FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Thoracic diaphragm
Diaphragm
Respiratory system
Latin diaphragma
Gray's subject #117 404
Artery Pericardiacophrenic artery, Musculophrenic artery, Inferior phrenic arteries
Vein Superior phrenic vein, Inferior phrenic vein
Nerve phrenic and lower intercostal nerves
Precursor septum transversum, pleuroperitoneal folds, body wall [1]
MeSH Diaphragm
Dorlands/Elsevier d_15/12293509
For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm.

In the anatomy of mammals, the thoracic diaphragm is a sheet of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration. A diaphragm in anatomy can refer to other flat structures such as the urogenital diaphragm or pelvic diaphragm, but "the diaphragm" generally refers to the thoracic diaphragm. Other vertebrates such as amphibians and reptiles have diaphragms or diaphragm-like structures, but important details of the anatomy vary, such as the position of lungs in the abdominal cavity. Image File history File links Respiratory_system. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The Pericardiacophrenic Artery is a long slender branch, which accompanies the phrenic nerve, between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed; it anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries. ... The Musculophrenic Artery is directed obliquely downward and lateralward, behind the cartilages of the false ribs; it perforates the diaphragm at the eighth or ninth costal cartilage, and ends, considerably reduced in size, opposite the last intercostal space. ... The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The superior phrenic vein, i. ... The Inferior Phrenic Veins follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries; the right ends in the inferior vena cava; the left is often represented by two branches, one of which ends in the left renal or suprarenal vein, while the other passes in front of the esophageal hiatus in... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5) in humans. ... The thoracic spinal nerves T3 through T12. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The liver arises in the form of a diverticulum or hollow outgrowth from the ventral surface of that portion of the gut which afterward becomes the descending part of the duodenum. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... This article is about the bones called ribs. ... The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The urogenital diaphragm is an archaic term describing a layer of the pelvis separating deep perineal sac from the upper pelvis. ... The Levator ani and the Coccygeus together form the pelvic diaphragm and are associated with the pelvic viscera. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ...

Contents

Function

The diaphragm is crucial for breathing and respiration. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts, thus enlarging the thoracic cavity (the external intercostal muscles also participate in this enlargement). This reduces intra-thoracic pressure: in other words, enlarging the cavity creates suction that draws air into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity in conjunction with the abdominal muscles which act as an antagonist paired with the diaphragm's contraction. Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... The human rectus abdominis muscle, part of the human abdomen The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... An antagonist is a kind of muscle that acts in opposition to the movement generated by the agonist and is responsible for returning a limb to its initial position. ...


It is not responsible for all the breathing related to voice, a common misconception espoused by many teachers but few great singers. One has more control over the abdominals and intercostals than the actual diaphragm, which lacks proprioceptive nerve endings. By training proper posture and balance in the rest of the body, the diaphragm naturally strenghtens and works in concert with surrounding structures rather than in isolation. The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... The human abdomen. ... Intercostal muscles are several groups of muscles that run between the ribs, and help form and move the chest wall. ... Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ...


The diaphragm also helps to expel vomit, feces, and urine from the body by increasing intra-abdominal pressure. Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ...


Anatomy

The Diaphragm is a dome-shaped musculofibrous septum which separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity, its convex upper surface forming the floor of the former, and its concave under surface the roof of the latter. Its peripheral part consists of muscular fibers which take origin from the circumference of the thoracic outlet and converge to be inserted into a central tendon. The superior thoracic aperture refers to the superior opening of the thoracic cavity. ...


The muscular fibers may be grouped according to their origins into three parts:

Part Origin
sternal two fleshy slips from the back of the xiphoid process.
costal the inner surfaces of the cartilages and adjacent portions of the lower six ribs on either side, interdigitating with the Transversus abdominis.
lumbar aponeurotic arches, named the lumbocostal arches, and from the lumbar vertebrae by two pillars or crura.

There are two lumbocostal arches, a medial and a lateral, on either side. The xiphoid process is a small cartilaginous extension to the lower part of the sternum which is usually ossified in the adult human. ... The transversus abdominis muscle, also known as the transverse abdominal muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is near to the internal oblique muscle. ... Lumbocostal arch can refer to: Medial lumbocostal arch Lateral lumbocostal arch Category: ... The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ... The medial arcuate ligament (also medial lumbocostal arch) is tendinous fascia that arches over the psoas major muscle as it passes through the diaphragm. ... The lateral arcuate ligament (also lateral lumbocostal arch) is a ligament under the diaphragm that arches across the upper part of the quadratus lumborum. ...


