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Encyclopedia > Thomas Paine
Western Philosophy
18th-century philosophy
Thomas Paine

Name Thomas Paine may refer to Thomas Paine, a US Founding Father and author of Rights of Man and The Age of Reason Thomas Paine (privateer), a colonial American privateer Thomas O. Paine, a NASA administrator Category: ... (Redirected from 18th century philosophy) 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... radical thinker! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Tom Paine

Birth

January 29, 1737
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Death

July 8, 1809 (aged 72)
Flag of the United States Flag of New York New York City, New York, USA is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...

School/tradition

Enlightenment, Radicalism, Classical Liberalism, Republicanism The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...

Main interests

Ethics, Politics For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

Influences

Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke, Religious Society of Friends, Montesquieu For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Quaker redirects here. ... Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages...

Influenced

Thomas Jefferson, Vergniaund, Lincoln, Edison, M.D. Conway Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud (May 31, 1753 - October 31, 1793) was a French orator and revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Moncure Daniel Conway Moncure Daniel Conway (March 17, 1832 - November 5, 1907), was an American clergyman and author. ...

Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 17378 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, classical liberal and intellectual. Born in Great Britain, he lived in America, having migrated to the American colonies just in time to take part in the American Revolution, mainly as the author of the powerful, widely read pamphlet, Common Sense (1776), advocating independence for the American Colonies from the Kingdom of Great Britain and of The American Crisis, supporting the Revolution. Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland area of Norfolk, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes pamphlets: for example in order to get people to vote for their favourite politician or to articulate a particular political ideology. ... Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Literati redirects here. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Common Sense redirects here. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The American Crisis was a series of pamphlets published in London from 1776–1783 during the American Revolution by revolutionary author Thomas Paine. ...


Later, Paine was a great influence on the French Revolution. He wrote the Rights of Man (1791) as a guide to the ideas of the Enlightenment. Despite an inability to speak French, he was elected to the French National Assembly in 1792. Regarded as an ally of the Girondists, he was seen with increasing disfavour by the Montagnards and in particular by Robespierre. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or Baguettes), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ...


Paine was arrested in Paris and imprisoned in December 1793; he was released in 1794. He became notorious with his book, The Age of Reason (1793-94), which advocated deism and took issue with Christian doctrines. While in France, he also wrote a pamphlet titled Agrarian Justice (1795), which discussed the origins of property and introduced a concept that is similar to a guaranteed minimum income. For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... In Agrarian Justice Thomas Paine is at his best in A J Ayers opininon*, and the proposal contained in it is a remarkable anticipation of the humane principles of the Welfare State. Published in 1797, this work was base on the contention that the earth, in its natural uncultivated... Guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would provide eligible citizens with a certain sum of money (independent of whether they work or not), also known as Basic Income Guarantee (BIG), universal basic income, citizens income scheme, demogrant, or just a basic income (the term...


Paine remained in France during the early Napoleonic Era, but condemned Napoleon's moves towards dictatorship, calling him "the completest charlatan that ever existed."[1] Paine remained in France until 1802, when he returned to America on an invitation from Thomas Jefferson, who had been elected president. The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Paine died at 59 Grove Street in Greenwich Village, New York City, on the morning of June 8, 1809. The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Thomas Paine's Lewes home.
Thomas Paine's Lewes home.

Paine grew up around farmers and uneducated people, as his parents, Joseph Paine, a Quaker, and Frances Cocke, an Anglican, were impoverished. He left school at the age of 12 and was apprenticed to his father, a corset maker, at 13, but apparently failed at this. At 19, Paine became a merchant seaman, serving a short time before returning to Great Britain in April 1759. There he became a master corsetmaker and set up a shop in Sandwich, Kent. On September 27, 1759, Paine married Mary Lambert. His business collapsed soon after. His wife became pregnant, and, following a move to Margate, went into early labor and died along with her child. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x1232, 479 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Paine Lewes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x1232, 479 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Paine Lewes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ... Arms of Sandwich Town Council Sandwich is an historic town in Kent, south-east England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Margate is a town in Thanet, Kent, England (population about 60,000). ...


