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Encyclopedia > Thor Heyerdahl

Hi Every Body

For the cruiseferry, see: M/S Thor Heyerdahl
Thor Heyerdahl
Thor Heyerdahl

Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 Larvik, NorwayApril 18, 2002 Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer with a scientific background in zoology and geography. Heyerdahl became famous for his Kon-Tiki expedition, in which he sailed 4,300 miles (8,000 km) by raft from South America to the Tuamotu Islands. M/S Vana Tallinn (Old Tallinn in Estonian) is a passenger ferry owned by the Estonian ferry company Tallink and operated on the line between Stockholm and Riga. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... County Vestfold District Municipality NO-0709 Administrative centre Larvik Mayor (2003) Øyvind Riise Jenssen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 199 535 km² 501 km² 0. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Even Soldiers of Fortune have to sing! 1958 record album An adventurer or adventuress is a term that usually takes one of three meanings: One whose travels are unusual and often exotic, though not so unique as to qualify as exploration. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Categories: Stub | Polynesia ...

Contents

Early years

As a young child, Thor Heyerdahl established a strong interest in zoology. He created a small museum in his childhood home, with a Vipera berus as the main attraction. He studied Zoology and Geography at Oslo University. At the same time he studied privately Polynesian culture and history, consulting the then world's largest private collection of books and papers on Polynesia, owned by Bjarne Kroepelin, a wealthy wine merchant in Oslo. This collection was later purchased by the Oslo University Library from Kroepelin's heirs and was attached to the Kon-Tiki Museum research department. After seven terms and consultations with experts in Berlin, a project was developed and sponsored by his zoology professors, Kristine Bonnevie and Hjalmar Broch. He was to visit some isolated Pacific island group and study how the local animals had found their way there. Right before sailing together to the Marquesas Islands he married his first wife, Liv, whom he had met shortly before enrolling at the university, and who had studied economics there. Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms [Coluber] berus - Linnaeus, 1758 [Coluber] Chersea - Linnaeus, 1758 Coluber prester - Linnaeus, 1761 Coluber vipera Anglorum - Laurenti, 1768 Coluber Melanis - Pallas, 1771 Coluber Scytha - Pallas, 1773 C[oluber]. Scytha - Bonnaterre, 1790 Vipera melanis - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Vipera berus - Daudin, 1803 Vipera chersea - Daudin, 1803 Vipera prester... The University of Oslo (in Norwegian Universitetet i Oslo, in Latin Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Kristine Bonnevie (born 1872-10-08 in Nidaros, died 1948 in Oslo) was a Norwegian biologist and Norways first female professor. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Fatu Hiva

Fatu Hiva Penguin edition, 1976 The original b/w photo is printed in the book with the caption "Feeling like a king, I could actually put an ancient Marquesan royal crown on my head for the occasion. Or was I the first hippy?"
Fatu Hiva
Penguin edition, 1976
The original b/w photo is printed in the book with the caption "Feeling like a king, I could actually put an ancient Marquesan royal crown on my head for the occasion. Or was I the first hippy?"

The events surrounding his stay on the Marquesas, most of the time on Fatu Hiva, were told first in his book Paa Jakt efter Paradiset ['Hunting the Paradise'] (1938). This was published in Norway, and because of the outbreak of World War II was never translated and rather forgotten. Many years later, after having achieved fame with other adventures and books on other subjects, Heyerdahl published a new account of this voyage under the title Fatu Hiva (George Allen & Unwin, 1974). The young couple left Norway in 1936 and stayed about a year in the South Seas. Fatu Hiva Penguin edition, 1976 The original b/w photo is printed in the book with the caption Feeling like a king, I could actually put an ancient Marquesan royal crown on my head for the occasion. ... Country France French Polynesia Archipelago Marquesas Islands Region South Pacific Ocean Area 32. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fatu Hiva Penguin edition, 1976 The original b/w photo is printed in the book with the caption Feeling like a king, I could actually put an ancient Marquesan royal crown on my head for the occasion. ...