Innervation

The diaphragm is innervated by the phrenic nerve. The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5) in humans. ...


Crura and central tendon

At their origins the crura are tendinous in structure, and blend with the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column. The crura of the diaphragm (singular=crus) are tendinous structures that extend downward from the diaphragm to attach to the vertebral column. ... The anterior longitudinal ligament runs down the anterior surface of the spine. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ...


The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis situated near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, but somewhat closer to the front than to the back of the thorax, so that the posterior muscular fibers are the longer. The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis situated near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, but somewhat closer to the front than to the back of the thorax, so that the posterior muscular fibers are longer. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ...


Openings in the Diaphragm

The diaphragm is pierced by a series of apertures to permit of the passage of structures between the thorax and abdomen. Three large openings—the aortic, the esophageal, and the vena cava—and a series of smaller ones are described. The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtÉ™] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The esophagus, oe/œsophagus*, or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ...

opening level structures
caval opening T8 inferior vena cava, and some branches of the right phrenic nerve
esophageal hiatus T10 esophagus, the vagus nerves, and some small esophageal arteries
aortic hiatus T12 the aorta, the azygos vein, and the thoracic duct
two lesser aperture of right crus greater and lesser right splanchnic nerves
three lesser aperture of left crus greater and lesser left splanchnic nerves and the hemiazygos vein
behind the diaphragm, under the medial lumbocostal arches gangliated trunks of the sympathetic
areolar tissue between the sternal and costal parts (see also foramina of Morgagni) the superior epigastric branch of the internal mammary artery and some lymphatics from the abdominal wall and convex surface of the liver
areolar tissue between the fibers springing from the medial and lateral lumbocostal arches This interval is less constant; when this interval exists, the upper and back part of the kidney is separated from the pleura by areolar tissue only.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.[2]

The caval opening is a hiatus in the diaphragm of humans through which passes the inferior vena cava, the wall of which is adherent to the margins of the opening, and some branches of the right phrenic nerve. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5) in humans. ... In human anatomy, the esophageal hiatus is a hole in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The esophageal arteries four or five in number, arise from the front of the aorta, and pass obliquely downward to the esophagus, forming a chain of anastomoses along that tube, anastomosing with the esophageal branches of the inferior thyroid arteries above, and with ascending branches from the left inferior phrenic... The aortic hiatus is a hole in the human diaphragm through which the aorta and thoracic duct passes from the thorax into the abdomen. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtÉ™] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The azygos vein is so named because it is unpaired, having no matching vein on the left side of the body. ... In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is an important part of the lymphatic system — it is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body. ... Crus (Latin for leg, plural is crura) can refer to: crus of diaphragm crus cerebri crus of clitoris crus of penis crura of superficial inguinal ring Category: ... The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ... Crus (Latin for leg, plural is crura) can refer to: crus of diaphragm crus cerebri crus of clitoris crus of penis crura of superficial inguinal ring Category: ... The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The Hemiazygos Vein (vena azygos minor inferior) begins in the left ascending lumbar or renal vein. ... The medial arcuate ligament (also medial lumbocostal arch) is tendinous fascia that arches over the psoas major muscle as it passes through the diaphragm. ... The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. ... The word sympathetic means different things in different contexts. ... The foramina of Morgagni (sing. ... In human anatomy, superior epigastric artery refers to a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood and arises from the internal thoracic artery. ... In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA) (previously known as the internal mammary artery) is a vessel that supplies the chest wall and mamma, a term used for breast in anatomy. ... Lymph originates as blood plasma lost from the circulatory system, which leaks out into the surrounding tissues. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The lateral arcuate ligament (also lateral lumbocostal arch) is a ligament under the diaphragm that arches across the upper part of the quadratus lumborum. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ... Types of connective tissue Section of the human esophagus. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The Geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated above the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... The liver arises in the form of a diverticulum or hollow outgrowth from the ventral surface of that portion of the gut which afterward becomes the descending part of the duodenum. ... Rectus abdominis The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen (and in some animals). ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... A man and a woman in the Pioneer plaque. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Look up trachea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast...