In July 1761, Paine returned to Thetford where he worked as a supernumerary officer. In December 1762, he became an excise officer in Grantham, Lincolnshire. In August 1764, he was again transferred, this time to Alford, where his salary was £50 a year. On 27 August 1765, Paine was discharged from his post for claiming to have inspected goods when in fact he had only seen the documentation. On July 3, 1766, he wrote a letter to the Board of Excise asking to be reinstated. The next day the board granted his request to be filled, upon vacancy. While waiting for an opening, Paine worked as a staymaker in Diss, Norfolk and later as a servant (records show he worked for a Mr. Noble of Goodman's Fields and then for a Mr. Gardiner at Kensington). He also applied to become an ordained minister of the Church of England and, according to some accounts [2], he preached in Moorfields. Supernumerary is a member of the staff or an employee who works in a public office but is not part of the manpower complement. ... Grantham is a small market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 40,000 inhabitants. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... Alford (pronounced Olford) is a town in Lincolnshire, England, with a population of about 3,500 people. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... , Diss is a town (population 6742[1]) in Norfolk, England. ... For other uses, see Kensington (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ... In London, the Moorfields were one of the last pieces of open land in the City of London, near the Moorgate. ...


In 1767, Paine was appointed to a position in Grampound, Cornwall. He was subsequently asked to leave this post to await another vacancy and he became a schoolteacher in London. On 19 February 1768, Paine was appointed to Lewes, East Sussex. He moved into the room above the 15th-century Bull House, a building which held the snuff and tobacco shop of Samuel and Esther Ollive. Here Paine became involved for the first time in civic matters when Samuel Ollive introduced him into the Society of Twelve, a local elite group that met twice a year to discuss town issues. In addition, Paine participated in the Vestry, the influential church group that collected taxes and tithes and distributed them to the poor. On 26 March 1771, at age 36, he married his landlord's daughter, Elizabeth Ollive. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This is about Lewes in England. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A vestry is a room within or attached to a church which is used to store vestments and other items used in worship. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


From 1772 to 1773, Paine joined other excise officers in lobbying Parliament for better pay and working conditions for excisemen, and in the summer of 1772 he published The Case of the Officers of Excise, a 21-page article and his first political work. Paine had 4,000 copies printed and spent the winter in London distributing the pamphlet to members of Parliament. In the spring of 1774, Paine was dismissed from the excise service for being absent from his post without permission, and his tobacco shop failed as well. On April 14, he auctioned off his household possessions to pay his debts. On June 4, he signed a separation agreement with his wife and moved to London where a friend introduced him to Benjamin Franklin in September. Franklin advised Paine to emigrate to the British colonies in America, and wrote him letters of recommendation. Paine left England in October, arriving in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on November 30, 1774.[3] Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... A map of the Province of Pennsylvania. ...


Paine barely survived the transatlantic voyage. The drinking water on the ship was so bad that typhoid fever killed five passengers, and Paine was too ill to leave his cabin when he arrived in Philadelphia. Benjamin Franklin's physician, who had arrived to welcome him to America, literally had to pick up Paine and carry him off. It took the doctor six weeks to nurse Paine back to health. For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ...


Paine was also an inventor, receiving a patent in Europe for a single-span iron bridge, even though through a lack of funds, the bridge was in a field in Paddington, London. He developed a smokeless candle,[4][5] and worked with John Fitch on the early development of steam engines. This aptitude for invention, coupled with his originality of thought, found him an advocate more than a century later in the famous inventor Thomas Edison. Edison championed Paine's achievements and helped restore him to his proper place in history. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Iron Bridge Map sources for Ironbridge at grid reference SJ672033 Ironbridge is a settlement beside the River Severn in Shropshire, England that grew up beside the 100 foot (30 meter) cast-iron bridge that was built across the river there in 1779. ... John Fitch (born on January 21, 1743 in South Windsor, Connecticut, died by suicide July, 1798) was a clockmaker, brassworker, and silversmith who built the first recorded steam powered ship in the United States, in 1786. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ...


