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Encyclopedia > Thoracic splanchnic nerves
Nerve: Thoracic splanchnic nerves
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. (Splanchnic nerves labeled at left.)
Abdominal portion of the sympathetic trunk, with the celiac and hypogastric plexuses.
Gray's subject #217 981
MeSH A08.800.050.050.800

Thoracic splanchnic nerves arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax and travel inferiorly to provide sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The nerves contain preganglionic sympathetic and visceral afferent fibers. Download high resolution version (503x800, 66 KB)From Grays Anatomy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ...


There are three main thoracic splanchnic nerves:

  • The greater splanchnic nerve arises from the fifth through ninth thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. The nerve travels through the diaphragm and enters the abdominal cavity, where its fibers synapse at the celiac ganglia. The nerve contributes to the celiac plexus, a network of nerves located in the vicinity of where the celiac trunk branches from the abdominal aorta. The fibers in this nerve modulate the activity of the enteric nervous system of the foregut. They also provide the sympathetic innervation to the adrenal medulla, stimulating catecholamine release.
  • The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the tenth through twelth thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. The nerve travels inferiorly, lateral to the greater splanchnic nerve. Its fibers synapse with their postganglionic counterparts in the celiac ganglia, or in the aorticorenal ganglion. The nerve modulates the activity of the enteric nervous system of the midgut.
  • The least splanchnic nerve arises from the twelfth thoracic to second lumbar ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. The nerve travels into the abdomen, where its fibers synapse in the renal ganglia.

The nerve's origins can be remembered by the 5-4-3 rule. (T5-T9. T9-T12. T12-L2 for greater, lesser, and least respectively) The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The celiac trunk is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta. ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The upper part of each celiac ganglion is joined by the greater splanchnic nerve, while the lower part, which is segmented off and named the aorticorenal ganglion, receives the lesser splanchnic nerve and gives off the greater part of the renal plexus. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ...


External links

Autonomic nervous system

preganglionic fibers - postganglionic fibers eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ... Acetylcholine Norepinephrine In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. ...


sympathetic nervous system: sympathetic trunks (white ramus communicans, gray ramus communicans) - collateral ganglia
cavernous plexus - cervical ganglia: (superior, middle, inferior) - splanchnic nerves: (thoracic, lumbar, sacral) - ganglion impar Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... The thoracic, and the first and second lumbar nerves each contribute a branch, white ramus communicans to the adjoining sympathetic ganglion. ... Each spinal nerve receives a branch, gray ramus communicans, from the adjacent ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. ... Collateral Ganglia lie between the sympathetic chain and the organ of supply. ... The cavernous plexus is situated below and medial to that part of the internal carotid artery which is placed by the side of the sella turcica in the cavernous sinus, and is formed chiefly by the medial division of the internal carotid nerve. ... The superior cervical ganglion, the largest of the cervical ganglia, is placed opposite the second and third cervical vertebræ. It is of a reddish-gray color, and usually fusiform in shape; sometimes broad and flattened, and occasionally constricted at intervals; it is believed to be formed by the coalescence of... The middle cervical ganglion is the smallest of the three cervical ganglia, and is occasionally absent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cervical ganglia. ... The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk and travel to an adjacent plexus near the aorta. ... Sacral splanchnic nerves are nerves that connect the inferior hypogastric plexus to the sympathetic trunk in the pelvis. ... The pelvic portion of each sympathetic trunk is situated in front of the sacrum, medial to the anterior sacral foramina. ...


internal carotid - cardiac The internal carotid plexus (carotid plexus) is situated on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, and in the plexus there occasionally exists a small gangliform swelling, the carotid ganglion, on the under surface of the artery. ... The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervate the heart. ...


celiac: celiac ganglia - aorticorenal - renal - spermatic/ovarian - superior mesenteric - aortic plexus - inferior mesenteric - hepatic - splenic - gastric - pancreatic - suprarenal The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The upper part of each celiac ganglion is joined by the greater splanchnic nerve, while the lower part, which is segmented off and named the aorticorenal ganglion, receives the lesser splanchnic nerve and gives off the greater part of the renal plexus. ... The renal plexus is formed by filaments from the celiac plexus, the aorticorenal ganglion, and the aortic plexus . ... The spermatic plexus (or testicular plexus) is derived from the renal plexus, receiving branches from the aortic plexus. ... In the female, the ovarian plexus arises from the renal plexus, and is distributed to the ovary, and fundus of the uterus. ... The superior mesenteric plexus is a continuation of the lower part of the celiac plexus, receiving a branch from the junction of the right vagus nerve with the plexus. ... The abdominal aortic plexus (aortic plexus) is formed by branches derived, on either side, from the celiac plexus and ganglia, and receives filaments from some of the lumbar ganglia. ... The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus. ... The hepatic plexus, the largest offset from the celiac plexus, receives filaments from the left vagus and right phrenic nerves. ... The splenic plexus (lienal plexus in older texts) is formed by branches from the celiac plexus, the left celiac ganglion, and from the right vagus nerve. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ... The pancreatic plexus is a division of the celiac plexus (coeliac plexus). ... The suprarenal plexus is formed by branches from the celiac plexus, from the celiac ganglion, and from the phrenic and greater splanchnic nerves, a ganglion being formed at the point of junction with the latter nerve. ...


hypogastric: superior hypogastric - inferior hypogastric - vesical - prostatic - uterovaginal The superior hypogastric plexus (in older texts, hypogastric plexus or presacral nerve) is a plexus of nerves situated on the vertebral bodies below the bifurcation of the aorta. ... The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus in older texts) is a plexus of nerves that supplies the viscera of the pelvic cavity. ... The Prostatic Plexus is continued from the lower part of the pelvic plexus. ...


parasympathetic nervous system: ciliary ganglion (short ciliary nerves) - pterygopalatine ganglion (nerve of pterygoid canal) - submandibular ganglion - otic ganglion - pelvic splanchnic It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve), formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve in the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, passes forward, through the pterygoid canal, with the corresponding artery, and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is of small size and is fusiform in shape. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... Pelvic splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut. ...


 
 

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