The Kon-Tiki Expedition

Main article: Kon-Tiki

In the Kon-Tiki Expedition, Heyerdahl and five fellow adventurers went to Peru, where they constructed a pae-pae raft from balsa wood and other native materials, a raft that they called the Kon-Tiki. The Kon-Tiki expedition was inspired by old reports and drawings made by the Spanish Conquistadors of Inca rafts, and by native legends and archaeological evidence suggesting contact between South America and Polynesia. After a 101 day, 4,300 mile (8,000 km) journey across the Pacific Ocean, Kon-Tiki smashed into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands on August 7, 1947. The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... For other uses, see Raft (disambiguation). ... For the e-mail client, see Balsa (e-mail client). ... The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Raroia is an atoll of the Tuamotus chain in French Polynesia, located 740 km northeast of Tahiti and 6 km southwest of Takume. ... Categories: Stub | Polynesia ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kon-Tiki demonstrated that it was possible for a primitive raft to sail the Pacific with relative ease and safety, especially to the west (with the wind). The raft proved to be highly maneuverable, and fish congregated between the two balsa logs in such numbers that ancient sailors could have possibly relied on fish for hydration in the absence of other sources of fresh water. Inspired by Kon-Tiki, other rafts have repeated the voyage. Heyerdahl's book about the expedition, Kon-Tiki, has been translated into over 50 languages. The documentary film of the expedition, itself entitled Kon-Tiki, won an Academy Award in 1951. Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


Anthropologists continue to believe, based on linguistic, physical and genetic evidence, that Polynesia was settled from west to east, migration having begun from the Asian mainland. There are controversial indications, though, of some sort of South American/Polynesian contact, most notably in the fact that the South American sweet potato served as a dietary staple throughout much of Polynesia. Heyerdahl attempted to counter the linguistic argument with the analogy that, guessing the origin of African-Americans he would prefer to believe that they came from Africa, judging from their skin colour, and not from England, judging from their speech. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ...


Heyerdahl's theory of Polynesian origins

Heyerdahl claimed that in Incan legend there was a sun-god named Con-Tici Viracocha who was the supreme head of the mythical fair-skinned people in Peru. The original name for Virakocha was Kon-Tiki or Illa-Tiki, which means Sun-Tiki or Fire-Tiki. Kon-Tiki was high priest and sun-king of these legendary "white men" who left enormous ruins on the shores of Lake Titicaca. The legend continues with the mysterious bearded white men being attacked by a chief named Cari who came from the Coquimbo Valley. They had a battle on an island in Lake Titicaca, and the fair race was massacred. However, Kon-Tiki and his closest companions managed to escape and later arrived on the Pacific coast. The legend ends with Kon-Tiki and his companions disappearing westward out to sea. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ... Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... Å… Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra, commonly known today as Con-Tici Viracocha or simply Viracocha, was the creator of everything in the world civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ... Lake Titicaca sits 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. ... Coquimbo is Chiles fourth administrative region from north to south. ...


When the Spaniards came to Peru, Heyerdahl asserted, the Incas told them that the colossal monuments that stood deserted about the landscape were erected by a race of white gods who had lived there before the Incas themselves became rulers. The Incas described these "white gods" as wise, peaceful instructors who had originally come from the north in the "morning of time" and taught the Incas' primitive forefathers architecture as well as manners and customs. They were unlike other Native Americans in that they had "white skins and long beards" and were taller than the Incas. The Incas said that the "white gods" had then left as suddenly as they had come and fled westward across the Pacific. After they had left, the Incas themselves took over power in the country.


