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Encyclopedia > Thracians
Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC.
Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC.
Thracian Roman era "heros" (Sabazius) stele. The rider god was holding a lance and rides towards an altar with a snake wound around a tree. The flowing mantle is a permanent attribute of the Thracian rider god over several centuries.
Thracian Roman era "heros" (Sabazius) stele. The rider god was holding a lance and rides towards an altar with a snake wound around a tree. The flowing mantle is a permanent attribute of the Thracian rider god over several centuries.

The ancient Thracians were a group of ancient Indo-European tribes who spoke the Thracian language - a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. Those peoples inhabited the Eastern, Central and Southern part of the Balkan peninsula, as well as the adjacent parts of Eastern Europe. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (943x1200, 223 KB) Summary Thracian peltast 5-4th century BC. Drawing - ballpen on the white paper by Dariusz t. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (943x1200, 223 KB) Summary Thracian peltast 5-4th century BC. Drawing - ballpen on the white paper by Dariusz t. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1805x2430, 781 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thracians ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1805x2430, 781 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thracians ... Sabazios is the nomadic horseman sky and father god of the Phrygians. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Thracians inhabited the ancient provinces of: Thrace, Moesia, Dacia, Scythia Minor, Sarmatia, Bithynia, Mysia, Macedonia, Pannonia, and other regions on the Balkans and Anatolia. This area extends over most of the Balkans region, and the Getae north of the Danube as far as beyond the Bug.[1]. The Thracian ethnicity and language have been extinct. The branch of science that studies the ancient Thracians and Thrace is called Thracology. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Mysia. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ... Thracology is the scientific study of Ancient Thrace and Thracian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. ...

Contents

Origins

The prehistoric origins of the Thracians remain obscure, in absence of written historical records. Evidence of Proto-Thracians in the prehistoric period depends on remains of material culture. It is generally proposed that a Proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age.[2]. Thracian tombs can be found dating back to 3000 BCE [3], when proto-Thracian culture began to form.[4]Around 1500 BC the indigenous peoples were conquered by an Indo-European, horse-riding people. [5] In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ...


Modern historiography linguistically classifies Thracians as an Indo-European people of the Eastern (satem) subgroup, which links them to Iranians, Slavs and Balts. Similarities with the ancient Iranian peoples (Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians) are further confirmed by historical and archaeological evidence of early Thracian material culture, way of life, crafts, works of art and burial practices. The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... http://www. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ...


Others mentioned that "The region's name comes from the Thracian people who were of Indo-European stock. According to ancient sources, the Thracian peoples who settled and lived in the area of Haimos and Rhodope mountains were of warrior and primitive character whereas, another portion of the Thracian peoples that settled along the Aegean and Marmara coasts, in comparison to the former, were more peaceful and civilized. The most important of the Thracian tribes who settled along the both sides of the Danube river were" [2]


Anthropological analysis of Thracian remains, both biological and material, clearly shows that they were a Mediterranean looking people with a dark complexion common to Southern-European ethnic groups past and present.[3] [4] [5] [citation needed] Furthermore, Bulgarian scholars (Alexander Fol, Ivan Marazov, Elka Penkova) have theorised that Thracians were part of a wider "Thraco-Pelasgian" group of peoples, due to the observed parallels between the Thracian culture and the ancient Minoan, Mycenaean and Phrygian cultures.[citation needed] Alexander Fol (born in Sofia, Bulgaria on July 3, 1933, died on March 1, 2006) was a Bulgarian historian and Thracologist. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ...


First historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they appear as allies of the Trojans, hailing from Thrace. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


Classical period

By the 5th century BC, the Thracian presence was pervasive enough to have made Herodotus (book 5) call them the second-most numerous people in the part of the world known by him (after the Indians), and potentially the most powerful, if not for their disunity. The Thracians in classical times were broken up into a large number of groups and tribes, though a number of powerful Thracian states were organized, such as the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace and the Dacian kingdom of Burebista. A type of soldier of this period called the Peltast probably originated in Thrace. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ...

A Thracian coin from Panticapaeum, bearing the Macedonian symbol of the Vergina Sun inside a diadem. 2nd century BCE.
A Thracian coin from Panticapaeum, bearing the Macedonian symbol of the Vergina Sun inside a diadem. 2nd century BCE.

