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Encyclopedia > Thoroughbred
Thoroughbred race horses
Thoroughbred race horses

The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known as a race horse. While carefully bred racehorses had existed throughout Europe for centuries prior to this time, the breed as it is known today developed during the 17th century in England when English mares began to be bred to imported Arabian stallions. This addition of verifiable Arabian blood coincided with the creation of the General Stud Book of England and the practice of official registering of horses. Today all modern Thoroughbreds trace to these imported stallions. Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x789, 329 KB) Horse Racing Foto by Softeis, 28/05/2005 at Galopp Riem 05/06/2005, Munich, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x789, 329 KB) Horse Racing Foto by Softeis, 28/05/2005 at Galopp Riem 05/06/2005, Munich, Germany. ... This page is just a list. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ...

Contents

Word use

Some individuals mistakenly refer to a purebred horse of any breed, or any other type of purebred animal as a "thoroughbred" (sic). However, this is incorrect usage: the Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse.[1] The proper term for any horse or any other animal that is pedigreed and of a single breed is "purebred." While this distinction is not as widely understood outside the realm of horse breeding, where the terms are at times used interchangably, nonetheless, the term "thoroughbred" is not commonly used to describe purebred animals of other species.[2] Purebreds, also called purebreeds or pedigreed, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of a species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... A breed is a domesticated subspecies or infrasubspecies of an animal. ... Purebreds, also called purebreeds or pedigreed, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of a species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ...


Breed characteristics

The Thoroughbred stands typically from as small as 15.2 to as large as 17.0 hands (64 inches/1.63 m) high and is usually bay, "brown" (dark bay), chestnut, black, or gray.[3] Less common colors include roan and palomino. White is very rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray.[4] The face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will generally not appear on the body (although certain color genes, possibly the rabicano or sabino genes, result in white hairs and white patches in the coat—the study of equine coat color genetics is complex). Good quality Thoroughbreds have a well chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, and long legs. A hand is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm. ... Bay is a color of the hair coats of horses, characterized by a body color of dark red (known as blood bay) to deep brown, with black points (mane, tail, lower legs, and sometimes the muzzle and tip of the ears). ... Indian red also known as chestnut, is a brownish shade of red. ... Friesian horses are one of the best-known breeds of black-colored horse Black is a relatively uncommon coat color in horses, though not so unusual as to be considered rare. ... Gray is a coat color of horses, consisting of black skin, a white to dark gray coat, and a mane the same color or darker than the body coat. ... A red roan horse Roan is a type of coat color in horses (and, occasionally, in other animals, such as dogs and cattle) that is a mixture of white hairs with a base coat of another color. ... Palomino is a coat color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white or flaxen mane and tail. ... A truly white horse has pink skin under their white hair coat True white horses, especially those that carry the White or W gene, are rare. ... These young horses, though all the same color, exhibit uniquely different markings, which can be used to identify individual horses Note: This article is about markings on any type or color of horse and does not discuss horse coat colors generally. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Rabicano is a horse coat color that appears to be a type of partial roaning. ... This Clydesdale horse has classic Sabino belly spots, white above its hocks, a chin spot and wide white facial markings. ... There are currently two theories of equine coat color genetics: Dr. Ann Bowlings and Dr. Phillip Sponenbergs. ...


Thoroughbreds are often crossed with horses of other breeds to add speed and refinement. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, animals bred for agility and speed, generally considered spirited and bold.


Unlike most registered breeds today, a horse cannot be registered as a Thoroughbred (with the Jockey Club registry) unless it is conceived by "live cover;" that is, by the witnessed natural mating of a mare and a stallion. Artificial insemination (AI), though legal and commonly utilized in other horse breeds, cannot be used with Thoroughbreds.[5] Originally this was because blood typing and DNA testing had not yet developed to a degree adequate to verify parentage. Today the reasons may be more economic: a stallion has a limited number of mares who can be serviced by live cover. Thus, the practice prevents an oversupply of Thoroughbreds to some extent. (Though modern management still allows a stallion to live cover more mares in a season than once was thought possible.) By allowing a stallion to only cover a couple hundred mares a year rather than the couple thousand possible with AI, it also preserves the high prices paid for horses of the finest or most popular lineages. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Origins

