FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Thomas Young (scientist)
Thomas Young, English scientist
Thomas Young, English scientist

Thomas Young (June 13, 1773-May 10, 1829) was an English polymath, contributing to the scientific understanding of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, and Egyptology. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (921x1152, 226 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (921x1152, 226 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Look up vision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ...

Contents

Biography

Young belonged to a Quaker family of Milverton, Somerset, where he was born in 1773, the eldest of ten children. At the age of fourteen Young had learned Greek and Latin and was acquainted with French, Italian, Hebrew, Chaldean, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Amharic.[1] The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Milverton is a village and parish in Somerset, England, situated five miles west of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Samaritan Aramaic, or Samaritan, is the dialect of Aramaic used by the Samaritans in their sacred and scholarly literature. ... Arabic redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Young began to study medicine in London in 1792, moved to Edinburgh in 1794, and a year later went to Göttingen, where he obtained the degree of doctor of physics in 1796. In 1797 he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In the same year he inherited the estate of his grand-uncle, Richard Brocklesby, which made him financially independent, and in 1799 he established himself as a physician at 48 Welbeck Street, London (now recorded with a blue plaque). Young published many of his first academic articles anonymously to protect his reputation as a physician. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... of the Emmanuel College College name Emmanuel College Named after Jesus Christ (Emmanuel) Established 1584 Location St Andrews Street Admittance Men and women Master The Lord Wilson of Dinton Undergraduates 500 Graduates 100 Sister college Exeter College, Oxford College Website Boat Club Wesite Emmanuel front court and the Wren... Richard Brocklesby (August 11, 1722 – December 11, 1797), English physician, was born at Minehead, Somerset. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Welbeck Street is a street in the West End, central London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ...


In 1801 Young was appointed professor of natural philosophy (mainly physics) at the Royal Institution. In two years he delivered 91 lectures. In 1802, he was appointed foreign secretary of the Royal Society, of which he had been elected a fellow in 1794. He resigned his professorship in 1803, fearing that its duties would interfere with his medical practice. His lectures were published in 1807 in the Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and contain a number of anticipations of later theories. The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... --69. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1811 Young became physician to St. George's Hospital, and in 1814 he served on a committee appointed to consider the dangers involved by the general introduction of gas into London. In 1816 he was secretary of a commission charged with ascertaining the length of the second's pendulum, and in 1818 he became secretary to the Board of Longitude and superintendent of the HM Nautical Almanac Office. For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... St Georges Hospital, founded in 1733, is a teaching hospital in London. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Board of Longitude was a British Government body formed in 1714 to solve the problem of finding longitude at sea. ... The HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO), now part of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, near Abingdon in Oxfordshire, was established in 1832 on the site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, where the Nautical Almanac had been published since 1767. ...


A few years before his death he became interested in life assurance,[2] and in 1827 he was chosen one of the eight foreign associates of the French Academy of Sciences. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Life insurance. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ...


Thomas Young died in London on May 10, 1829. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Later scholars and scientists have praised Young's work although they may know him only through achievements he made in their fields. His contemporary Sir John Herschel called him a "truly original genius". Albert Einstein praised him in 1931 foreword to an edition of Newton's Opticks. Other admirers include physicist Lord Rayleigh and Nobel laureate Philip Anderson. John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... See also Rayleigh fading Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh waves Rayleigh-Jeans law External links Nobel website bio of Rayleigh About John William Strutt MacTutor biography of Lord Rayleigh Categories: People stubs | 1842 births | 1919 deaths | Nobel Prize in Physics winners | Peers | British physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is an American physicist. ...


Research

Double-slit experiment

In physics, Thomas Young is perhaps best known for his work in physical optics, as the author of series of research which did much to establish the wave theory of light, and as the discoverer of the interference of light. In Young's double-slit experiment, c. 1801, he passed a beam of light through two parallel slits in an opaque screen, forming a pattern of alternating light and dark bands on a white surface beyond. This led Young to reason that light was composed of waves. (Tony Rothman in Everything's Relative and Other Fables from Science and Technology argues that there is no clear evidence that Young actually did the experiment. See also Newton wave-particle duality.) Double-slit diffraction and interference pattern The double-slit experiment consists of letting light diffract through two slits, which produces fringes or wave-like interference patterns on a screen. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter simultaneously exhibit properties of waves and of particles (or photons). ... For other uses, see Interference (disambiguation). ... Double-slit diffraction and interference pattern The double-slit experiment consists of letting light diffract through two slits, which produces fringes or wave-like interference patterns on a screen. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Beam may refer to: Look up beam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... Tony Rothman (b. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... In physics, wave-particle duality holds that light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ...