Heyerdahl said that when the Europeans first came to the Pacific islands, they were astonished that they found some of the natives to have relatively light skins and beards. There were whole families that had pale skin, hair varying in color from reddish to blonde, and almost Semitic, hook-nosed faces. In contrast, most of the Polynesians had golden-brown skin, raven-black hair, and rather flat noses. Heyerdahl claimed that when Jakob Roggeveen first discovered Easter Island in 1722, he supposedly noticed that many of the natives were white-skinned. Heyerdahl claimed that these people could count their ancestors who were "white-skinned" right back to the time of Tiki and Hotu Matua, when they first came sailing across the sea "from a mountainous land in the east which was scorched by the sun." The ethnographic evidence for these claims is outlined in Heyerdahl's book Aku Aku: The Secret of Easter Island. Jacob Roggeveen (1 February 1659 - 31 January 1729) was a Dutch explorer who was sent to find Terra Australis, but he instead came across Easter Island by chance. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... // Hotu Matua or Hotu Matua) was the legendary first settler and ariki mau (supreme chief or king) of Easter Island. ...


Heyerdahl proposed that Tiki's neolithic people colonized the then-uninhabited Polynesian islands as far north as Hawaii, as far south as New Zealand, as far east as Easter Island, and as far west as Samoa and Tonga around A.D. 500. They supposedly sailed from Peru to the Polynesian islands on pae-paes--large rafts built from balsa logs, complete with sails and each with a small cottage. They built enormous stone statues carved in the image of human beings on Pitcairn, the Marquesas, and Easter Island that resembled those in Peru. They also built huge pyramids on Tahiti and Samoa with steps like those in Peru. But all over Polynesia, Heyerdahl found indications that Tiki's peaceable race had not been able to hold the islands alone for long. He found evidence that suggested that seagoing war canoes as large as Viking ships and lashed together two and two had brought Stone Age Northwest American Indians to Polynesia around A.D. 1100, and they mingled with Tiki's people. The oral history of the people of Easter Island, at least as it was documented by Heyerdahl, is completely consistent with this theory, as is the archaeological record he examined (Heyerdahl 1958). In particular, Heyerdahl obtained a radiocarbon date of A.D. 400 for a charcoal fire located in the pit that was held by the people of Easter Island to have been used as an "oven" by the "Long Ears," which Heyerdahl's Rapa Nui sources, reciting oral tradition, identified as a white race which had ruled the island in the past (Heyerdahl 1958). Genetic research has found that modern-day Polynesians are more closely related to Southeast Asians than to American Indians. Easter Islanders are of Polynesian descent. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the e-mail client, see Balsa (e-mail client). ... National motto: ? Official language English (Pitcairnese also spoken) Capital Adamstown Governor Richard Fell Mayor Jay Warren (elected on December 15 2004) Area  - Total  - % water 47 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2003)  - Density 48 1/km² Dependent area of United Kingdom Currency New Zealand dollar Time zone UTC -8 National anthem None... The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The archaeological record is a term used in archaeology to denote the physical remains of past human activities which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyise and reconstruct the past. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ...


Expedition to Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

In 1955-1956, Heyerdahl organized the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Rapa Nui (Easter Island). The expedition's scientific staff included Arne Skjølsvold, Carlyle Smith, Edwin Ferdon and William Mulloy. Heyerdahl and the professional archaeologists who traveled with him spent several months on Rapa Nui investigating several important archaeological sites. Highlights of the project include experiments in the carving, transport and erection of the famous moai, as well as excavations at such prominent sites as Orongo and Poike. The expedition published two large volumes of scientific reports (Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific) and Heyerdahl later added a third (The Art of Easter Island). The work of this expedition laid the foundation for much of the archaeological research that continues to be conducted on the island. Heyerdahl's popular book on the subject, Aku-Aku was another international best-seller. Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... Ahu Tongariki, restored by Chilean archaeologist Claudio Cristino in the 1990s This is about the statues of Easter Island, for the seamount see Moai (seamount) Main article: Easter Island Moai (or mo‘ai) are monolithic human figures carved from rock on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), mostly... Orongo is a ceremonial centre on Rapa Nui/Easter Island, which was until the mid nineteenth century the centre of the Birdman cult. ... Poike is one of three main extinct volcanoes that form Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (a Chilean island in the Pacific), at 370 metres it is the islands second highest peak after Terevaka. ... For the book by Thor Heyerdahl, see Aku-Aku. ...