All modern Thoroughbreds carry the genetics of three stallions imported to England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Darley Arabian, to whom 95% of today's Thoroughbred pedigrees trace, the Godolphin Arabian, also known as the Godolphin Barb (Because this horse was born in Morocco, there is some dispute among historians whether this horse was a true Arabian or a Barb. However, based on paintings from life, the stallion was clearly Arabian in type, a Barb is built differently), and the Byerly Turk (who may have been a Turkoman Horse rather than an Arabian), together with around 35 mares. There are also other horses of oriental breeding that have been less of an influence but are still noteworthy. One of those is the Alcock Arabian, thought to be largely responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds.[3] Others include the Unknown Arabian, the Helmsley Turk, the Lister Turk and Darcy's Chestnut. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Darley Arabian was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... The Godolphin Arabian (ca 1724 - 1754), also known as the Godolphin Barb, was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Developed on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, the Barb is a desert horse, with great hardiness and stamina. ... The Byerly Turk was one of three horses which were the founders of the modern thoroughbred horse racing broodstock. ... The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an ancient breed from Turkmenistan, now extinct. ...


The first Thoroughbred horse in the American Colonies was Bulle Rock, imported by Samuel Gist of Hanover County, Virginia, in 1730.[6][7] Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... Location in the state of Virginia Formed 1720 Seat Hanover Area  - Total  - Water 1,228 km² (474 mi²) 4 km² (1 mi²) 0. ...


Maryland and Virginia were the centers of Colonial Thoroughbred breeding, along with South Carolina and New York.[8] Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... This article is about the state. ...


Uses

Although the Thoroughbred is primarily bred for racing, the breed is also used for show jumping and combined training due to its athleticism, and many retired, retrained race horses become fine family riding horses, dressage horses, and youth show horses. The larger horses are sought after for hunter/jumper and dressage competitions, whereas the smaller horses are in demand as polo ponies. Thoroughbred horse racing is the main form of horse-racing throughout the world. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ...


Horse racing

The Thoroughbred is bred primarily for racing under saddle at the gallop. Some families of Thoroughbreds are known primarily as sprinters or as distance runners. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x884, 168 KB) Horse Racing Foto by Softeis, 28/05/2005 at Galopp Riem 05/06/2005, Munich, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1061x884, 168 KB) Horse Racing Foto by Softeis, 28/05/2005 at Galopp Riem 05/06/2005, Munich, Germany. ... Thoroughbred horse racing in the United Kingdom is governed by the Horseracing Regulatory Authority (the HRA) which makes and enforces the rules, issues licences or permits to trainers and jockeys, and runs the races through their race course officials. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans. ...


Although buyers generally prefer to buy larger individuals, many great racehorses and great stallions have been average or small in size. While Man o' War and Secretariat were famous horses over 16 hands, a significant number of excellent race horses were average to small. These include Northern Dancer (15.1 HH), Hyperion (15.1 HH), and Aristides, winner of the first Kentucky Derby. Man o War, (March 29, 1917 Nursery Stud farm, Lexington, Kentucky - November 1, 1947, Faraway Farm) is considered by most to be the greatest thoroughbred racehorse of all time. ... Secretariat (March 30, 1970 – October 4, 1989) was an American Thoroughbred racehorse considered by many to be the greatest racehorse of all time. ... Northern Dancer (May 27, 1961 - November 16, 1990) was a Canadian-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and the most successful sire of the 20th Century. ... Hyperion was a Thoroughbred racehorse and a successful sire. ... A horse named Aristides won the very first Kentucky Derby in 1875. ... The Kentucky Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ...