In that period contacts between the Thracians and Classical Greece intensified which led to strengthening Greek influences in Thracian society, culture and handcrafts. Because their language had no written tradition, in some regions the Thracian aristocracy and administration adopted Classical Greek for an official language and Thracian merchants utilised it as a 'lingua franca' in their contacts with other tribes and peoples. As a result a level of Hellenization was observed in the following centuries and it was deeper imposed by the Macedonian conquests over the Thracian territory in 3rd century BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2101x1012, 287 KB) Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE, from the city of Panciparum (or some name close). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2101x1012, 287 KB) Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE, from the city of Panciparum (or some name close). ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... Look up Diadem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Extinction of the ethnicity and language

See also Dacian language, Thracian language. The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ...


The ancient languages of these people had already gone extinct and their cultural influence was highly reduced due to the repeated barbaric invasions of the Balkans by Celts, Huns, Goths, and Sarmatians, accompanied by persistent hellenization, romanisation and later slavicisation. The ethnic contribution of the Thracian and Daco-Getic population, who had lived on the territory of modern Bulgaria and Romania has been long debated among the scientists during the 20th century. Some recent genetic studies suggest that these peoples have indeed made a significant contribution to the genes of these nations.[6] Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Slavicisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Slavic becomes Slavic. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa ( Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by the Tyras ( Dniester or Nistru... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ...

After they were subjugated by the Macedonian king Alexander the Great and consecutively by the Roman empire, most of the Thracians eventually became Hellenised (in the province of Thrace) or Romanised (in Moesia, Dacia, etc.). The Romanised tribes of Dacia later became the ethnic substratum of the Vlach people (that first appeared in historical documents in the 10th century) who evolved into modern Romanians. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 6th century some Thracian tribes south of the Danube river made contacts with the invading Slavs and were later Slavicised. Thus they became one of the main ethnic elements in the consolidation of the Bulgarian nation in 8-9th century. Linguistic evidence about this is the presence of Thracian and direct Latin loanwords in Old Bulgarian and modern Bulgarian language. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Slavicisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Slavic becomes Slavic. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Old Bulgarian may refer to: The first literary period in the development of the Bulgarian language. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...


Some scholars have proposed that present-day Albanians may be descendants of Thracian tribes who maintained their language. However this is highly controversial as the official Albanian historiography relates modern Albanians with the ancient Illyrian people. Bulgarian historians also consider it possible for the Vlach and Karakachani people of Bulgaria to be descendants respectively of Romanised and Hellenised Thracian tribes. Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... For the dog breed, see Bulgarian Shepherd Dog. ...


Archaeology

Main article: Thracian culture
A gold Thracian treasure from Panagyurishte, Bulgaria
A gold Thracian treasure from Panagyurishte, Bulgaria

The archaeological research of the Thracian culture started in the 20th century and especially after World War II, mainly on the territory of Southern Bulgaria. As a result of intensive excavation works in the 1960s and 1970s a number of Thracian tombs and sanctuaries were discovered. More significant among them are: the Tomb of Sveshtari, the Tomb of Kazanlak, Tatul, Seuthopolis, Perperikon, the Tomb of Aleksandrovo, Sarmizegetusa in Romania, etc. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3557 KB) Panagyurishte Golden Thracian treasure, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3557 KB) Panagyurishte Golden Thracian treasure, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... Panagyurishte (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2,5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, which is located 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in the northeast of Bulgaria. ... The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak is a vaulted brickwork beehive (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria. ... The stone sarcophagus of an important Thracian ruler (presumably Orpheus) in Tatul Another view Tatul (Bulgarian: ) is a village in Momchilgrad municipality, Kardzhali Province located in the Eastern Rhodopes in southern Bulgaria. ... Seuthopolis (near Kazanluk) was an ancient city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes the III. It was a small city, built on the site of an earlier settlement. ... The ruins of the ancient city of Perperikon Perperikon The tombs of the rulers The ancient Thracian city of Perperikon is located in the Eastern Rhodopes, 15 km northeast of the present-day town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria, on a 470 m high rocky hill, which is thought to have been... main chamber fresco The Aleksandrovo kurgan is a Thracian Bulgaria, dated to ca. ... Sarmisegetuza was the most important Dacian military, religious and political center. ...


Also a large number of elaborately crafted gold and silver treasure sets from the 5th and 4th century BC were unearthed. In the following decades those were exposed in museums around the world, thus gaining popularity and becoming an emblem of the ancient Thracian culture. Since the year 2000, Bulgarian archaeologist Georgi Kitov has made discoveries in Central Bulgaria which were summarized as "The Valley of the Thracian Kings". An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Georgi Kitov (b. ...


On 19 August 2005, some Bulgarian archaeologists announced they had found the first Thracian capital, which was situated near Karlovo in Bulgaria. A lot of polished ceramic artifacts (pieces of roof-tiles and Greek-like vases) were discovered revealing the fortune of the city. The Bulgarian Ministry of Culture declared its support to the excavations. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ...