American Revolution

Common Sense, published 1776
Common Sense, published 1776

Common Sense, Paine's pro-independence monograph published anonymously on 10 January 1776, spread quickly among literate colonists. Within three months, 120,000 copies are alleged to have been distributed throughout the colonies[6], which themselves totaled only four million free inhabitants, making it the best-selling work in 18th-century America. Its total sales in both America and Europe reached 500,000 copies.[7] It convinced many colonists, including George Washington and John Adams, to seek redress in political independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and argued strongly against any compromise short of independence. The work was greatly influenced (including in its name – Paine had originally proposed the title Plain Truth) by the equally controversial pro-independence writer Benjamin Rush and was instrumental in bringing about the Declaration of Independence. Download high resolution version (510x800, 130 KB)Common Sense This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (510x800, 130 KB)Common Sense This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Common Sense redirects here. ... Common Sense redirects here. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, painted by Charles Willson Peale, c. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


Loyalists attacked Common Sense with vigor. One such early attack, entitled Plain Truth, was written in 1776 by prominent loyalist James Chalmers. An expatriate of Scotland, Chalmers attacked Paine as a "political quack." Chalmers would serve as commander of the First Battalion of Maryland Loyalists in the American Revolution.[8] Lt. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Paine's strength lay in his ability to present complex ideas in clear and concise form, as opposed to the more philosophical approaches of his Enlightenment contemporaries in Europe, and it was Paine who proposed the name United States of America for the new nation. When the war arrived, Paine published a series of important pamphlets, The Crisis, credited with inspiring the early colonists during the ordeals faced in their long struggle with the British. To inspire the troops, President and General George Washington ordered Paine's "The American Crisis" to be read out loud to his men. [9]The first Crisis paper began with the famous words: The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... The American Crisis was a series of pamphlets published in London from 1776–1783 during the American Revolution by revolutionary author Thomas Paine. ...

These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value.

Published on 23 December 1776 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ...

In 1778, Paine alluded to the then ongoing secret negotiations with France in his pamphlets, and there was a scandal which resulted in Paine's being dropped from the Committee on Foreign Affairs. In 1781, however, he accompanied John Laurens during his mission to France. His services were eventually recognized by the state of New York by the granting of an estate at New Rochelle, New York, and he received considerable gifts of money from both Pennsylvania and – at Washington's suggestion – from Congress. Later, while in France, Thomas Paine was scathing towards Washington, writing in a letter to him, "the world will be puzzled to decide whether you are an apostate or an impostor; whether you have abandoned good principles or whether you ever had any"[10] , when he realized that the American revolution had been hijacked by an elite, as was happening in France. He was also vehemently opposed to Washington owning slaves. John Laurens (October 28, 1754 - August 27, 1782) was an American soldier and statesman from South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. ... New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with...


Rights of Man

Main article: Rights of Man

Returning to Europe, Paine finished his Rights of Man on 29 January 1791, while staying with his friend Thomas 'Clio' Rickman. On January 31, he passed the manuscript to the publisher Joseph Johnson, who intended to have it ready for Washington's birthday on February 22. Johnson was visited on a number of occasions by agents of the government. Sensing that Paine's book would be controversial, he decided not to release it on the day it was due to be published. Paine quickly began to negotiate with another publisher, J.S. Jordan. Once a deal was secured, Paine left for Paris on the advice of William Blake, leaving three good friends, William Godwin, Thomas Brand Hollis and Thomas Holcroft, in charge of concluding the publication. The book appeared on March 13, three weeks later than originally scheduled. It was an abstract political tract published in support of the French Revolution, written as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke. The book— which was highly critical of monarchies and European social institutions— sold briskly but was so controversial that the British government put Paine on trial in absentia for seditious libel. In the summer of 1792, he answered the charges with these famous words: "If, to expose the fraud and imposition of monarchy (..), to promote universal peace, civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank; if these things be libellous (...) let the name of libeller be engraved on my tomb"[11]. In a second edition of the Rights of Man in February 1792 Paine proposed a plan for the reformation of England, including one of the first proposals for a progressive income tax. Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Clio Rickman (born 1760; died 1834), was born to a Quaker family, the youngest son of John Rickman (1715-1789), a brewer (and the freeholder of the Bear Inn at Cliffe, near Lewes, Sussex), and Elizabeth Rickman (née Peters). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Only known portrait of Joseph Johnson by William Sharp (after Moses Haughton)[1] Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential eighteenth-century London bookseller, often called the father of the book trade in England. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... Thomas Holcroft (December 10, 1745 - March 23, 1809) was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Title page from Reflections Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ...

Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the French National Assembly taking the Tennis Court Oath. David, like Paine, served in the 1792 National Convention.
Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the French National Assembly taking the Tennis Court Oath. David, like Paine, served in the 1792 National Convention.

Paine was an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution, and was granted, along with Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, and Benjamin Franklin among others, honorary French citizenship. Despite his inability to speak French, he was elected to the National Convention, representing the district of Pas-de-Calais. He voted for the French Republic; but argued against the execution of Louis XVI, saying that he should instead be exiled to the United States of America: firstly, because of the way royalist France had come to the aid of the American Revolution; and secondly because of a moral objection to capital punishment in general and to revenge killings in particular. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x557, 175 KB) David, le serment du Jeu de Paume. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x557, 175 KB) David, le serment du Jeu de Paume. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757[1]—July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ...


Regarded as an ally of the Girondins, he was seen with increasing disfavour by the Montagnards who were now in power, and in particular by Robespierre. A decree was passed at the end of 1793 excluding foreigners from their places in the Convention (Anacharsis Cloots was also deprived of his place). Paine was arrested and imprisoned in December 1793. The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or Baguettes), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce, baron de Cloots (1755 - March 24, 1794), better known as Anacharsis Cloots, a noteworthy figure in the French Revolution, was born near Cleves, at the castle of Génadenthal. ...


Paine protested and claimed that he was a citizen of America, which was an ally of Revolutionary France, rather than of Great Britain, which was by that time at war with France. However, Gouverneur Morris, the American ambassador to France, did not press his claim, and Paine later wrote that Morris had connived at his imprisonment. Paine thought that George Washington had abandoned him, and was to quarrel with him for the rest of his life.[12] Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ...


Imprisoned and fearing that each day might be his last, Paine escaped execution apparently by chance. A guard walked through the prison placing a chalk mark on the doors of the prisoners who were due to be condemned that day. He placed one on the door of the cell that Paine shared with three other prisoners, which, because Paine was ill at the time, he had asked to be left open. The prisoners in the cell then closed the door so that the chalk mark faced into the cell when they were due to be rounded up. They were overlooked, and survived the few vital days needed to be spared by the fall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794). Paine was released in November 1794 largely because of the work of the new American Minister to France, James Monroe. The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ...


Before his arrest and imprisonment, knowing that he would likely be arrested and executed, Paine wrote the first part of The Age of Reason, an assault on organized "revealed" religion combining a compilation of inconsistencies he found in the Bible with his own advocacy of Deism. In his "Autobiographical Interlude," which is found in The Age of Reason between the first and second parts, Paine writes, "Thus far I had written on the 28th of December, 1793. In the evening I went to the Hotel Philadelphia . . . About four in the morning I was awakened by a rapping at my chamber door; when I opened it, I saw a guard and the master of the hotel with them. The guard told me they came to put me under arrestation and to demand the key of my papers. I desired them to walk in, and I would dress myself and go with them immediately." For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...


