liú Biǎo (劉表 142 – 208) was the governor of the Jing province in China towards the end of the Han Dynasty. ... Liu Cong (劉聰) (d. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: Sūn Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... Sūn Cè (175 – 200) was a military general and warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Lu Su (鲁肃) was an advisor for the kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China, having taken over the position from Zhou Yu. ... Zhou Yu (175 - 210) was a famous militarist and strategist of Eastern Wu of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Cheng Pu was a veteran warrior skilled at using the serpent spear who served the Sun family for three generations. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: Sūn Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ...


After his return to the north, Cao Cao contented himself with absorbing the northwestern regions in 211 and consolidating his power. He progressively increased his titles and power, eventually becoming the Prince of Wei in 217, a title bestowed upon him by the puppet Han emperor that he controlled. Liu Bei, having defeated the weak Jing warlords Han Xuan, Jin Xuan, Zhao Fan, and Liu Du, entered Yi province and later in 214 displaced Liu Zhang as ruler, leaving his commander Guan Yu in charge of Jing province. Sun Quan, who had in the intervening years being engaged with defenses against Cao Cao in the southeast at Hefei, now turned his attention to Jing province and the Middle Yangzi. Tensions between the allies were increasingly visible. In 219, after Liu Bei successfully seized Hanzhong from Cao Cao and as Guan Yu was engaged in the siege of Fan, Sun Quan's commander-in-chief Lü Meng secretly seized Jing province, and his forces captured and slew Guan Yu. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Liu. ... Han Xuan (151-210) was governor of Changsha during the Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in China. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Zhao Fan a minister the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms Period of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... Hefei (Chinese: 合肥; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hofei) is a prefecture-level city and the provincial capital of Anhui province, China. ... For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a Chinese military general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Lü Meng (å‘‚è’™ 178 - 219) was a great general of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ...


Three emperors

In the first month of 220, Cao Cao died and in the tenth month his son Cao Pi forced Emperor Xian to abdicate, thus ending the Han Dynasty. He named his state Wei and made himself emperor at Luoyang. In 221, Liu Bei named himself Emperor of Han, in a bid to restore the fallen Han dynasty. (His state is known to history as "Shu" or "Shu-Han".) In the same year, Wei bestowed on Sun Quan the title of King of Wu. A year later, Shu-Han troops declared war on Wu and met the Wu armies at the Battle of Yiling. At Yiling, Liu Bei was disastrously defeated by Sun Quan's commander Lu Xun and forced to retreat back to Shu, where he died soon afterward. After the death of Liu Bei, Shu and Wu resumed friendly relations at the expense of Wei, thus stabilizing the tripartite configuration. In 222, Sun Quan renounced his recognition of Cao Pi's regime and, in 229, he declared himself emperor at Wuchang. For other uses, see Cao Cao (disambiguation). ... Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187 - 226), born in Qiao County, Pei presently Bozhou city in An Hui Province. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: Sūn Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... At the Battle of Yiling in 222, Liu Bei enraged at the execution of his sworn brother Guan Yu at the hands of the Kingdom of Wu, lead an attack force to the plains of Yi Ling. ... Lu Xun (Traditional Chinese: 陸遜; Simplified Chinese: 陆逊; Pinyin: Lù Xùn) (183 – 245), originally named Lu Yi (陸議/陆議), was a general of the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187 - 226), born in Qiao County, Pei presently Bozhou city in An Hui Province. ...


Dominion of the north completely belonged to Wei, whilst Shu occupied the southwest and Wu the central south and east. The external borders of the states were generally limited to the extent of Chinese civilization. For example, the political control of Shu on its southern frontier was limited by the Tai tribes of modern Yunnan and Burma, known collectively as the Southern Barbarians (南蠻). Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


Population

The population could be derived from the official record of Chen Shou's Sanguo Zhi. In terms of manpower, the Wei was by far the largest, retaining more than 660,000 households and 4,400,000 people within its borders. Shu had a population of 940,000, and Wu 2,300,000. Thus, Wei had more than 58% of the population and around 40% of territory. With these resources, it is estimated that it could raise an army of 440,000 whilst Shu and Wu could manage 100,000 and 230,000. The Wu-Shu alliance against the Wei proved itself to be a militarily stable configuration; the basic borders of the Three Kingdoms remained almost unchanging for more than forty years. The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三国志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms, was the official and authoritative historical text on the Three Kingdoms Period compiled by Chen Shou during the Jin Dynasty (265-420). ...