In Dabene, Bulgaria, a cache of more than 15,000 gold Thracian artifacts were discovered, including thousands of rings. In August 2006 a sensational archaeological find was made near the village of Dubovo. A Thracian dagger made of an alloy of gold and platinum, sharp, and in perfect condition, was found in a tomb near the village of Dubovo. [7] In August 2006, it was announced that a dagger from the 30th century BCE was found in a Thracian tomb by archaeologists digging in Bulgaria, near the village of Dabene, Karlovo municipality, Plovdiv Province. ...


Sources

The Iliad records that the Thracians from around the Hellespont and also the Thracian Cicones fought on the side of the Trojans (Iliad, book II). The Odyssey records that Odysseus and his men raided Thrace on their way back home from war. Many mythical figures, such as the god Dionysus, princess Europa and the hero Orpheus were borrowed by the Greeks from their Thracian neighbours. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... The Cicones or Ciconians (Greek Κίκονες) were a Thracian tribe, whose stronghold in the time of Odysseus was the city of Ismara (or Ismarus), located at the foot of mount Ismara, on the south coast of Thrace. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the poem by Homer. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin A commemorative Italian euro coin depicts Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution of Europe. ... For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ...


In book 7 of his Histories, Herodotus describes the equipment of the Thracians fighting under the Persians, The Histories of Herodotus by Herodotus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ...

The Thracians went to the war wearing the skins of foxes upon their heads, and about their bodies tunics, over which was thrown a long cloak of many colours. Their legs and feet were clad in buskins made from the skins of fawns; and they had for arms javelins, with light targes, and short dirks. This people, after crossing into Asia, took the name of Bithynians; before, they had been called Strymonians, while they dwelt upon the Strymon; whence, according to their own account, they had been driven out by the Mysians and Teucrians. The commander of these Asiatic Thracians was Bassaces the son of Artabanus.

In book 5, Herodotus describes the customs of various Thracian tribes. The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... Mysia is a region in the northwest of Asia Minor. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... Artabanus the Hyrcanian is an obscure historical figure who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC - 464 BC). ...

The Thracians who live above the Crestonaeans observe the following customs. Each man among them has several wives; and no sooner does a man die than a sharp contest ensues among the wives upon the question which of them all the husband loved most tenderly; the friends of each eagerly plead on her behalf, and she to whom the honour is adjudged, after receiving the praises both of men and women, is slain over the grave by the hand of her next of kin, and then buried with her husband. The others are sorely grieved, for nothing is considered such a disgrace.
The Thracians who do not belong to these tribes have the customs which follow. They sell their children to traders. On their maidens they keep no watch, but leave them altogether free, while on the conduct of their wives they keep a most strict watch. Brides are purchased of their parents for large sums of money. Tattooing among them marks noble birth, and the want of it low birth. To be idle is accounted the most honourable thing, and to be a tiller of the ground the most dishonourable. To live by war and plunder is of all things the most glorious. These are the most remarkable of their customs.
A fresco of a red-haired noble woman in the Ostrusha Mound in central Bulgaria.
A fresco of a red-haired noble woman in the Ostrusha Mound in central Bulgaria.
The gods which they worship are but three, Mars, Bacchus, and Dian. Their kings, however, unlike the rest of the citizens, worship Mercury more than any other god, always swearing by his name, and declaring that they are themselves sprung from him.
Their wealthy ones are buried in the following fashion. The body is laid out for three days; and during this time they kill victims of all kinds, and feast upon them, after first bewailing the departed. Then they either burn the body or else bury it in the ground. Lastly, they raise a mound over the grave, and hold games of all sorts, wherein the single combat is awarded the highest prize. Such is the mode of burial among the Thracians.

The Greek historian Strabo describes the Thracians living in twenty-two tribes. [6] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixels Full resolution (952 × 800 pixel, file size: 559 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thracians Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixels Full resolution (952 × 800 pixel, file size: 559 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thracians Metadata This file contains... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Josephus claims the founder of the Thracians was the biblical character Tiras, son of Japheth: A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Tiras was, according to Genesis 10, a son of Japheth. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ...

Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. AotJ I:6.

In a well-known fragment, Xenophanes comments: Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ...

Men make gods in their own image; those of the Ethiopians are black and snub-nosed, those of the Thracians have blue eyes and red hair.

Woman with red hair Teenager with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, ranga or titian) varies from a deep red through to bright copper. ...