Many experts who purchase Thoroughbreds attempt to assess a young horse's potential by observing its overall structural balance, the athleticism and willingness of its walk, the perceived intelligence of its outlook, and the correct conformation of its legs. Buyers of more expensive horses often hire veterinary experts to examine and report on the condition of the horse's breathing apparatus, soundness of bone structure, and size of heart. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Thoroughbreds that are born in the Northern Hemisphere technically become a year older on January first; those born in the Southern Hemisphere turn one year old on August first. These artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races for horses in certain age groups. Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


Approximately 35,000 Thoroughbred foals are registered each year in the U.S. The largest number of foals are born in Kentucky, Florida, and California. The Thoroughbred industry is a large agribusiness. It supports tens of thousands of jobs in each of these states, from jockeys, trainers, starters, grooms, and kitchen employees at the race tracks, to farm hands assisting with birth and rearing, grooms of yearlings, feed growers, veterinarians, drivers, auctioneers, and employees of racing-related companies developing products such as newly designed saddles and synthetic turf to reduce incidence of serious injury to horses and people who work with them. Parimutuel gambling on races also provides not only purse money to participants but considerable state tax revenue. A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... The racecourse in Chester. ... A race track (or racetrack), is a purpose-built facility for the conducting of races. ... Parimutuel betting (from the French language: pari mutuel, mutual betting) is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool; taxes and a house take are removed, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the pool among all placed bets. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ...


The Thoroughbred in other disciplines

A Thoroughbred competing in eventing.

Naturally athletic, with a generally strong work ethic, the Thoroughbred excels in many equestrian sports. While other breeds are currently more popular than the Thoroughbred in dressage and show jumping, certain individuals of the breed are competitive at the top levels. Flowing, long gaits, good jumping form and the ability to go with speed makes the Thoroughbred a top show hunter as well. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixels Full resolution (2279 × 1583 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixels Full resolution (2279 × 1583 pixel, file size: 1. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Horse gaits are the different ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ...


The Thoroughbred mare Touch of Class helped win the show jumping gold medal for the United States Equestrian team at the 1976 Summer Olympics, and the Anglo-Arabians on the French dressage team helped earn that nation a bronze medal at the 1936 Olympics. The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The Anglo-Arabian horse is just what its name implies: a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. ... 1936 Olympics refers to both: 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, Germany 1936 Winter Olympics held in Bavaria, Germany This number-oriented article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Of all the equestrian sports, the Thoroughbred is probably most suited for eventing, and dominates the highest levels: almost all Olympic or World Championship horses are full or part-Thoroughbred. The breed is most suited for the cross-country phase, due to its long stride, natural speed and stamina, as well as its athletic jump. Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The World Equestrian Games are the world championship for Equestrianism, administrered by the Fédération Equestre Internationale. ... A cross country competitor Cross country equestrian jumping is an endurance test, and is the second phase of the sport of eventing. ...


Thoroughbreds are also the most common breed for use in polo. They are seen in the fox hunting field as well. For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ...


Controversies

Although Thoroughbreds are seen in the hunter-jumper world and other purposes, modern Thoroughbreds are primarily bred for speed and racehorses have a very high rate of accidents. This has created a number of concerns and significant controversies.


Current estimates indicate that there are 1.5 career-ending breakdowns for every 1000 horses starting a race in the United States, an average of two horses per day. The state of California reported a particularly high rate of injury; 3.5 per 1000 starts.[9] As a ratio (of injuries with eventually fatal complications to total competitions), this is far in excess of all other legal human and animal sports, including boxing, motorsports and greyhound racing.[10] A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ...


Selective breeding theory

One argument for the high accident rate amongst racing Thoroughbreds suggests that selective breeding is the culprit. It is suggested that capability for speed is enhanced in an already swift animal by raising muscle mass, a form of selective breeding that has created animals designed to win horse races[11] Thus, the modern Thoroughbred travels faster than its skeletal structure can support. [12] As a result, all competitive modern Thoroughbreds are muscularly powerful yet osteologically delicate creatures, significantly more so than any equid, fossil or living, found in the wild. "We have selectively bred for speeds that the anatomy of the horse cannot always cope with."[13] A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Osteology is the scientific study of bones. ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ...


Excess stress theory

The accident rate may also occur because Thoroughbreds, particularly in the United States are first raced as 2-year-olds, well before they are completely mature. Though they may appear full-grown and are in superb muscular condition, their bones are not fully formed.[13] Other theories suggest that track surfaces, shoes with toe grabs, use of certain legal medications, and too intense a racing schedule may also contribute.