Trade and transport

In economic terms the division of the Three Kingdoms reflected a reality that long endured. Even in the Northern Song, seven hundred years after the Three Kingdoms, it was possible to think of China as being composed of three great regional markets. (The status of the northwest was slightly ambivalent, as it had links with the northern region and Sichuan). These geographical divisions are underscored by the fact that the main communication routes between the three main regions were all man-made: the Grand Canal linking north and south, the hauling-way through the Three Gorges of the Yangzi linking southern China with Sichuan and the gallery roads joining Sichuan with the northwest. The break into three separate entities was quite natural and even anticipated by such political foresight as Zhuge Liang (see Longzhong Plan 隆中對). Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... The Three Gorges (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: [ ]) region is a scenic area along the Yangtze River in the Peoples Republic of China with a total length of approximately 200 km. ... A gallery road. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... A memorial arch in Longzhong, where Zhuge Liang lived in 207. ...


Consolidation

See also: Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign

In 223 Liu Shan rose to the throne of Shu following his father's defeat and death. The defeat of Liu Bei at Yiling ended the period of hostility between Wu and Shu and both used the opportunity to concentrate on internal problems and the external enemy of Wei. For Sun Quan, the victory terminated his fears of Shu expansion into Jing province and he turned to the aborigines of the southeast, whom the Chinese collectively called the "Shanyue" peoples (see Yue). A collection of successes against the rebellious tribesmen culminated in the victory of 234. In that year Zhuge Ke ended a three year siege of Danyang with the surrender of 100,000 Shanyue. Of these, 40,000 were drafted as auxiliaries into the Wu army. Meanwhile Shu was also experiencing troubles with the indigenous tribes of their south. The South-western Nanman peoples rose in revolt against Han authority, captured and looted the city of Yizhou. Zhuge Liang, recognising the importance of stability in the south, ordered the advance of the Shu armies in three columns against the Nanman. He fought a number of engagements against the chieftain Meng Huo, at the end of which Meng submitted. A tribesman was allowed to reside at the Shu capital Chengdu as an official and the Nanman formed their own battalions within the Shu army. Combatants Shu Han Shu rebels Nanman Commanders Zhuge Liang Yong Kai Zhu Bao Gao Ding Meng Huo Zhuge Liangs Southern Campaign (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Battle of Nanzhong (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), refers to the military campaign led by the Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han against the southern rebels... Liu Chan (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Yue (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüeh4; also seen as Yueh, Yuet, Việt) refers to ancient semi-Sinicized or non-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meng Huo (孟獲), the Great King of Nan Zhong. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of the Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ...


Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions

Main article: Northern Expeditions

At the end of Zhuge Liang's southern campaign, the Wu-Shu alliance came to fruition and Shu was free to move against north. In 227 Zhuge Liang transferred his main Shu armies to Hanzhong, and opened up the battle for the northwest with Wei. (See Northern Expeditions) The next year, he ordered the general Zhao Yun to attack from Ji Gorge as a diversion whilst Zhuge himself led the main force to Qishan. The vanguard Ma Su, however, suffered a tactical defeat at Jieting and the Shu army was forced to withdraw. In the next six years Zhuge Liang attempted several more offensives, but supply problems limited the capacity for success. In 234 he led his last great northern offensive, reaching the Battle of Wuzhang Plains south of the Wei River. Due to the death of Zhuge Liang (234 AD), however, the Shu army was forced once again to withdraw, but were pursued by Wei. The Shu forces began to withdraw, though Sima Yi sensed the Zhuge's passing and ordered an attack. Shu struck back almost immediately, causing Sima Yi to believe it was a trick, thus allowing Shu to withdraw succesfully. The Northern Expeditions (北伐) were a series of five military campaigns launched by the state of Shu against the northern state of Wei from A.D. 228 to 234. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Hanzhong (Simplified Chinese: 汉中; Traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ... The Northern Expeditions (北伐) were a series of five military campaigns launched by the state of Shu against the northern state of Wei from A.D. 228 to 234. ... Zhao Yun (168-229) was an important commander of the civil wars of the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Ma Su (190 – 228) was a military strategist under the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... The Battle of Jieting was a battle fought during the First Northern Expedition led by Zhuge Liang. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Combatants Shu Han Cao Wei Commanders Zhuge Liang† Yang Yi, Fei Yi Sima Yi Strength 100,000 200,000 The Battle of Wuzhang Plains (五丈原之戰) is a famous standoff between the kingdoms of Wei and Shu in 234 A.D. during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... The Wei River (渭河, pinyin: Wei He; Wade-Giles: Wei Ho) is a river in central China. ...