Young's modulus

Main article: Young's modulus

Young described the characterization of elasticity that came to be known as Young's modulus, denoted as E, in 1807, and further described it in his subsequent works such as his 1845 Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts.[3] However, the idea can be traced back to a paper by Leonhard Euler published in 1727, eighty years before Thomas Young's 1807 paper. The first use of the concept of Young's modulus in experiments was by Giordano Riccati in 1782 – predating Young by 25 years.[4] In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... Giordano Riccati (alt. ...


The Young's modulus relates the stress (pressure) in a body to its associated strain (change in length as a ratio of the original length), i.e. stress = E × strain, for a uniaxially loaded specimen. Young's modulus is independent of the component under investigation, i.e. it is an inherent material property (the term modulus refers to an inherent material property). Young's Modulus allowed, for the first time, prediction of the strain in a component subject to a known stress (and vice versa). Prior to Young's contribution, engineers were required to apply Hooke's F = kx relationship to identify the deformation (x) of a body subject to a known load (F). Where the constant (k) is a function of both the geometry and material under consideration. This required physical testing for any new component as the F = kx relationship is a function of both geometry and material. Young's Modulus depends only on the material, not its geometry, thus allowing a revolution in engineering strategies.

 theory=== 

Young has also been called the founder of physiological optics. In 1793 he explained the mode in which the eye accommodates itself to vision at different distances as depending on change of the curvature of the crystalline lens; in 1801 he was the first to describe astigmatism; and in his Lectures he presented the hypothesis, afterwards developed by Hermann von Helmholtz, that colour perception depends on the presence in the retina of three kinds of nerve fibres which respond respectively to red, green and violet light. This theory was experimentally proven in 1959. Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... In optics, astigmatism is when an optical system has different foci for rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ...


See also Young–Helmholtz theory The Young–Helmholtz theory (proposed in the 19th century by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz) is a theory of trichromatic color vision - the manner in which the photoreceptors in the eyes of humans and other primates work to enable color vision. ...


Young–Laplace equation

In 1804 Thomas Young (Essay on the " Cohesion of Fluids, " Phil. Trans., 1805, p. 65) founded the theory of capillary phenomena on the principle of surface tension. He also observed the constancy of the angle of contact of a liquid surface with a solid, and showed how from these two principles to deduce the phenomena of capillary action. Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ...


The Young–Laplace equation is the formula for capillary action independently discovered by Laplace in 1805. In fluid dynamics, the Young–Laplace equation describes the equilibrium pressure balance at the interface between two static fluids, where is the pressure difference over the interface, the surface tension, is the mean curvature, and and are the principal radii of curvature at the interface. ...


Young was the first to define the term "energy" in the modern sense.[5]


Young's equation and Young–Dupré equation

Young’s equation describes the contact angle of a liquid drop on a plane solid surface as a function of the surface free energy, the interfacial free energy and the surface tension of the liquid. Young’s equation was developed further some 60 years later by Dupré to account for thermodynamic effects, and this is known as the Young–Dupré equation. Image from a video contact angle device. ...


Medicine

In physiology Young made an important contribution to haemodynamics in the Croonian lecture for 1808 on the "Functions of the Heart and Arteries," and his medical writings included An Introduction to Medical Literature, including a System of Practical Nosology (1813) and A Practical and Historical Treatise on Consumptive Diseases (1815). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Stub ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Young devised a rule of thumb for determining a child’s drug dosage. Young’s Rule states that the child dosage is equal to the adult dosage multiplied by the child’s age in years, divided by the sum of 12 plus the child’s age.


Languages

In his Encyclopaedia Britannica article "Languages", Young compared the grammar and vocabulary of 400 languages[6]. In a separate work in 1813, he introduced the term Indo-European languages, 165 years after the Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn made such a proposal in 1647. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn (August 28 1612, October 3 1653) was a Dutch scholar. ...