In "Easter Island: the Mystery Solved" (Random House, 1989), Heyerdahl offered a more detailed theory of the island's history. Based on native testimony and archeological research, he claimed the island was originally colonized by Hanau eepe ("Long Ears"), from South American, and that Polynesians Hanua momoko ("Short Ears") arrived only in the mid-16th century; they may have come independently or perhaps were imported as workers. According to Heyerdahl, something happened between Admiral Roggeveen's discovery of the island in 1722 and James Cook's visit in 1774; while Roggeveen encountered white, Indian, and Polynesian people living in relative harmony and prosperity, Cook encountered a much smaller population consisting mainly of Polynesians and living in privation.


Heyerdahl speculates there was an uprising of "Short Ears" against the ruling "Long Ears." The "Long Ears" dug a defensive moat on the eastern end of the island and filled it with kindling. During the uprising, Heyerdahl claimed, the "Long Ears" ignited their moat and retreated behind it, but the "Short Ears" found a way around it, came up from behind, and pushed all but two of the "Long Ears" into the fire.


The Boats Ra and Ra II

Ra II in the Kon-Tiki Museum
Ra II in the Kon-Tiki Museum

In 1969 and 1970, Heyerdahl built two boats from papyrus and attempted to cross the Atlantic from Morocco in Africa. Based on drawings and models from ancient Egypt, the first boat, named Ra, was constructed by boatbuilders from Lake Chad in the Republic of Chad using reed obtained from Lake Tana in Ethiopia and launched into the Atlantic Ocean from the coast of Morocco. After a number of weeks, Ra took on water after its crew made modifications to the vessel that caused it to sag and break apart. The ship was abandoned and the following year, another similar vessel, Ra II was built by boatmen from Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and likewise set sail across the Atlantic from Morocco, this time with great success. The boat reached Barbados, thus demonstrating that mariners could have made trans-Atlantic voyages by sailing with the Canary Current.[1] While the purpose of the Ra voyages was merely to prove the seaworthiness of ancient vessels constructed of buoyant reeds, others contentiously have cited the success of the Ra II expedition as evidence that Egyptian mariners could have journeyed, by design or happenstance, to the New World in prehistoric times.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2944x2517, 1990 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thor Heyerdahl Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2944x2517, 1990 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thor Heyerdahl Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... The Republic of Chad (تشاد) is a land-locked nation in central Africa. ... Lake Tana (also spelled Tana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,Lake Tana, originally Tsana, Geez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called Dembiya after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia. ... Lake Titicaca sits 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. ... The Canary Current branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows toward the South West about as far as Senegal where it turns West. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


A book, The Ra Expeditions, and a film documentary were made about the voyages.


Apart from the primary aspects of the expedition, Heyerdahl deliberately selected a crew representing a great diversity in race, nationality, religion and political viewpoint in order to demonstrate that at least on their own little floating island, people could cooperate and live peacefully. Additionally, the expedition took samples of ocean pollution and presented their report to the United Nations. For other uses, see Race. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... UN redirects here. ...


The Tigris

Heyerdahl built yet another reed boat, Tigris, which was intended to demonstrate that trade and migration could have linked Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley Civilization in what is now modern-day Pakistan. Tigris was built in Iraq and sailed with its international crew through the Persian Gulf to Pakistan and made its way into the Red Sea. After about 5 months at sea and still remaining seaworthy, the Tigris was deliberately burnt in Djibouti, on April 3, 1978 as a protest against the wars raging on every side in the Red Sea and Horn of Africa. In Heyerdahl's open letter [1] to the Secretary of the United Nations he said in part: Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Horn of Africa. ... UN redirects here. ...

