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Encyclopedia > Thrace
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak 
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak 

Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия Trakiya, Greek: Θράκη Thráki, Attic Greek: Θρᾴκη Thrāíkē or Θρῄκη Thrēíkē, Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish: Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. Today the name Thrace designates a region spread over southern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey (Eastern Thrace). Thrace borders on three seas: the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In Turkey, it is also called Rumeli. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ...


The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. Ancient Thrace (i.e. the territory where ethnic Thracians lived) included present day Bulgaria, European Turkey, north-eastern Greece and parts of eastern Serbia and eastern Republic of Macedonia. Its boundaries were between the Danube River to the north and the Aegean Sea to the south, to the east - the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and on the west to the Axius. Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great, when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts 'Thracia' and took on the Persian Empire of the day. The Roman province of Thrace was somewhat smaller, having the same eastern maritime limits and being bounded on the north by the Balkan Mountains; the Roman province extended west only to the Mesta River. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... European Turkey was the term used for the European territories of the Ottoman Empire, from the Bosphorus to the eastern borders of Austria. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Mesta (Bulgarian: Места) or Nestos (Greek: Νέστος) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ...

Thraciae veteris typvs.
Thraciae veteris typvs.
Classical Thrace and environs, from Alexander G. Findlay's Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849
Classical Thrace and environs, from Alexander G. Findlay's Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4452x3424, 3678 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thrace ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4452x3424, 3678 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thrace ... Download high resolution version (2038x1677, 721 KB)Classical Balkans: from Map from rothers Publishers, New York, 1849A Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, Alexander G. Findlay, Harper and B ros. ... Download high resolution version (2038x1677, 721 KB)Classical Balkans: from Map from rothers Publishers, New York, 1849A Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, Alexander G. Findlay, Harper and B ros. ...

Ancient history

The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called, simply, the Thracians. Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...


In Greek mythology

Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a mythical ancestor, named Thrax, son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in Homer's Iliad as Trojan allies, led by Acamas and Peiros. Later in the Iliad, another Thracian king makes an appearance, named Rhesus. Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor, is also given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, and stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east. The Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus; Cicones led by Euphemus, from southern Thrace, near Ismarus; and from the city of Sestus, on the Thracian (northern) side of the Hellespont, which formed part of the contingent led by Asius. Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes, Tereus, Lycurgus, Phineus, Tegyrius, Eumolpus, Polymnestor, Poltys, and Oeagrus (father of Orpheus). In addition to the tribe that Homer calls Thracians, ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones, Bisaltes, Cicones, and Bistones. Thrax was a child of Ares by an unknown mother. ... In Greek mythology, Ares (Ancient Greek: , modern Greek Άρης [pron. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Acamas (unwearying) was the son of Phaedra and Theseus. ... Peiros or Piros (Greek: Πείρος) is a river in the central and the northwestern parts of the Achaia prefecture. ... In Greek mythology, King Rhesus of Thrace fought for Troy during the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, Cisseus was a Thracian king and father of Theano, the wife of Antenor, as related in Homers Iliad. ... Antenor was an Athenian sculptor, of the latter part of the 6th century BC. He was the creator of the joint statues of the tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up by the Athenians on the expulsion of Hippias. ... The Vardar (or Axios) is the principal river of the Macedonian region of south-eastern Europe. ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... Aenus may refer to: an ancient Greek city in Thrace. ... The Cicones (also Kikones) were a Thracian tribe, whose stronghold in the time of Odysseus was the city of Ismara (or Ismaros), located at the foot of mount Ismara, on the south coast of Thrace. ... In Greek mythology, Euphemus was the son of Europa and Poseidon. ... Ismara (or Ismaros) is an ancient Ciconian town on the Aegean coast of Thrace and supposedly was the city mentioned in the Odyssey. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula. ... Asius may refer to: Asios Hyrtakides. ... Heracles capturing the Mares of Diomedes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Itys, Philomela and Procne (Discuss) In Greek mythology, Tereus was a son of Ares and husband of Procne. ... In Ancient Greece and/or Greek mythology, the name Lycurgus/Lykurgus can refer to: An alternate name for Lycomedes. ... The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... In Greek mythology, Eumolpus was the son of Poseidon and Chione (or Hermes and Aglaulus). ... Poltys is a mythical king and eponym of the Thracian city of Poltyobria (=Poltymbria; also called Aenus), featured in Apollodoruss account of the story of the hero Heracles (Apollodorus 2. ... In Greek mythology, Oeagrus was king of Thrace. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... The Edoni (also Edones, Edonians, Edonides) were a Thracian people who dwelt mostly between the Nestus and the Strymon rivers in southern Thrace, but also once dwelt west of the Strymon at least as far as the Axios, and they inhabited the region of Mygdonia before the Macedonians drove them... The Cicones (also Kikones) were a Thracian tribe, whose stronghold in the time of Odysseus was the city of Ismara (or Ismaros), located at the foot of mount Ismara, on the south coast of Thrace. ...