In 1800, Paine purportedly had a meeting with Napoleon. Napoleon claimed he slept with a copy of Rights of Man under his pillow and went so far as to say to Paine that "a statue of gold should be erected to you in every city in the universe." Paine quickly moved from admiration to condemnation, however, as he saw Napoleon's moves toward dictatorship, calling him "the completest charlatan that ever existed."[13] Paine remained in France until 1802, when he returned to America on an invitation from Thomas Jefferson. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Later years

Thomas Paine's monument on North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York
Thomas Paine's monument on North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York

Paine returned to America in the early stages of the Second Great Awakening and a time of great political partisanship. The Age of Reason gave ample excuse for the religiously devout to hate him, and the Federalists attacked him for his ideas of government stated in Common Sense, for his association with the French Revolution, and for his friendship with President Jefferson. Also still fresh in the minds of the public was his Letter to Washington, published six years before his return. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the monument to Thomas Paine on North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York, on March 30, 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 901 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the monument to Thomas Paine on North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York, on March 30, 2007. ... New Rochelle is a city located in Westchester County in the US state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... The Second Great Awakening  (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ...


Paine died at the age of 72, at 59 Grove Street in Greenwich Village, New York City on the morning of June 8, 1809. Although the original building is no longer there, the present building has a plaque noting that Paine died at this location. At the time of his death, most American newspapers reprinted the obituary notice from the New York Citizen, which read in part: "He had lived long, did some good and much harm." Only six mourners came to his funeral, two of whom were black, most likely freedmen. The great orator and writer Robert G. Ingersoll wrote: The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...

"Thomas Paine had passed the legendary limit of life. One by one most of his old friends and acquaintances had deserted him. Maligned on every side, execrated, shunned and abhorred -- his virtues denounced as vices -- his services forgotten -- his character blackened, he preserved the poise and balance of his soul. He was a victim of the people, but his convictions remained unshaken. He was still a soldier in the army of freedom, and still tried to enlighten and civilize those who were impatiently waiting for his death, Even those who loved their enemies hated him, their friend -- the friend of the whole world -- with all their hearts. On the 8th of June, 1809, death came -- Death, almost his only friend. At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, no civic procession, no military display. In a carriage, a woman and her son who had lived on the bounty of the dead -- on horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of whose heart dominated the creed of his head -- and, following on foot, two negroes filled with gratitude -- constituted the funeral cortege of Thomas Paine."[14]
The burial location of Thomas Paine in New Rochelle, New York

A few years later, the agrarian radical William Cobbett dug up and shipped his bones back to England. The plan was to give Paine a heroic reburial on his native soil, but the bones were still among Cobbett's effects when he died over twenty years later. There is no confirmed story about what happened to them after that, although down the years various people have claimed to own parts of Paine's remains, such as his skull and right hand. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the burial location of Thomas Paine on March 30, 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the burial location of Thomas Paine on March 30, 2007. ... New Rochelle is a city located in Westchester County in the US state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... William Cobbett, portrait in oils possibly by George Cooke around 1831. ...

Views

Some believe Paine may have begun to form his early views on natural justice during his childhood, while listening to a mob jeering and attacking those punished in the Thetford stocks.[citation needed] Others have argued that he was influenced by his Quaker father.[citation needed] In The Age of Reason – Paine's treatise in support of deism – he wrote: Natural justice is a legal philosophy used in some jurisdictions in the determination of just, or fair, processes in legal proceedings. ... For other uses, see stock (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ...

The religion that approaches the nearest of all others to true deism, in the moral and benign part thereof, is that professed by the Quakers … though I revere their philanthropy, I cannot help smiling at [their] conceit; … if the taste of a Quaker [had] been consulted at the Creation, what a silent and drab-colored Creation it would have been! Not a flower would have blossomed its gaieties, nor a bird been permitted to sing.

Paine was an early advocate of republicanism and liberalism. He dismissed monarchy, and viewed all government as, at best, a necessary evil. He opposed slavery and was amongst the earliest proponents of universal, free public education, a guaranteed minimum income, and many other ideas considered radical at the time. Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Slave redirects here. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would provide eligible citizens with a certain sum of money (independent of whether they work or not), also known as Basic Income Guarantee (BIG), universal basic income, citizens income scheme, demogrant, or just a basic income (the term...