' Today we burn our proud ship... to protest against inhuman elements in the world of 1978... Now we are forced to stop at the entrance to the Red Sea. Surrounded by military airplanes and warships from the world's most civilized and developed nations, we have been denied permission by friendly governments, for reasons of security, to land anywhere, but in the tiny, and still neutral, Republic of Djibouti. Elsewhere around us, brothers and neighbors are engaged in homicide with means made available to them by those who lead humanity on our joint road into the third millennium.
'To the innocent masses in all industrialized countries, we direct our appeal. We must wake up to the insane reality of our time.... We are all irresponsible, unless we demand from the responsible decision makers that modern armaments must no longer be made available to people whose former battle axes and swords our ancestors condemned.
'Our planet is bigger than the reed bundles that have carried us across the seas, and yet small enough to run the same risks unless those of us still alive open our eyes and minds to the desperate need of intelligent collaboration to save ourselves and our common civilization from what we are about to convert into a sinking ship.'

In the years that followed, Heyerdahl was often outspoken on issues of international peace and the environment. The Tigris was crewed by eleven men: Thor Heyerdahl (Norway), Norman Baker (USA), Carlo Mauri (Italy), Yuri Senkevich (USSR), Germán Carrasco (Mexico), Hans Petter Bohn (Norway), Rashad Nazir Salim (Iraq), Norris Brock (USA), Toru Suzuki (Japan), Detlef Zoltzek (Germany), Asbjørn Damhus (Denmark). Portrait of Yuri Senkevich on the cover of his memoirs A Lifelong Travel Yuri Aleksandrovich Senkevich (Russian: Юрий Александрович Сенкевич) (1937 in Choybalsan, Mongolia –September 23, 2003 in Moscow, Russia) was (originally) a Soviet doctor, who became famous in the USSR and worldwide for his participation in the Ra Expedition, in which he...


Other work

Thor Heyerdahl also investigated the mounds found on the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean. There, he found sun-oriented foundations and courtyards, as well as statues with elongated earlobes. Both of these archeological finds fit with his theory of a sea-faring civilization which originated in what is now Sri Lanka, colonized the Maldives, and influenced or founded the cultures of ancient South America and Easter Island. His discoveries are detailed in his book, "The Maldive Mystery." The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ...


In 1991 he studied the Pyramids of Güímar on Tenerife and declared that they cannot be random stone heaps, but actual pyramids. He also discovered their special astronomical orientation. Heyerdahl advanced a theory according to which the Canaries had been bases of ancient shipping between America and the Mediterranean. One of the Pyramids of Güímar The Pyramids of Güímar are situated in the village of Güímar on the east coast of the isle of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife in the Canary Islands chain. ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


His last project was presented in the book Jakten på Odin, ('the search for Odin'), in which he initiated excavations in Azov, near the Sea of Azov at the northeast of the Black Sea. He searched for the possible remains of a civilization to match the account of Snorri Sturluson in Ynglinga saga, where Snorri describes how a chief called Odin led a tribe, called the Æsir in a migration northwards through Saxland, to Fyn in Denmark settling in Sweden. There, according to Snorri, he so impressed the natives with his diverse skills that they started worshipping him as a god after his death (see also House of Ynglings and Mythological kings of Sweden). Heyerdahl accepted Snorri's story as literal truth. This project generated harsh criticism and accusations of pseudo-science from historians, archaeologists and linguists in Norway, who accused Heyerdahl of selective use of sources, and a basic lack of scientific methodology in his work. The Search for Odin (Norwegian: Jakten pÃ¥ Odin) is the project title of Thor Heyerdahls last series of archaeological excavations, which took place in Azov in Russia. ... Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... Funen (Danish: Fyn) is the third largest island of Denmark. ... The Ynglings (Heimskringla), Scylfings (Beowulf) or Sons of Frey (Gesta Danorum and Ynglingatal) were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty. ... In sources such as Heimskringla and Ynglinga saga there appear early Swedish kings who belong in the domain of mythology, but it is often suggested that they have a historical basis. ...