In history and archaeology

See also: Thrace (satrapy)

Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not manage to form a lasting political organization until the Odrysian state was founded in the 4th century BC. According to the ancient sources, which are limited, the mountainous regions were home to various warlike and ferocious tribes, while the plains peoples were apparently more peaceable, owing to contacts and influences from the Greeks. Thrace was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. The area included in this kingdom ranged from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


These Indo-European peoples, while considered barbarian and rural by their refined and urbanized Greek neighbors, had developed advanced forms of music, poetry, industry, and artistic crafts. Aligning themselves in petty kingdoms and tribes, they never achieved any form of national unity beyond short, dynastic rules at the height of the Greek classical period. Similar to the Gauls and other Celtic tribes, most people lived simply in small fortified villages, usually on hilltops. Although the concept of an urban center wasn't developed until the Roman period, various larger fortifications which also served as regional market centers were numerous. Yet, in general, despite Greek colonization in such areas as Byzantium, Apollonia or Tomi, the Thracians avoided urban life. For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Apollonia was a Thracian city on the Black Sea (afterwards Sozopolis and Sizeboli, now Sozopol in modern Bulgaria), colonized by the Milesians, and famous for its colossal statue of Apollo by Calamis, which Lucullus removed to Rome. ... Tomis (also called Tomi) was a Greek colony in the province of Scythia on the Black Seas shore, founded around 500 BC for commercial exchanges with local Dacian populations. ...

Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE.Obv: Head of a horse, and initials of the minting city ("Pan" for Panticapaeum).Rev: Vergina Sun withtin diadem (a symbol also employed by the Hebrew king Alexander Jannaeus, also under Hellenistic influence).
Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE.
Obv: Head of a horse, and initials of the minting city ("Pan" for Panticapaeum).
Rev: Vergina Sun withtin diadem (a symbol also employed by the Hebrew king Alexander Jannaeus, also under Hellenistic influence).

The Thracians fell early under the cultural influence of the ancient Greeks, preserving until a much later time, however, their language and culture. It also appears from mythological accounts that the Thracians influenced Greek culture from a very early period, with some Thracians, such as Orpheus, even appearing as culture-bearers in some myths. But as non-Greek speakers, they were viewed by the Greeks as barbarians. The first Greek colonies in Thrace were founded in the 6th century BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2101x1012, 287 KB) Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE, from the city of Panciparum (or some name close). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2101x1012, 287 KB) Thracian coin, 2nd century BCE, from the city of Panciparum (or some name close). ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... Look up Diadem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coin of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC). ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...


Throughout the 6th century BC, Thracian infantry was heavily recruited by Greek states and large deposits of gold and silver were mined.


Thrace south of the Danube (except for the land of the Bessi) was ruled for nearly half a century by the Persians under Darius the Great, who conducted an expedition into the region from 513 BC to 512 BC. The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the...