In the second part of The Age of Reason, Paine writes about his illness and the fever he suffered while in prison. ". . . I was seized with a fever that in its progress had every symptom of becoming mortal, and from the effects of which I am not recovered. It was then that I remembered with renewed satisfaction, and congratulated myself most sincerely, on having written the former part of 'The Age of Reason.'" The content of the work can be briefly summarized in this quotation:

The opinions I have advanced… are the effect of the most clear and long-established conviction that the Bible and the Testament are impositions upon the world, that the fall of man, the account of Jesus Christ being the Son of God, and of his dying to appease the wrath of God, and of salvation by that strange means, are all fabulous inventions, dishonorable to the wisdom and power of the Almighty; that the only true religion is Deism, by which I then meant, and mean now, the belief of one God, and an imitation of his moral character, or the practice of what are called moral virtues—and that it was upon this only (so far as religion is concerned) that I rested all my hopes of happiness hereafter. So say I now—and so help me God. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

With regard to his religious views, in The Age of Reason (begun in France in 1793), Paine stated: For the 18th Century intellectual and scientific movement, see The Age of Enlightenment. ...

I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church.
All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.

He described himself as a "Deist" and commented: Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ...

How different is [Christianity] to the pure and simple profession of Deism! The true Deist has but one Deity, and his religion consists in contemplating the power, wisdom, and benignity of the Deity in his works, and in endeavoring to imitate him in everything moral, scientifical, and mechanical.

The first article published in America advocating the emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery was written by Paine. Titled "African Slavery in America", it appeared on March 8, 1775 in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser, more popularly known as The Pennsylvania Magazine, or American Museum.[15] Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Paine published his last great pamphlet, Agrarian Justice, in the winter of 1795-96. It further developed ideas proposed in the Rights of Man concerning the way in which the institution of land ownership separated the great majority of persons from their rightful natural inheritance and their means of independent survival. Paine's proposal is now deemed a form of Basic Income Guarantee. The Social Security Administration of the United States recognizes Agrarian Justice as the first American proposal for an old-age pension. In Agrarian Justice Paine writes: Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... A guaranteed minimum income is a proposed system of income redistribution that would give each citizen a certain sum of money independent of whether they work or not. ... The United States Social Security Administration (or SSA[1]) is an independent agency of the United States government established by a law currently codified at 42 U.S.C. Â§ 901. ... A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ...

In advocating the case of the persons thus dispossessed, it is a right, and not a charity… [Government must] create a national fund, out of which there shall be paid to every person, when arrived at the age of twenty-one years, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, as a compensation in part, for the loss of his or her natural inheritance, by the introduction of the system of landed property; And also, the sum of ten pounds per annum, during life, to every person now living, of the age of fifty years, and to all others as they shall arrive at that age.

Legacy

Statue of Thomas Paine in Thetford, Norfolk, Paine's birthplace
Statue of Thomas Paine in Thetford, Norfolk, Paine's birthplace

Thomas Paine's writings had great influence on his contemporaries, especially the American revolutionaries. His books inspired both philosophical and working-class Radicals in the United Kingdom; and he is often claimed as an intellectual ancestor by United States liberals, libertarians, progressives and radicals. Both Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Alva Edison read his works with respect.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (471x640, 102 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Paine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (471x640, 102 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Paine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland area of Norfolk, England. ... A revolutionary is somebody who wants a revolution, and seeks to promote, encourage, or lead the creation of one. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ...


Lincoln is reported by William Herndon to have written a defense of Paine's deism in 1835 that was burned by Lincoln's friend Samuel Hill as a gesture meant to save Lincoln's political career. [1] William Henry Herndon (born in Kentucky, 1818 - 1891 in Springfield, Illinois) was the law partner and biographer of Abraham Lincoln. ...