The central claims in this book are based on similarities of names in Norse mythology and geographic names in the Black Sea-region, e.g. Azov and æsir, Udi and Odin, Tyr and Turkey. Philologists and historians reject these parallels as mere coincidences, and also anachronisms, for instance the city of Azov did not have that name until over 1000 years after Heyerdahl claims the æsir dwellt there. The controversy surrounding the search for Odin-project was in many ways typical of the relationship between Heyerdahl and the academic community. His theories rarely won any scientific acceptance, whereas Heyerdahl himself rejected all scientific criticism and concentrated on publishing his theories in best-selling books to the larger masses. Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... The Udins are an ethnic group who live mostly in Azerbaijan,Georgia and Russia (3,700 in 2002). ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ...


Heyerdahl claimed that the Udi ethnic minority in Azerbaijan was the descendants of the ancestors of the Scandinavians. He travelled to Azerbaijan on a number of occasions in the final two decades of his life and visited the Kish church. Heyerdahl's Odin theory was rejected by all serious historians, archaeologists, and linguists but was accepted as fact within a section of Norway's state-run church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway. The Search for Odin (Norwegian: Jakten på Odin) is the project title of Thor Heyerdahls last series of archaeological excavations, which took place in Azov in Russia. ... The Church of Norway (Den norske kirke) also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway is the state church of Norway, 86% of Norwegians belong to this Church. ...


Heyerdahl was also an active figure in Green politics. He was the recipient of numerous medals and awards. He also received 11 honorary doctorates from universities in the Americas and Europe. Green politics or Green ideologies is a political ideology which places a high importance on ecological and environmentalist goals, and on achieving these goals through broad-based, grassroots, participatory democracy and a consensus decision-making. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Subsequent years

In subsequent years, Heyerdahl was involved with many other expeditions and archaeological projects. However, he remained best known for his boat-building, and for his emphasis on cultural diffusionism. He died, aged 87, from a brain tumor. The term diffusion or diffusionism is used in cultural anthropology to describe the spread of cultural items — such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, etc. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or...


Legacy

Heyerdahl's expeditions were spectacular, and his heroic journeys in flimsy boats caught the public imagination. Although much of his work remains controversial within the scientific community, Heyerdahl undoubtedly increased public interest in ancient history and in the achievements of various cultures and peoples around the world — he also showed that long distance ocean voyages were technically possible even with ancient designs. As such, he was a major practitioner of experimental archaeology. Heyerdahl's books served to inspire several generations of readers. He introduced readers of all ages to the fields of archaeology and ethnology by making them attractive through his colorful adventures. This Norwegian adventurer often broke the bounds of conventional thinking and was unapologetic for doing so. "Boundaries?", he is quoted as asking, "I have never seen one but I hear that they exist in the minds of most people." Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods, techniques, analyses, and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses or an interpretation, based upon archaeological source material, like ancient structures or artifacts. ...


Thor Heyerdahl's grandson, Olav Heyerdahl, retraced his grandfather's Kon-Tiki voyage in 2006, as part of a six-member crew. The voyage, called the Tangaroa Expedition, was intended as a tribute to Thor Heyerdahl, as well as a means to monitor the Pacific Ocean's environment. A film about the voyage is in preparation. The Kon-Tiki raft is shown on the cover of the DVD of the documentary. ...