Before the expansion of the kingdom of Macedon, Thrace was divided into three camps (East, Central, and West) after the withdrawal of the Persians. A notable ruler of the East Thracians was the overking Cersobleptes, who attempted to expand his power over many of the Thracian tribes. He was eventually defeated by the Macedonians. Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek Makedonía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace... Cersobleptes (in Greek Kερσoβλεπτης) was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in 358 BC he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus, who were probably his brothers. ...


The region was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC and was ruled by the kingdom of Macedon for a century and a half. During the Macedonian Wars, conflict between Rome and Thracia was inevitable. The destruction of the ruling parties in Macedonia destabilized their authority over Thrace, and its tribal authorities began to act once more on their own accord. After the battle of Pydna in 168 BC, Roman authority over Macedonia seemed inevitable, and the governing of Thracia passed to Rome. Neither the Thracians nor the Macedonians had yet resolved themselves to Roman dominion, and several revolts took place during this period of transition. The revolt of Andriscus in 149 BC, as an example, drew the bulk of its support from Thracia. Several incursions by local tribes into Macedonia continued for many years, though there were tribes who willingly allied themselves to Rome, such as the Deneletae and the Bessi. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek Makedonía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace... The Macedonian Wars were a series of four wars between ancient Rome, its allies, and Macedon. ... Andriscus, (also spelt Andriskos) often called the pseudo-Philip, a fuller of Adramyttium, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, last king of Macedonia. ... The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace. ...


The next century and a half saw the slow development of Thracia into a permanent Roman client state. The Sapaei tribe came to the forefront initially under the rule of Rhascuporis. He was known to have granted assistance to both Pompey and Caesar, and later supported the Republican armies against Antonius and Octavian in the final days of the Republic. The familiar heirs of Rhascuporis were then as deeply tied into political scandal and murder as were their Roman masters. A series of royal assassinations altered the ruling landscape for several years in the early Roman imperial period. Various factions took control, with the support of the Roman Emperor. The turmoil would eventually stop with one final assassination. Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men of World history. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Antonius (fem. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ...


In 279 BC, Celtic Gauls advanced into Macedonia, Southern Greece and Thrace. They were soon forced out of Macedonia and Southern Greece, but they remained in Thrace until the end of the century. From Thrace, three Celtic tribes advanced into Anatolia and formed a new kingdom called Galatia. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC - 279 BC - 278 BC 277 BC 276... This article is about the European people. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Tylis was short-lived city-state founded by the Celts lead by Comontorios in what is now Eastern Bulgaria in the 3rd century BC, after their invasion of 280 BC. The part of the Celts that did not settle in Tylis, crossed into Asia Minor to become known as the... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Following the Third Macedonian War, Thracia came to acknowledge Roman authority. The client state of Thracia comprised several different tribes.[1] The Third Macedonian War (171 BC - 168 BC) was a war fought between Rome and King Perseus of Macedon. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two...


After Roimitalkes III of the Thracian Kingdom of Sapes was murdered in 46 by his wife, Thracia was incorporated as an official Roman province to be governed by Procurators, and later Praetorian Prefects. The central governing authority of Rome was based in Perinthus, but regions within the province were uniquely under the command of military subordinates to the governor. The lack of large urban centers made Thracia a difficult place to manage, but eventually the province flourished under Roman rule. However, Romanization was not attempted in the province of Thracia. It is considered that most of the Thracians were Hellenized in these times. Sapes is the second largest city in the Rhodope prefecture of Greece. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ... The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Perinthus (Turkish Eski Eregli, old Heraclea) was an ancient town of Thrace, on the Propontis, 22 miles west of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ...


Roman authority of Thracia rested mainly with the legions stationed in Moesia. The rural nature of Thracia's populations, and distance from Roman authority, certainly inspired the presence of local troops to support Moesia's legions. Over the next few centuries, the province was periodically and increasingly attacked by migrating Germanic tribes. The reign of Justinian saw the construction of over 100 legionary fortresses to supplement the defense. Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of...


