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Encyclopedia > Thomas Reid
Western Philosophy
18th-century philosophy,
Thomas Reid

Name Thomas Reid (born October 15, 1905 in Motherwell) was an Scottish football player. ... (Redirected from 18th century philosophy) 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... Thomas Reid File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Thomas Reid

Birth

April 26, 1710 ( Strachan, Kincardineshire, Scotland ) is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Strachan is a surname, and may refer to: Andy Strachan drummer Douglas Strachan Scottish designer of stained glass windows Gavin Strachan footballer Gordon Strachan Scottish footballer and manager Gordon C. Strachan aide to H R Haldeman Graham Strachan rock singer Harcus Strachan VC Hew Strachan military historian James Strachan National... Kincardineshire, also known as The Mearns (from A Mhaoirne meaning The Stewartry) is a traditional county on the coast of Northeast Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...

Death

October 7, 1796 ( Glasgow, Scotland ) is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...

School/tradition

Scottish School of Common Sense,
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish School of Common Sense was a school of philosophy that flourished in Scotland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ...

Main interests

Metaphysics, Epistemology, Mind, Ethics Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...

Notable ideas

direct realism, proper functionalism (later made popular by Alvin Plantinga) Direct realism is a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world. ... Alvin Carl Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of religion and modest support of intelligent design. ...

Influences

Hume, Cicero, Aquinas, Berkeley This article is about the philosopher. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ...

Influenced

Cousin, Plantinga, C.S. Peirce, Moore, Iain King, Alston, Hartley Victor Cousin. ... Alvin Carl Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of religion and modest support of intelligent design. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced purse), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... Iain King (born 1971) is a contemporary British moral philosopher. ... William P. Alston (born 1921) is professor emeritus at Syracuse University, and has been influential as an epistemologist. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Hartley. ...

Thomas Reid (April 26, 1710October 7, 1796), Scottish philosopher, and a contemporary of David Hume, was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense, and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. The early part of his life was spent in Aberdeen, Scotland, where he created the 'Wise Club' (a literary-philosophical association) and graduated from the University of Aberdeen. He was given a professorship at King's College Aberdeen in 1752, where he wrote An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (published in 1764). Shortly afterward he was given the prestigious Professorship of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow when he was called to replace Adam Smith. He resigned from this position in 1781. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... The Scottish School of Common Sense was a school of philosophy that flourished in Scotland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... University of Glasgow The Nova Erectio of King James VI of Scotland shared the teaching of Moral Philosophy, Logic and Natural Philosophy among the Regents. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ...


Reid believed that common sense (in a special philosophical sense) is, or at least should be, at the foundation of all philosophical inquiry. He disagreed with Hume and George Berkeley, who asserted that humans do not experience matter or mind as either sensations or ideas. Reid claimed that common sense tells us that there is matter and mind. For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ...


In his day and for some years into the 19th century, he was regarded as more important than David Hume. He advocated direct realism, or common sense realism, and argued strongly against the Theory of Ideas advocated by John Locke, René Descartes, and (in varying forms) nearly all Early Modern philosophers who came after them. He had a great admiration for Hume and asked him to correct the first manuscript of his (Reid's) Inquiry. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Direct realism is a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world. ... Naïve realism is a common sense theory of perception. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Descartes redirects here. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ...


Thomas Reid's Theory of Common Sense

His theory of knowledge had a strong influence on his theory of morals. He thought epistemology was an introductory part to practical ethics: When we are confirmed in our common beliefs by philosophy, all we have to do is to act according to them, because we know what is right. His moral philosophy is reminiscent of the Latin stoicism mediated by the scholastics, St. Thomas Aquinas and the Christian way of life. He often quotes Cicero, from whom he adopted the term "sensus communis." Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Scholastic redirects here. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


He set down six axioms which he regarded as an essential basis for reasoning, all derived from "sensus communis":

  • That the thoughts of which I am conscious are thoughts of a being which I call myself, my mind, my person;
  • That those things did really happen that I distinctly remember;
  • That we have some degree of power over our actions, and the determination of our will;
  • That there is life and intelligence in our fellow men with whom we converse;
  • That there is a certain regard due to human testimony in matters of fact, and even to human authority in matters of opinion;
  • That, in the phenomena of nature, what is to be, will probably be like what has been in similar circumstances.