Decorations and honorary degrees

Heyerdahl's numerous awards and honors include the following:

The Royal Scottish Geographical Society is a learned society in Scotland, founded in 1884. ... The Société de Géographie, Paris, is the worlds oldest geographical society. ... Image:Order of St Olav collar. ... The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi) was founded in 1857 to advance science and scholarship in Norway. ... New York Academy of Sciences is a society of some 20,000 scientists of all disciplines from 150 countries. ... Honoris causa (plural: Causae) is a Latin term meaning for the sake of honor, abbreviated as . ... The University of Oslo (Norwegian: , Latin: ) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... The university is located near Tacoma, Washington Pacific Lutheran University is located in the Parkland suburb of Tacoma, Washington. ... Nickname: Location of Tacoma in Pierce County and Washington State Coordinates: , Country State County Pierce Government  - Mayor Bill Baarsma (D) Area  - City  62. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. ... The Instituto Politécnico Nacional (National Polytechnic Institute) or IPN is one of Mexicos public universities. ... The Order of the Sun is the highest award bestowed by the nation of Peru to commend notable civil and military merit. ... The Most Excellent Order of the Golden Ark was established by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in 1971 as an official order of the government of the Netherlands. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... Outside the Museum of Science, August 2005 The Museum of Science (MoS) is a Boston, Massachusetts landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. ... The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in Havana, Cuba. ... Shevchenko Kyiv University in Kyiv is the largest and most important university of Ukraine. ...

See also

2473 Heyerdahl is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1977. ... M/S Vana Tallinn (Old Tallinn in Estonian) is a passenger ferry owned by the Estonian ferry company Tallink and operated on the line between Stockholm and Riga. ... Fridtjof Nansen, shortly after launch The Fridtjof Nansen class of frigates, for the Royal Norwegian Navy, are a derivative of the Spanish Alvaro de Bazán class of AEGIS-equipped air defense frigates. ... United States Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania (right) is a long-term brain tumor survivor who continues to serve in public office. ... Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contacts were interactions between the indigenous peoples of the Americas and peoples of other continents – Europe, Africa, Asia, or Oceania – before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ...

References

  1. ^ Ryne, Linn. "Voyages into History." Norway - the official site in the United States. Retrieved 01-13-08.
  1. Heyerdahl, Thor. Aku-Aku: The Secret of Easter Island. Rand McNally. 1958.
  2. Heyerdahl, Thor. Kon-Tiki, 1950 Rand McNally & Company.
  3. Heyerdahl, Thor. Fatu Hiva. Penguin. 1976.
  4. Heyerdahl, Thor. Early Man and the Ocean: A Search for the Beginnings of Navigation and Seaborne Civilizations, February 1979.

For the book by Thor Heyerdahl, see Aku-Aku. ... Fatu Hiva Penguin edition, 1976 The original b/w photo is printed in the book with the caption Feeling like a king, I could actually put an ancient Marquesan royal crown on my head for the occasion. ...

External links


The Search for Odin (Norwegian: Jakten på Odin) is the project title of Thor Heyerdahls last series of archaeological excavations, which took place in Azov in Russia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thor Heyerdahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1764 words)
Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 in Larvik, Norway–April 18, 2002 in Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Norwegian marine biologist with a great interest in anthropology, who became famous for his Kon-Tiki Expedition in which he sailed by raft 4,300 miles from South America to the Tuamotu Islands.
Heyerdahl claimed that in Incan legend there was a sun-god named Con-Tici Viracocha who was the supreme head of the mythical white people in Peru.
Heyerdahl claimed that when Roggeveen first discovered Easter Island in 1722, he supposedly noticed that many of the natives were white-skinned.
Guardian Unlimited | Archive Search (2225 words)
Thor Heyerdahl, who has died of cancer aged 87, was one of the great individualistic standard-bearers of mid-20th-century adventure.
Edited by Heyerdahl and Ferdon in 1961, it is a landmark in Pacific studies and a monument to the project.
Heyerdahl and the Kon-Tiki Museum in Oslo (founded in 1949 with his wartime colleague and radio operator on the raft, Knut Haugland) have initiated, raised money for, or published the results of, projects in Rapa Nui, Pitcairn, the Marquesas islands, South America and, most recently, in Western Samoa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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