Culture

Coat of Arms of Roman (Byzantine) Thrace (Stemmatographia from 1741)
Coat of Arms of Roman (Byzantine) Thrace (Stemmatographia from 1741)
Coat of arms of Ottoman Thrace (Stemmatographia from 1741)
Coat of arms of Ottoman Thrace (Stemmatographia from 1741)

Owing to their martial reputation, the Thracian tribesmen were much used as mercenaries by the Greek kings of Syria, Pergamum, Bithynia, and other regions. Thracian mercenaries were always in demand, as they were fierce fighters, especially in rocky or hilly regions similar to their homeland. They were however considered a bit expensive at times, and liable to switch sides. The principal Thracian weapons in the fifth and fourth centuries were the spear and the knife. Much earlier Thracian infantry had been armed with axes, while their leaders rode chariots. Thracian light infantry could be armed with javelins, slings, or bows, with javelins predominating. Thracian warriors, particularly the hillmen, were especially famous for an unusual weapon which combined elements of sword, sickle and polearm, which was called the Rhomphaia, and was carried increasingly by Thracian infantry in the centuries following Alexander the Great's death until it became a trademark of the mercenary Thracian peltast. Even the Romans dreaded this fearsome weapon. Cavalry armament for all Thracians except the Getae consisted of 2 cornel wood javelins that could be thrust with or thrown. They also carried the typical Kopis. The Getae often used bows instead of javelins, and the akinakes instead of the kopis. Thracian tribes also used more exotic weapons such as spiked axles, or carts rolled down steep hills. Thracians were known for their hit and run tactics consisting of random melee attacks followed by quick retreats. The backbone of the Thracian military were the Thracian Peltast, a type of light infantry that was equally at home fighting hand-to-hand and at a distance (throwing javelins). Peltasts were unarmored except for their curved shields. They carried some form of short sword or melee weapon and an assortment of javelins. The wealthy nobility wore helmets with pointed tops in order to accommodate their top-knot hairstyles. Image File history File links Thrace. ... Image File history File links Thrace. ... Dedication of Stemmatographia from Pavel Nenadović to Hristofor Zhefarovich Hristofor Zhefarovich (original Cyrillic Христофоръ Жефаровичъ; Bulgarian: Христофор Жеварович; Macedonian: Христофор Жефаровиќ; Serbian: Христофор Жефаровић and Hristofor Žefarović) was an 18th-century South Slavic painter, engraver, writer and poet and a figure of the Illyrian movement. ... Image File history File links Thraceottoman. ... Image File history File links Thraceottoman. ... A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... A knife is a sharp-edged (single or double edged) instrument consisting of a thin blade used for cutting and fitted with a handle. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000–500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... The word sling may refer to one of the following: A sling (weapon) is a device used to hurl projectiles A sling is one of any sort of mixed alcoholic drink, also known as a cocktail. ... This image depicts a typical bow, as made by the Huns, lying against a tree. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ...


The Thracian calendar was similar to that of the Egyptians. Each year had twelve months, totaling 360 days, and 5 days were added to the last month; there were three seasons. The Thracians celebrated 60 main holidays. [2]


Medieval history

By the mid 5th century, as the Roman Empire began to crumble, Thracia fell from the authority of Rome and into the hands of Germanic tribal rulers. With the fall of Rome, Thracia turned into a battleground territory for the better part of the next 1,000 years. The true successor of the Roman Empire in the Balkans, the Byzantine Empire, retained control over Thrace until the beginning of the 9th century when most of the region was incorporated into Bulgaria. Byzantium regained Thrace in 972 only to lose it again to the Bulgarians at the end of the 12th century. Throughout the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century, the region oscillated between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. In 1265 the area suffered a mongol raid from Golden Horde, led by Nogai Khan. In 1352, the Ottoman Turks conducted their first incursion into the region subduing it completely within a matter of two decades and ruling over it for five centuries. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Nogai Khan (died 1299), also called Kara Nogai (Black Nogai), was a Khan of the Golden Horde and a great-grandson of Genghis Khan. ... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


Modern history

Proposal to cede Eastern Thrace to Greece during World War I. This photocopy came from a larger, color map.
Proposal to cede Eastern Thrace to Greece during World War I. This photocopy came from a larger, color map.