Egyptian hieroglyphs

Young was also one of the first who tried to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs, with Silvestre de Sacy and Johan David Åkerblad who built up a demotic alphabet of 29 letters which was largely used by Young. But Åkerblad believed that demotic was entirely phonetic or alphabetic and was wrong. By 1814 he had completely translated the "enchorial" (demotic, in modern terms) text of the Rosetta Stone (he had a list with 86 demotic words), and then studied the hieroglyphic alphabet but failed to recognise that the demotic and hieroglyphic texts were paraphrases and not simple translations. In 1823 he published an Account of the Recent Discoveries in Hieroglyphic Literature and Egyptian Antiquities. Some of Young's conclusions appeared in the famous article "Egypt" he wrote for the 1818 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Antoine Isaac, baron Silvestre de Sacy (September 21, 1758 - February 21, 1838), was a French orientalist. ... Johan David Ã…kerblad (1763–1819) was a Swedish diplomat and orientalist, a student of Sacy. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


When the French linguist Jean-François Champollion published his translation of the hieroglyphs, Young praised his work but also stated that Champollion had based his system on Young's articles and tried to have his part recognized. Champollion, however, was unwilling to share the credit. In the forthcoming schism, strongly motivated by the political tensions of that time, the British supported Young and the French Champollion. Champollion, whose complete understanding of the hieroglyphic grammar showed the mistakes made by Young, maintained that he alone had deciphered the hieroglyphs. However, after 1826, he did offer Young access to demotic manuscripts in the Louvre, when he was a curator there. For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... This article is about the museum. ...


Music

He developed Young temperament, a method of tuning musical instruments. Thomas Young (1773 - 1829) devised a form of musical tuning known as a well temperament which he included in a letter to the Royal Society of London written July 9, 1799. ...


Selected writings of Thomas Young

  • A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (1807, republished 2002 by Thoemmes Press).
  • Miscellaneous Works of the Late Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S. (1855, 3 volumes, editor John Murray, republished 2003 by Thoemmes Press).

References

  1. ^ Singh, Simon (2000). The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography. Anchor. ISBN 0-385-49532-3. 
  2. ^ George Peacock (1855). Life of Thomas Young: M.D., F.R.S., &c.; and One of the Eight Foreign Associates of the National Institute of France. J. Murray. 
  3. ^ Thomas Young (1845). Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts. London: Taylor and Walton. 
  4. ^ Truesdell, Clifford A. (1960). The Rational Mechanics of Flexible or Elastic Bodies, 1638-1788: Introduction to Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia, vol. X and XI, Seriei Secundae. Orell Fussli. 
  5. ^ Gustav Theodor Fechner (1878). Ueber den Ausgangswerth der kleinsten Absweichungssumme. S. Hirzel. 
  6. ^ Robinson, Andrew (2007). The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the Anonymous Genius who Proved Newton Wrong and Deciphered the Rosetta Stone, among Other Surprising Feats. Penguin. ISBN 0131343041. 
  • Andrew Robinson, Thomas Young: The man who knew everything (History Today April 2006).
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • "A polymath's dilemma", Nature Volume 438, Number 7066 (17 November 2005), p291

Andrew Robinson. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

Further reading

  • Andrew Robinson. The Last Man Who Knew Everything: Thomas Young, the Anonymous Polymath Who Proved Newton Wrong, Explained How We See, Cured the Sick and Deciphered the Rosetta Stone. New York: Pi Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-13-134304-1); Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85168-494-8).
    • Reviewed by Nicholas Shakespeare in The Telegraph, September 24, 2006.
    • Reviewed by Michael Bywater in The New Statesman, November 13, 2006.
    • Reviewed by Simon Singh in The Telegraph, November 26, 2006.
    • Reviewed by Rosemary Hill in The Times, December 10, 2006.
    • Reviewed by PD Smith in The Guardian, January 20, 2007.

Andrew Robinson. ...

External links

  • ABC Radio International program (Ockham's Razor) on Thomas Young -- available for download and streaming (as of July 9, 2006)
  • Partial wetting

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Young (scientist) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (905 words)
Young belonged to a Quaker family of Milverton, Somerset, where he was born in 1773, the youngest of ten children.
Young began to study medicine in London in 1792, moved to Edinburgh in 1794, and a year later went to Göttingen, where he obtained the degree of doctor of physics in 1796.
Young was also one of the first who successfully deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics; by 1814 he had completely translated the "enchorial" (demotic, in modern terms) text of the Rosetta Stone, and a few years later had made considerable progress towards an understanding of the hieroglyphic alphabet.
Thomas Young - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (109 words)
Thomas Young, M.A., Master of Jesus College, Cambridge 1644–50
Thomas Young VC, the recipient of the Victoria Cross
Thomas Young, the Baptist Evangelist from Piedmont, Oklahoma
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m