Zhuge Liang had five attempts in the north, only one of which succeeded (Tianshui) where he gained Jiang Wei after a successful defection plot. Zhuge Liang other attempts included Chencang, Mt. Qi, Jieting (supply campaign) and the Wuzhang Plains. There were also some other minor attempts to the north but they were considered as minor battles that had no major outcomes. After the death of Zhuge Liang his assistant Jiang Wan took over. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Jiang Wei (姜維, 202-264), or Jiang Boyue, was amongst some of the greatest generals (chiangchun, or jiangjun) during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Jiang Wan (? - 246 AD) was an officer of the Shu Kingdom. ...


Wu and development of the south

In the times of Zhuge Liang's great northern offensives, the state of Wu had always been on the defensive against invasions from the north. The area around Hefei was under constant pressure from Wei after the Battle of Red Cliffs and the scene of many bitter battles. Warfare had grown so intense that many of the residents chose to migrate and resettle south of the Yangzi. After Zhuge Liang death, attacks on the Huainan region intensified but nonetheless, Wei could not break through the line of the river defenses erected by Wu, which included the Ruxu fortress. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Length 6,380 km Elevation of the source  ? m Average discharge 31,900 m³/s Area watershed 1,800,000 km² Origin Qinghai Province and Tibet Mouth East China Sea Basin countries China The Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: 长江; Traditional Chinese: 長江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ...


Sun Quan's long reign is regarded as a time of plenty for his southern state. Migrations from the north and the settlement of the Shanyue increased manpower for agriculture, especially along the lower reaches of the Yangzi and in Kuaiji commandery. River transport blossomed, with the construction of the Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. Trade with Shu flourished, with a huge influx of Shu cotton and the development of celadon and metal industries. Ocean transport was improved to such an extent that sea journeys were made to Manchuria and the island of Taiwan. In the south, Wu merchants reached Linyi (southern Vietnam) and Fu'nan (Cambodia). As the economy prospered, so too did the arts and culture. In the Yangzi delta, the first Buddhist influences reached the south from Luoyang. (See Buddhism in China) Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: Sūn Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Shakyamuni Buddha teaching. ...


Decline and end of the Three Kingdoms

From the late 230s tensions began to become visible between the imperial Cao clan and the Sima clan. Following the death of Cao Zhen, factionalism was evident between Cao Shuang and the Grand Commander Sima Yi. In deliberations, Cao Shuang placed his own supporters in important posts and excluded Sima, whom he regarded as a threat. The power of the Sima clan, one of the great landowning families of the Han, was bolstered by Sima Yi's military victories. Additionally, Sima Yi was an extremely capable strategist and politician. In 238 he crushed the rebellion of Gongsun Yuan and brought the Liaodong region directly under central control. Ultimately, he outmaneuvered Cao Shuang in power play. Taking advantage of an excursion by the imperial clansmen to the Gaoping tombs, Sima undertook a putsch in Luoyang, forcing Cao Shuang's faction from authority. Many protested to the overwhelming power of the Sima family; notable of which were the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. One of the sages, Xi Kang, was executed as part of the purges after Cao Shuang's downfall. ... Cao Shuang (曹爽) is the son of Cao Zhen. ... Sima Yi (179 - 251) was a general, military strategist, and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Sima Yi (179 - 251) was a general, military strategist, and politician of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Gongsun Yuan (公孫淵 gong1 sun1 yuan1; ?-238) was a Chinese warlord in Liaodong and northwestern Korea. ... Cao Shuang (曹爽) is the son of Cao Zhen. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove were a group of Chinese Taoist scholars and writers who came together in the 3rd century CE. The group wished to escape the intrigues, corruption and stifling atmosphere of court life during the politically fraught Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ...


Fall of Shu

The decreasing strength of the Cao clan was mirrored by the decline of Shu. Zhuge Liang gained large amounts of Wei's land. After Zhuge Liang's death, his position as Lieutenant Chancellor fell to Jiang Wan, Fei Yi and Dong Yun, in that order. But after 258, Shu politics became increasingly controlled by the eunuch faction and corruption rose. Despite the energetic efforts of Jiang Wei, Zhuge's protégé, Shu was unable to secure any decisive victory against Wei. In 263, Wei launched a three-pronged attack and the Shu army was forced into general retreat from Hanzhong. Jiang Wei hurriedly held a position at Jiange but he was outflanked by the Wei commander Deng Ai, who force-marched his army from Yinping through territory formerly considered impassable. By the winter of the year, the capital Chengdu had fallen due to the strategic invasion of Wei by Deng Ai, invading Chengdu personally; the emperor Liu Shan had surrendered. The state of Shu had come to an end after forty-three years. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms era, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ... Jiang Wan (? - 246 AD) was an officer of the Shu Kingdom. ... Fei Yi (費禕) (d. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Jiang Wei (姜維, 202-264), or Jiang Boyue, was amongst some of the greatest generals (chiangchun, or jiangjun) during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Deng Ai (鄧艾) was a talented young officer of the Kingdom of Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Liu Chan (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ...