In 1878, Northern Thrace was incorporated into the semi-autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia, which united with Bulgaria in 1885. The rest of Thrace was divided between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey at the beginning of the 20th century, following the Balkan Wars, World War I and the Greco-Turkish War. Today Thracian is a strong regional identity in Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1192, 819 KB)Scanned from Documents on British Foreign Policy: 1919-1939: Volume IV This work is in the public domain worldwide. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1192, 819 KB)Scanned from Documents on British Foreign Policy: 1919-1939: Volume IV This work is in the public domain worldwide. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The name Greco-Turkish War is given to two armed conflicts between Greece and Turkey or its predecessor the Ottoman Empire: The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 (also called the Thirty Days War) The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 (also called the War in Asia Minor, and in Turkey...

The modern boundaries of Thrace in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.
The modern boundaries of Thrace in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Cities of Thrace

Bulgaria

Akhtopol (Bulgarian Ахтопол) is a town in Southeastern Bulgaria. ... Ardino (Bulgarian Ардино) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Aytos / Ajtos (Bulgarian: , Greek/Thracian: Αετός) is a town located in the eastern part of Bulgaria, belonging to the administrative boundaries of Burgas Province. ... Batak (Bulgarian Батак) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... Burgas (also transliterated as Bourgas; Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Chirpan (Чирпан) is a town in southern Bulgaria, part of Stara Zagora Province. ... Devin can refer to: A poet or rogue (Gaelic) The town of Devin, Bulgaria A castle and city part in Bratislava, Slovakia A rapper, see Devin the Dude A pornstar, also known as Devon Slovenian name of Duino An American army officer, Thomas Devin A Canadian Metal Musician Devin Townsend... Dimitrovgrad (Cyrillic: Димитровград) is a town and a municipality in the Haskovo region of southern Bulgaria. ... Dospat is a dam located in the western Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria. ... Elhovo (Елхово, from елха, elha, meaning alder + the placename suffix -ovo) is a Bulgarian town in Yambol Province, on the left bank of the Tundzha between the Strandzha and Sakar mountains. ... Harmanli is a town in south-eastern Bulgaria. ... Haskovo (Bulgarian: Хасково) is the name of a town (and administrative center of the region of the same name) in Southern Bulgaria. ... Hisarya (also spelled Hisar or Hissarya) is a small resort town in Bulgaria, in Plovdiv Region. ... Ivaylovgrad (Bulgarian: , city of Ivaylo) is a town in Haskovo Province in the very south of Bulgaria set near the Arda River in the easternmost part of the Rhodope Mountains. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ... Karnobat, a city in the Bourgaska State, Karnobat Municipality of Bulgaria. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Western Wall by night The Western Wall, known as the Kotel HaMaaravi (or simply Kotel)הכותל המערבי in Hebrew , also called the Wailing Wall (or Al-Buraq Wall, in a mix of English and Arabic) is a retaining wall from... Krichim (Кричим) is a town in southern Bulgaria, located in the southwestern part of Plovdiv Province close to Perushtitsa. ... Krumovgrad Krumovgrad (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Kardzhali Province in the very south of Bulgaria, located in the Eastern Rhodopes on the banks of the river Krumovitsa. ... There are several meanings of the term Madan: Madan is an alternative name (Madana) for the god Kama in Hinduism. ... Nova Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a town with a population of approximately 26,000 people in the city, and approximately 48,000 in the entire municipality (which includes 33 surrounding villages). ... Panagyurishte (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Pazardzhik (Bulgarian: , also spelled as Pazardjik or Pazarjik) is a town situated along the banks of the Maritsa river in Bulgaria. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... Radnevo (Раднево) is a town in southern Bulgaria, part of Stara Zagora Province. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Smolyan (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: or Ahiçelebi) is a town in the very south of Bulgaria, the administrative center of Smolyan Province. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Topolovgrad (Тополовград, town of poplars) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Haskovo Province. ... A view over Tsarevo Tsarevo (formerly Vassiliko and Michurin) is a resort and fishing town on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, situated on three small coves 72 km southeast of Bourgas, at the eastern foot of the Strandzha Mountain. ... Zlatograd is a town in Bulgaria, 60 km from Smolyan. ... Pistiros was a major trading center of ancient Thrace, an emporium as much as it was a town. ... Seuthopolis (near Kazanluk) was an ancient city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes the III. It was a small city, built on the site of an earlier settlement. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ...