Comparative anatomy and evolution

The existence of some membrane separating the pharynx from the stomach can be traced widely among the chordates. Thus amphioxus possesses an atrium by which water exits the pharynx, which has been argued (and disputed) to be homologous to structures in ascidians and hagfishes.[3] The urochordate epicardium separates digestive organs from the pharynx and heart, but the anus returns to the upper compartment to discharge wastes through an outgoing siphon. Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Families Asymmetronidae Branchiostomidae The lancelets (subphylum Cephalochordata, and traditionally known as the amphioxus) are a group of primitive chordates. ... In Anatomy, atrium refers to a structure of the heart. ... Orders Aplousobranchia Enterogona Phlebobranchia Pleurogona Stolidobranchia Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians) is an order in the Urochordata subphylum of sac-like marine filter feeders. ... Genera Eptatretus Myxine Nemamyxine Neomyxine Notomyxine Paramyxine Quadratus This article is about the Hagfish. ...


Thus the diaphragm emerges in the context of a body plan which separated an upper feeding compartment from a lower digestive tract, but the point at which it originates is a matter of definition. Structures in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds have been called diaphragms, but it has been argued that these structures are not homologous. For instance, the alligator diaphragmaticus muscle does not insert on the esophagus and does not affect pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter.[4] The lungs are located in the abdominal compartment of amphibians and reptiles, so that contraction of the diaphragm expels air from the lungs rather than drawing it into them. In birds and mammals lungs are located above the diaphragm. The presence of an exceptionally well preserved fossil of Sinosauropteryx, with lungs located beneath the diaphragm as in crocodiles, has been used to argue that dinosaurs could not have sustained an active warm-blooded physiology, or that birds could not have evolved from dinosaurs.[5] An explanation for this state of affairs is that when lungs originated beneath the diaphragm, but as the demands for respiration increased in warm-blooded birds and mammals, natural selection came to favor the parallel evolution of the herniation of the lungs from the abdominal cavity in both lineages.[2] Two or more structures are said to be homologous if they are alike because of shared ancestry. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Binomial name Sinosauropteryx prima Ji Q. & Ji S., 1996 Sinosauropteryx prima (first Chinese lizard-feather) was the first non-avian dinosaur found with the fossilized impressions of feathers. ... Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ...


Variations

The sternal portion of the muscle is sometimes wanting and more rarely defects occur in the lateral part of the central tendon or adjoining muscle fibers. The central tendon of the diaphragm is a thin but strong aponeurosis situated near the center of the vault formed by the muscle, but somewhat closer to the front than to the back of the thorax, so that the posterior muscular fibers are longer. ...


Pathology

A hiatal hernia can result from a tear or weakness in the diaphragm near the gastroesophageal junction. Hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is the protrusion (or hernia) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus), or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ...


If the diaphragm is struck, or otherwise spasms, breathing will become difficult. This is called "having the wind knocked out of you." A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Getting the wind knocked out of you occurs when sudden force is applied to the abdomen. ...


A hiccup occurs when the diaphragm contracts periodically without voluntary control. For information on Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, see Chromatography. ...


Diaphragmatic injuries result from either blunt or penetrating trauma.


Additional images

See also

Midriff on display In the human body, the midriff is the section of the body between the chest and the waist, i. ...

References

  1. ^ Embryology at UNC mslimb-012
  2. ^ a b Arthur Keith, M.D. (1905). The nature of the mammalian diaphragm and pleural cavities.
  3. ^ Zbynek Kozmik et al. (1999). Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8 1295-1304.
  4. ^ T. J. Uriona et al. (2005). Structure and function of the esophagus of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) 3047-3053.
  5. ^ Lung fossils suggest that dinos breathed in cold blood.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ...

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. GPnotebook is a British medical database for general practitioners (GPs. ... A garden sign welcomes residents and visitors to Rogers Park as home of Loyola University Chicago. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Fascia is specialized connective tissue layer which surrounds muscles, bones, and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body. ... The dartos is a layer of smooth muscular fiber. ... The deep layer of superficial fascia (fascia of Colles) is thin, aponeurotic in structure, and of considerable strength, serving to bind down the muscles of the root of the penis. ... The perineal membrane is an anatomical term for a fibrous membrane in the perineum. ... The superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm is continuous with the obturator fascia and stretches across the pubic arch. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m