Famous Thracians and Dacians

  • Dionysus, the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficent influences.
  • Orpheus, in Greek legend, was the chief representative of the art of song and playing the lyre, and of great importance in the religious culture of ancient Thrace and Greece.
  • Spartacus was a Thracian enslaved by the Romans, who led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in (73 BC - 71 BC). Before being defeated, his army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the Third Servile War.

Amadocus I was a Thracian king from 410 BC until the beginning of 4th century. ... Amadok Point, also called Nos Amadok, is a point on the south coast of Livingston Island, Antarctica. ... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Bug (pronunciation Boog) is the name of two rivers in Europe: Western Bug Southern Bug See also Bug - other kinds of bugs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Dionysopolis was a town in ancient Moesia. ... Sitalkes (reigned 431 - 424 BC) was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. The area included in this kingdom ranged from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC - 71 BC - 70 BC 69 BC 68... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators...

References

  1. ^ The catalogue of Kimbell Art Museum's 1998 exhibition Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracians indicates a historical extent of Thracian settlement including most of the Ukraine, all of Hungary and parts of Slovakia [1]
  2. ^ Hoddinott (1981), p. 27.
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5251266.stm Ancient dagger found in Bulgaria, BBC News (2006)
  4. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=LTbc1GIAwcIC&pg=PA105&lpg=PA105&dq=thracians+3000+bc&source=web&ots=_s1TWE7tWW&sig=b245pzLrZT2ukkSwMHGc88zgwRw The Celtic Encyclopedia, by Harry Mountain (1998), p. 105.
  5. ^ http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-1521%28197722%292%3A35%3A1%3C2%3ATT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage The Thracians by Lionel Casson, p. 3.
  6. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/7Fragments*.html Strabo's Geography, Book VII, Fragments, paragraph 47
  • Hoddinott, Ralph F. The Thracians. Thames & Hudson (1981), ISBN 0-500-02099-X.
  • Best, Jan and De Vries, Nanny. Thracians and Mycenaeans. E.J. Brill Academic Publishers, Boston, MA. (1989), ISBN 90-04-08864-4.

The Kimbell Art Museum is situated in the Cultural District of Fort Worth, Texas. ...

See also

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Anatolian · Armenian
Baltic · Celtic · Dacian · Germanic
Greek · Indo-Iranian · Italic · Phrygian
Slavic · Thracian · Tocharian
 
Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Anatolians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans · Indo-Iranians
Iranians · Italic peoples · Slavs
Thracians · Tocharians
 
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... http://www. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages, a branch of Indo-European languages, or descended from those who did. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Thracology is the scientific study of Ancient Thrace and Thracian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. ... List of Thracian tribes: Akrokomai Agriani Apsinthi Asti Bastarni Beni Bessi Bisaltae Bistoni Bithyni Brigi Brizi Carpi Dardani Denteleti Dengeri Deroni Derzai Dii Diobesi Dolonci Drozi Edoni Eleti Eneti Getae Hipsalti Iskiten Ismari Kaeleti Kaeni Kabileti Kabiri Karbilezi Kari Kaukauni Kikoni Koilaleti Koreli Korpiali Krestoni Krobyzen Laiai Liki Maduateni Magneti... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... distribution of Thraco-Cimmerian finds Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term, composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians. ... Daco-Thracian is a hypothesis that the Dacian language and the Thracian language were close languages on the same Indo-European branch or possibly even dialects of the same language. ... Thraco-Illyrian is a hypothesis that the Thraco-Dacian and Illyrian languages comprise a distinct branch of Indo-European. ... The Thraex or Thracian wore the usual loincloth and belt, and protected the right arm with a manica. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
YouTube - My favourite Thracian Tomb & Gold treasure in Bulgaria (2004 words)
Bulgarians are steppe raiders from Volga, not thracians.
The thracians were much fewer than the Slavs but some of their traditions still remain.And there are loads of them not just the ones I mentioned.
Influenced by Bulgaria's Thracian, Ottoman and Byzantine history, their music is striking in its use of diaphonic singing and distinctive timbre, as well as its modal scales and dissonant harmonies (abundant second, seventh, and ninth intervals).
Travel to Bulgaria :: Thracian tombs tours (512 words)
Thracian rulers and members of the nobility were buried in monumental stone tombs, which also served as places for ritual ceremonies to honor the deceased ruler, with offerings of rich funeral gifts.
In the summer of 2004, archeologists have discovered a 2,500-year-old golden mask that was likely made for a Thracian monarch's funeral.
The rare artifact is made of 600 grams of solid gold and "is without paragon in archeology," according to Georgi Kitov and his team that unearthed the find near the village of Shipka, in the so-called Valley of Thracian Kings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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