Greece

Coordinates 40°51′ N 25°52′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 52,720 source (2001) Area 642. ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... A church in Didymoteicho Didymoteicho (or Didimoteixo), (Greek, Modern: Διδυμότειχο, Ancient/Katharevousa: Διδυμότειχον, meaning twin walls from didymo twin and teicho wall) is a town located in the eastern part of the prefecture of Evros. ... Komotini or Komotene (Greek: Κομοτηνή, Turkish: Gümülcine, Bulgarian: Гюмюрджина, Latin transcipt Gyumyurdzhina) is a city in north-eastern Greece. ... Lavara, (Greek: Λάβαρα) is a town licated in the eastern part of the prefecture of Evros. ... Pythio or Pythion (Greek, Modern: Πύθιο, Ancient/Katharevousa: -on), older form Pithio and Pithion, is a town located in the eastern part of Didymoteicho municipality and the province. ... Orestiada (Greek, Modern: Ορεστιάδα, Ancient Katharevousa, Orestias) or Orestias is the northeasternmost and northernmost city of Greece and the capital of the Orestiada Province as well as the Evros prefectures second largest city and province in population. ... Coordinates 40°29′ N 25°31′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 2,723 source (2001) Area 178. ... Sapes is the second largest city in the Rhodope prefecture of Greece. ... Xanthi (Greek: Ξάνθη) is a city in northern Greece, in the East Macedonia and Thrace periphery. ...

Turkey

  • Çerkezköy
  • Çorlu (Greek Τυρολοί/Tyroloi)
  • Demirköy (Bulgarian Малък Самоков/Malak Samokov or Демиркьой/Demirkyoy)
  • Edirne (Greek Ανδριανούπολις/Adrianoupolis, Bulgarian Одрин/Odrin) refounded by Hadrian
  • Uzunköprü
  • Gelibolu (Greek Καλλίπολις/Κallipolis)
  • Keşan (Greek Κεσσάνη/Kessani, Bulgarian Кешан/Keshan)
  • Lüleburgaz (Greek Αρκαδιόπολις/Arkadiopolis, Bulgarian Люлебургаз/Lyuleburgas)
  • Kırklareli (Bulgarian Лозенград/Lozengrad, Greek Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Ekklisyes(=Forty churches))
  • Tekirdağ (Greek Ραιδεστός/Raidestos, Bulgarian Родосто/Rodosto)
  • İstanbul (European side) (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις/Konstantinoupolis, Bulgarian: Цариград/Tsarigrad or Константинопол/Konstantinopol or Византион/Vizantion the oldest Thracian name)
  • Sestos

Çerkezköy is a district of Tekirdağ Province of Turkey. ... Çorlu Coat-of-arms Çorlu (pronounced chor-lu) is a city in Tekirdağ Province in inland Eastern Thrace, the European part of Turkey. ... Demirköy (known as Малък Самоков, Malak Samokov in Bulgarian) is a district of Kırklareli Province of Turkey. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne (Greek: Αδριανούπολη, Bulgarian: Одрин) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Uzunköprü is a city in Edirne Province, northwestern Turkey. ... This article is about the Turkish town. ... Keşan is a district of Edirne Province, Turkey. ... Lüleburgaz (Latin: Arcadiopolis) is a city in European Turkey. ... Kırklareli (in Ottoman times Kırkkimesne (the forties) or Kırkkilise (forty churches), Greek: Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Ekklisyes; Bulgarian: Лозенград, Lozengrad) is the capital of Kırklareli Province in the European part of Turkey, known as Eastern Thrace. ... Rákóczi’s Museum in Tekirdağ The house where the Hungarian national hero Francis II Rákóczi spent his last 15 years, today property of the Hungarian State (Source & permission: Governorate of Tekirdağ). The replica of Rákóczi’s house in Tekirdağ is placed in Košice... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula in European Turkey. ...