These axioms did not so much answer the testing problems set by David Hume and, earlier, René Descartes, as simply deny them. Contemporary philosopher Roy Sorensen writes "Reid's common sense looks like an impression left by Hume; concave where Hume is convex, convex where Hume is concave. One explanation is that common sense is reactive... Without a provocateur, common sense is faceless." This article is about the philosopher. ... Descartes redirects here. ...


His reputation waned after attacks on the Scottish School of Common Sense by Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, but his was the philosophy taught in the colleges of North America, during the 19th century, and was championed by Victor Cousin, a French philosopher. Justus Buchler showed that Reid was an important influence on the American philosopher C.S. Peirce, who shared Reid's concern to revalue common sense and whose work links Reid to pragmatism. To Peirce, the closest we can get to truth in this world is a consensus of millions that something is so. Common sense is socially constructed truth, open to verification much like scientific method, and constantly evolving as evidence, perception, and practice warrant. Reid's reputation has revived in the wake of the advocacy of common sense as a philosophical method or criterion by G. E. Moore early in the 20th century, and more recently due to the attention given to Reid by contemporary philosophers, in particular those seeking to defend Christianity from philosophical attacks, such as William Alston and Alvin Plantinga. The Scottish School of Common Sense was a school of philosophy that flourished in Scotland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Kant redirects here. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Cousin. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced purse), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... William P. Alston (born 1921) is professor emeritus at Syracuse University, and has been influential as an epistemologist. ... Alvin Carl Plantinga (born 15 November 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) is a contemporary American philosopher known for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of religion and modest support of intelligent design. ...


He wrote a number of important philosophical works, including Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (1764, Glasgow & London), Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785) and Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788). In 1844, Schopenhauer praised Reid for explaining that the perception of external objects does not result from the raw data that is received through the five senses: Jan. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ...

Thomas Reid's excellent book, Inquiry into the Human Mind …, affords us a very thorough conviction of the inadequacy of the senses for producing the objective perception of things, and also of the non-empirical origin of the intuition of space and time. Reid refutes Locke's teaching that perception is a product of the senses. This he does by a thorough and acute demonstration that the collective sensations of the senses do not bear the least resemblance to the world known through perception, and in particular by showing that Locke's five primary qualities (extension, figure, solidity, movement, number) cannot possibly be supplied to us by any sensation of the senses. … . Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Locke is a common Western surname of English origin: John Locke, an English Enlightenment philosopher. ...

The World as Will and Representation, Vol. II, Ch. 2 Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...

See also

  • Philosophy of perception
  • Stephen Barker & Tom Beauchamp, eds., "Thomas Reid: Critical Interpretations" (1976).
  • Steffen Ducheyne, Reid’s Adaptation and Radicalization of Newton’s Natural Philosophy, History of European Ideas 32, 2006, pp. 173-189.
  • Davis, William C., Thomas Reid’s Ethics: Moral Epistemology on Legal Foundations, Continuum International, 2006. ISBN 0-826488-09-9

The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes and symbols depend on the world internal and external to the perceiver. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Reid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (549 words)
Thomas Reid (April 26, 1710 – October 7, 1796), Scottish philosopher, and a contemporary of David Hume, was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense, and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment.
Reid believed that common sense (in a special philosophical sense) is, or at least should be, at the foundation of all philosophical inquiry.
Reid claimed that common sense tells us that there is matter and mind.
Thomas Reid (12748 words)
Thomas Reid (1710-1796) is a Scottish philosopher and one of the founders of the "common sense" school of philosophy.
Reid accepts that the qualities which we ordinarily conceive objects to have — whether shapes, sizes and motions, on the one hand, or colors, sounds, tastes and smells, on the other — are genuinely possessed by those objects (barring illusions and disorders of various sorts, which are, incidentally, difficult for Reid to explain).
Reid does not rest content to defend the claim that human beings are the efficient causes of their own behavior by responding to the best objections to it; he also provides three positive arguments for the claim which he labels, prosaically, the ‘first ’, ‘second ’ and ‘third argument for moral liberty ’.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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