Fall of Wei

Cao Huan succeeded to the throne in 260 after Cao Mao was killed by Sima Zhao. Soon after, Sima Zhao died and his title as Lord of Jin was inherited by his son Sima Yan. Sima Yan immediately began plotting to become Emperor but faced stiff opposition. However, due to advice from his advisors, Cao Huan decided the best course of action would be to abdicate, unlike his predecessor Cao Mao. Sima Yan seized the throne in 264 after forcing Cao Huan's abdication, effectively overthrowing the Wei Dynasty and establishing the successor Jin Dynasty. This situation was similar to the deposal of Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty by Cao Pi, the founder of the Wei Dynasty. Cao Huan, ch. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... Sima Zhao (司馬昭) (211-264) was the son of Prime Minister Sima Yi of the Kingdom of Wei, during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese) and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese)/monarchical titles. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Cáo PÄ« (曹丕, 187 - 226), born in Qiao County, Pei presently Bozhou city in An Hui Province. ...


Fall of Wu

Following Sun Quan's death and the ascension of the young Sun Liang as emperor in 252, the kingdom of Wu went into a period of steady decline. Successful Wei oppression of rebellions in the Huainan region by Sima Zhao and Sima Shi reduced any opportunity of Wu influence. The fall of Shu signalled a change in Wei politics. Sima Yan (grandson of Sima Yi), after accepting the surrender of Liu Shan, overthrew the Wei emperor and proclaimed his own dynasty of Jin in 264, ending forty-six years of Cao dominion in the north. After Jin's rise, Emperor Sun Xiu of Wu died, and his ministers left the throne to Sun Hao. Sun Hao was a promising young man, but upon ascension he became a tyrant, killing or exiling all who dared oppose him in the court. In 269 Yang Hu, Jin commander in the south, started preparing for the invasion of Wu by ordering the construction of a fleet and training of marines in Sichuan under Wang Jun. Four years later, Lu Kang, the last great general of Wu, died, leaving no competent successor. The planned Jin offensive finally came in the winter of 279. Sima Yan launched five simultaneous offensives along the Yangzi River from Jianye to Jiangling whilst the Sichuan fleet sailed downriver to Jing province. Under the strain of such an enormous attack, the Wu forces collapsed and Jianye fell in the third month of 280. Emperor Sun Hao surrendered and was given a fiefdom to live out his days on. This marked the end of the Three Kingdoms era, and the beginning of a break in the upcoming 300 years of chaos. Sun Liang (孫亮) (243-260), courtesy name Ziming (子明), was an emperor of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Huainan (Chinese: 淮南; Pinyin: Huáinán) is a prefecture-level city with 1,076,000 inhabitants in central Anhui province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Sima Zhao (司馬昭) (211-264) was the son of Prime Minister Sima Yi of the Kingdom of Wei, during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese) and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese)/monarchical titles. ... Sun Xiu(235-264), the third emperor of the Kingdom of Wu. ... Sun Hao (å­«çš“) (242-284), courtesy name Yuanzong (元宗), originally named Sun Pengzu (孫彭祖) with the courtesy name Haozong (çš“å®—), was the fourth and final emperor of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ... Lu Kang (陸抗; 226 – 274) was a son of Lu Xun and the grandson of Sun Ce. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Jiankang (建康城 in pinyin: Jiànkāng chéng), formerly known as Jianye (建業 Jiànyè) until Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 – 420), was an ancient city in China, located west of present-day Nanjing, in south Jiangning County (江寧縣 Jiāngníng Xiàn). ...

Preceded by
Han Dynasty
Three Kingdoms
220 – 280
Succeeded by
Jìn Dynasty

Later Han redirects here. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ...