One of the most promising trends is the development of synthetic surfaces for racetracks. One of the first tracks to install such a surface, Turfway Park in Florence, Kentucky, saw its rate of fatal breakdowns drop from 24 in 2004-2005 to three in the year following Polytrack installation. The material is not perfected, with some areas reporting problems related to winter weather, but studies are continuing.[14]


Difficulties treating injured horses

The level of treatment given to injured Thoroughbreds is often more intensive than for horses of less financial value, but also controversial, due in part to the significant challenges in treating broken bones and other major leg injuries.


Leg injuries that are not immediately fatal still may be life-threatening because a horse's weight must be distributed evenly on all four legs to prevent circulatory problems, laminitis and other infections. If a horse loses the use of one leg temporarily, there is the risk that other legs will break down during the recovery period because they are carrying an abnormal weight load. A horse cannot simply lie down in the equivalent of a human's "bed rest"—an animal of this size will literally crush the internal organs when lying supine for extended periods. If a horse loses the use of one leg for a long period, its other legs will ultimately break down as well, with euthanasia the only possible outcome. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Put down redirects here you may be looking for Insult This article is about euthanasia of animals. ...


Whenever a racing accident severely injures a well-known horse, such as the case of Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro breaking his leg during the 2006 Preakness Stakes, animal rights groups tend to target the thoroughbred racing industry.[15] The bioethics are seldom clean-cut, however. [citation needed] While thoroughbreds can be delicate and horse racing is hazardous, veterinary science is also developing, so that previously hopeless cases can now be treated successfully. [citation needed] Thoroughbreds are arguably as much helped as harmed by the racing industry. [citation needed] Research in veterinary medicine that benefits not only Thoroughbreds but all horses is largely funded and driven by the horse racing industry. [citation needed] If horse racing did not occur, advocates argue that there would be far less funding and incentives to pursue medical and biomechanical research on horses. [citation needed] The Kentucky Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... sdfasdfasdfad Barbaro (April 29, 2003 – January 29, 2007) was an American thoroughbred that decisively won the 2006 Kentucky Derby but shattered his leg two weeks later, in the 2006 Preakness Stakes, ending his racing career and eventually leading to his death. ... The Preakness Stakes is a Grade I stakes race 1 3/16 mile (1. ... For the album by Moby, see Animal Rights (album). ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ...


The Thoroughbred in breeding

The Thoroughbred remains one of the most important breeds used in modern horse breeding. They have been incredibly influential on many of the favorite breeds of today, including the American Quarter Horse, the Morgan (a breed that went on to influence many of the gaited breeds in America), the Standardbred, and others. Along with the Arabian, the Thoroughbred continues to be a favorite as an improver of breeds. This is most notable in the Warmblood breeds, which occasionally infuse the hotter, leaner Thoroughbred blood when needed. Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ... Ambling, in horsemanship, is a peculiar kind of pace, wherein a horses two legs of the same side move at the same time. ... Standardbred harness racing horses are so called because in the early years of the Trotting Registry, the standardbred stud book established in the United States in 1879 by the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, only horses who could race a mile in a standard time or better, or whose... The Arabian horse first appeared in the Arabian Peninsula at least 2,500 years B.C.E. They were carefully bred to maintain desirable features (e. ... Warmbloods are a group of sport horse breeds and the term simply distinguishes this type of horse from the cold bloods (draft horses) and the hot bloods (Thoroughbreds and Arabians). ...


Favorite crosses to the Thoroughbred includes breeding with an Arabian to produce the Anglo-Arabian (which has a special registry of its own within the Arabian Horse Association), as well as with the Irish Draught to produce the Irish Horse. The Anglo-Arabian horse is just what its name implies: a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. ... The Arabian Horse Association (AHA) is the single national organization that registers Arabian horses in the United States. ... Irish horses are renowned for being the best hunters in the worldand none more so than those produced by crossing Thooroughbred with Irish Draught. ... Shear H20, an Irish Horse successful in eventing. ...