Famous Thracians

Some of these individuals were ethnically Thracian The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ...

The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... Greek vase with muse playing kithara The lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity and later. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC). ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 375 BC 374 BC 373 BC 372 BC 371 BC - 370 BC - 369 BC 368 BC 367... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... Herodicus (Ήρóðιĸος) was a Thracian physician of the fifth century BC, and a native of Selymbria. ... Sports medicine or sport medicine is an interdisciplinary subspecialty of medicine which deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, both amateur and professional. ... Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Abdera, was a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC 421 BC - 420 BC - 419 BC 418 BC... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... In philosophy, moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. ... Sophism (gr. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Slave redirects here. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC - 71 BC - 70 BC 69 BC 68... Pollice Verso (With a Turned Thumb), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, is a well known history painters researched conception of a gladiatorial combat. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus â€ , Oenomaus â€ , Spartacus â€  , Castus â€ , Gannicus â€  Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ...

See also

The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus Thrace is a historical region of Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Turkey is situated in Anatolia and Southeastern Europe (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe, and Anatolia is part of Southwestern Asia), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek Makedonía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Dardania region Dardania was a region encompassing the area of the modern-day province under UN administration Kosovo, southern parts of Serbia, mostly, but not entirely, western parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and parts of north-eastern Albania. ... This is a list of ancient Thracian cities, towns, villages, and fortresses. ... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ...

Sources

  • Hoddinott, R.F., The Thracians, 1981.
  • Ilieva, Sonya, Thracology, 2001

External links

  • Ethnological Museum of Thrace, comprehensive website on Thracian history and culture.


Roman Imperial Provinces (120 AD)
Achaea | Aegyptus | Africa | Alpes Cottiae | Alpes Maritimae | Alpes Poenninae | Arabia Petraea | Armenia Inferior | Asia | Assyria | Bithynia | Britannia | Cappadocia | Cilicia | Commagene | Corsica et Sardinia | Creta et Cyrenaica | Cyprus | Dacia | Dalmatia | Epirus | Galatia | Gallia Aquitania | Gallia Belgica | Gallia Lugdunensis | Gallia Narbonensis | Germania Inferior | Germania Superior | Hispania Baetica | Hispania Lusitania | Hispania Tarraconensis | Italia | Iudaea | Iturea | Lycaonia | Lycia | Macedonia | Mauretania Caesariensis | Mauretania Tingitana | Moesia | Noricum | Numidia | Osroene | Pannonia | Pamphylia | Pisidia | Pontus | Raetia | Sicilia | Sophene | Syria | Taurica | Thracia
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Thrace - All About Turkey (799 words)
By 342 B.C. all Thrace was held by Philip II of Macedon, and after 323 B.C. most of the country was in the hands of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
In 1878, Northern Thrace was made into the province of Eastern Rumelia; after the annexation (1885) of Eastern Rumelia by Bulgaria (which had gained independence in 1878), the political meaning of the term Thrace became restricted to its southernmost part, which was still in Turkish hands.
By the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) Greece also obtained most of Eastern Thrace except the zone of the Straits (Bosphorus and Dardanelles) and Constantinople (Istanbul); the treaty, however, was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), which restored to Turkey all Thrace East of the Maritsa (Meriç) river.
Recipes from the Greek Provinces of Macedonia and Thrace - Thracian and Macedonian Food Specialties (375 words)
Located in northeastern Greece, Greek Macedonia and Thrace have a unique culinary history.
These are the only olives that can be eaten directly from the tree, but are dry cured for commercial use.
Most throubes come from the Greek island of Thassos, in Thrace.
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