See also

Three Kingdoms
Yellow TurbansDong ZhuoJieqiaoWanchengXiapiYijingGuanduBowangChangbanRed CliffsTong PassHefeiMount DingjunFanchengXiaotingSouthern CampaignNorthern Expeditions (JietingWuzhang Plains)Shiting

Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Combatants Anti-Dong Zhuo Coalition Dong Zhuo Commanders Yuan Shao Dong Zhuo The Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰) in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuos influence in the ailing Han court in China. ... The Battle of Jie Bridge (Chinese: 界橋之戰, pinyin: Jièqiáo zhi zhàn) was a military engagement fought between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan in 191, at the beginning of the civil wars in China leading up to the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Combatants Zhang Xiu Cao Cao Commanders Zhang Xiu Cao Cao The Battle of Wancheng (宛城之戰) was a historical battle fought in the later years of the Han Dynasty between the warlords Cao Cao and Zhang Xiu in 197. ... Combatants Cao Cao, Liu Bei Lü Bu Commanders Cao Cao, Liu Bei Lü Bu The Battle of Xiapi (下邳之戰) occurred in the winter of 198 between the forces of Lü Bu against the forces of Liu Bei and Cao Cao in the prelude to the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Combatants Yuan Shao Gongsun Zan Heishan bandits Commanders Yuan Shao Gongsun Zan† Zhang Yan The Battle of Yijing (易京之戰) took part shortly before the fall of the Han Empire in China, which began the era known as the Three Kingdoms. ... The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... Combatants Liu Bei Cao Cao Commanders Liu Bei Xiahou Dun The Battle of Bowang (博望之戰), more famously known as the Battle of Bowang Slope (博望坡之戰), was a battle fought near Fangcheng, Henan between the forces of Cao Cao and Liu Bei during the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Combatants Cao Cao Liu Bei Commanders Cao Cao Liu Bei Strength 5,000 elite cavalry 100,000 mostly unarmed people Casualties Unknown, minimal Unknown The Battle of Changban (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place at Changban (near the modern-day city of Dangyang in Hubei Province), China in the year 208. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Cao Cao Ma Chao Commanders Cao Cao Ma Chao Strength  ? 100,000 Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Battle of Tong Gate (潼關之戰) was a battle between Ma Chao and the warlord Cao Cao during the Three Kingdoms Era in China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Cao Wei Shu Han Commanders Xiahou Yuan† Liu Bei The Battle of Mount Dingjun (定軍山之戰) took place in year 219, during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Shu Han Shu rebels Nanman Commanders Zhuge Liang Yong Kai Zhu Bao Gao Ding Meng Huo Zhuge Liangs Southern Campaign (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Battle of Nanzhong (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), refers to the military campaign led by the Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han against the southern rebels... The Northern Expeditions (北伐) were a series of five military campaigns launched by the state of Shu against the northern state of Wei from A.D. 228 to 234. ... The Battle of Jieting was a battle fought during the First Northern Expedition led by Zhuge Liang. ... Combatants Shu Han Cao Wei Commanders Zhuge Liang† Yang Yi, Fei Yi Sima Yi Strength 100,000 200,000 The Battle of Wuzhang Plains (五丈原之戰) is a famous standoff between the kingdoms of Wei and Shu in 234 A.D. during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... The Records of Three Kingdoms (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Sanguo Chih), is the official and authoritative historical text on the period of Three Kingdoms covering from 189 to 280, that was composed by Chen Shou in the 3rd century. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), written by Luó Guànzhōng in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220... The Three Kingdoms period in China incorporated almost a century of prolonged warfare and disorder. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The End of Han Dynasty (漢朝末年 or 東漢末年, the End of Eastern Han Dynasty) refers to a period roughly coinciding with the reign of Han Dynastys final emperor Emperor Xian (r. ... Dr Rafe de Crespigny (full name: Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny; born 1936) is a retired Adjunct Professor with the China and Korea Centre, Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... The Period of Disunity, also known as the first disunion, was a long period of disunity and civil wars in China, lasting from 220 to 589. ... Six Dynasties (六朝) is a collective noun for the six Chinese dynasties, namely the Kingdom of Wu, Eastern Jin Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Qi Dynasty, Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty. ...

References

  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265. Draft annotated English translation. [1]
  • Chen Shou "Sanguo Zhi" [2]

Chen Shou (陳壽) (233-297), courtesy name Chengzuo (承祚) was the author of the Sanguo Zhi, a historical account of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Three Kingdoms Period
  • Online Three Kingdoms publications of Dr Rafe de Crespigny, Australian National University
  • Private painting collection of Mr. Loke Gim Tay (骆锦地) by artist Mr. Xie Jin Yong (薛金拥)
  • Descriptions of the Major Events of the Three Kingdoms Period
  • In-depth discussion and debates of events in the Three Kingdoms period, as well as insightful analysis that draws on a wide range of historical and factual resources
  • Three Kingdoms: A Somewhat Less Than Critical Commentary
  • Kongming's Archives
  • Sanguo Online Community

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Three Kingdoms of Korea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (908 words)
The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE.
The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668, which marked the beginning of the North and South States period (남북국시대) of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North.
In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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