Notes

  1. ^ International Muesum of the Horse, description of Thoroughbred breed
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary of English Usage], p. 905. Accessed online, October 1, 2007
  3. ^ a b Patten Light Horse Breeds p. 191-195
  4. ^ Coat Colors Of Thoroughbreds
  5. ^ Rules and Regulations of the Jockey Club: Eligibility for Registration accessed on July 4, 2007
  6. ^ Robertson The History of Thoroughbred Racing in America p. 16
  7. ^ Bruce American Stud Book Volume 1 p. 10
  8. ^ Montgomery The Thoroughbred p.131-136
  9. ^ Rosenblatt, Richard. "Barbaro's legacy: A better life for racing horses." Associated Press, April 24, 2007
  10. ^ Perry, Dayn. "Barbaro's Blood Sport", The Chicago Sports Review, February 6, 2007, accessed at [1], June 10, 2007, "[...] the routine deaths of racehorses are an incontrovertible phenomenon: it's estimated that each year roughly 800 North American thoroughbreds die from or are put to death as a result of injuries sustained while racing."
  11. ^ Kluger, Jeffrey. "Bred for Speed ... Built for Trouble", Time Magazine, May 28, 2006, accessed at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1198889-1,00.html, June 10, 2007, "Horses are undeniably born to run, a survival strategy that befits a prairie herbivore with neither fangs nor claws. While a lot of animals are fleet of foot, horses achieve their speed more elegantly than most, starting with their disproportionately long legs. Limb length usually means bulk, since it takes a lot of muscle to move long bones. But muscles add weight, and weight reduces speed. The horse solves that problem by packing its musculature in its upper body, then transferring that power down to the legs with an elaborate rope work of tendons and ligaments that absorb shock as the animal runs and then snap the leg back to reuse the energy on the next stride. The system works well, but it does leave the legs exceedingly vulnerable to injury because when a break occurs, the blood vessels embedded in the limbs can torque and tear. Ingenious as the horse's overall design is, humans couldn't resist tinkering with it..."
  12. ^ Bill Finley, “Sadly, No Way to Stop Deaths,” New York Daily News, 10 Jun, 1993, "The thoroughbred race horse is a genetic mistake. It runs too fast, its frame is too large, and its legs are far too small. As long as mankind demands that it run at high speeds under stressful conditions, horses will die at racetracks."
  13. ^ a b Miller, Robert M., DVM. "And they call us horse lovers," Cowboy magazine, Fall, 2006, accessed at http://www.equine-reproduction.com/articles/Horse-Lovers.shtml, February 1, 2007
  14. ^ Rosenblatt, Richard. "Barbaro's legacy: A better life for racing horses." Associated Press, April 24, 2007
  15. ^ [2] "Barbaro's Tragic Injury: A Symptom of a Cruel Industry" PETA Campaigns Web site accessed February 2, 2007]

References

  • Bruce, S. D. The American Stud Book Volume 1 Revised Edition New York: Sanders D. Bruce 1884
  • Montgomery, E. S. The Thoroughbred New York: Arco Publishing 1980
  • Patten , John W. The Light Horse Breeds: Their Origin, Characteristics, and Principal Uses New York: Bonanza Books 1959
  • Robertson, William P. The History of Thoroughbred Racing in America New York:Bonanza Books 1964

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Thoroughbred
Look up Thoroughbred, thoroughbred in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thoroughbred - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (785 words)
All modern Thoroughbreds descend from three stallions imported to England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, also known as the Godolphin Barb, and the Byerly Turk, together with around 35 mares.
Although the Thoroughbred is primarily bred for racing, the breed is also used for show jumping and combined training due to its athleticism, and many retired race horses become fine family riding horses, endurance horses, dressage horses, and youth show horses.
The Thoroughbred is bred primarily for racing under saddle at the gallop.
thoroughbred - definition of thoroughbred in Encyclopedia (958 words)
All modern Thoroughbreds descend from one of three ("foundation") stallions imported to England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, also known as the Goldophin Barb, and the Byerly Turk, together with around 35 mares.
Though Maryland and Virginia were the centers of Colonial Thoroughbred breeding, the term "Thoroughbred" was first used in the United States in an advertisement in a Kentucky gazette to describe a New Jersey stallion called Pilgarlick.
Although the Thoroughbred is primarily bred for racing, the breed is also used for show jumping, dressage and combined training due to its athleticism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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