Edison said of Paine:

I have always regarded Paine as one of the greatest of all Americans. Never have we had a sounder intelligence in this republic… It was my good fortune to encounter Thomas Paine's works in my boyhood… it was, indeed, a revelation to me to read that great thinker's views on political and theological subjects. Paine educated me then about many matters of which I had never before thought. I remember very vividly the flash of enlightenment that shone from Paine's writings and I recall thinking at that time, 'What a pity these works are not today the schoolbooks for all children!' My interest in Paine was not satisfied by my first reading of his works. I went back to them time and again, just as I have done since my boyhood days.[17]

There is a museum in New Rochelle, New York in his honour and a statue of him stands in King Street in Thetford, Norfolk, his place of birth. The Sixth Form in Thetford is also named after Paine.[18] The statue holds a quill and his book, Rights of Man. The book is upside down. NYU also has a bust of Thomas Paine in their pantheon of heroes. Two additional statues of Paine are displayed in Morristown, New Jersey and Bordentown, New Jersey. New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with... Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland area of Norfolk, England. ... Nickname: Military Capital of the Revolution Location of Morristown in Morris County (L); Location of Morris County in New Jersey (R) Coordinates: Country United States State New Jersey County Morris Founded 1715 Incorporated 1865 Mayor Donald Cresitello (D; term ends December 31, 2009. ... See also: Bordentown Township, New Jersey The City of Bordentown highlighted in Burlington County. ...

The Thomas Paine Cottage at 983 North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York

Every year, between 4 July and 14 July, Lewes Town Council organizes a festival to celebrate the life and work of Thomas Paine.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the Thomas Paine Cottage at 983 North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York, on March 30, 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took this photograph of the Thomas Paine Cottage at 983 North Avenue in New Rochelle, New York, on March 30, 2007. ... New Rochelle is a city located in Westchester County in the US state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is about Lewes in England. ...

References

  1. ^ Original source of this quotation is Henry York, LETTERS FROM FRANCE, Two volumes (London, 1804). Thirty three pages of the last letter are devoted to Paine.
  2. ^ The Life of Thomas Paine: With a History of Literary, Political, and Religious Career in America, France, and England (1892), Thomas Paine National Historical Association.
  3. ^ A Biography of Thomas Paine (1737-1809), From Revolution to Reconstruction, Department of Humanities Computing, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Accessed online 4 November 2006.
  4. ^ Thomas Paine, ushistory.org, Independence Hall Association. Accessed online 4 November 2006.
  5. ^ Leaflet number 4: The Adventures of Thomas Paine, The Pink Triangle Trust. Accessed online 4 November 2006.
  6. ^ Oliphant, John; Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. ?. "Paine,Thomas". Charles Scribner's Sons (accessed via Gale Virtual LIbrary). Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  7. ^ Oliphant, John; Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. ?. "Paine,Thomas". Charles Scribner's Sons (accessed via Gale Virtual LIbrary). Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  8. ^ New, M. Christopher. "James Chalmers and Plain Truth A Loyalist Answers Thomas Paine". "Archiving Early America". Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  9. ^ Thomas Paine. The American Crisis. Philadelphia, Styner and Cist, 1776-77.. Indiana University. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.
  10. ^ Thomas Paine, Letter to George Washington, in Michael Foot, Isaac Kramnick (ed.), The Thomas Paine Reader, p.502
  11. ^ Thomas Paine, Letter Addressed To The Addressers On The Late Proclamation, in Michael Foot, Isaac Kramnick (ed.), The Thomas Paine Reader, p. 374
  12. ^ Thomas Paine, Letter to George Washington 30 July 1796: "On Paine's Service to America". Available online at cooperativeindividualism.org, accessed 4 November 2006.
  13. ^ See footnote #2.
  14. ^ Robert G. Ingersoll, Thomas Paine, written 1870, published New Dresden Edition, XI, 321, 1892. Accessed online at thomaspaine.org, 17 February 2007.
  15. ^ Van der Weyde, William M., ed. The Life and Works of Thomas Paine. New York: Thomas Paine National Historical Society, 1925, p. 19-20.
  16. ^ Joseph Lewis, "Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason", Address delivered Feb. 17, 1957, over Radio Station WMIE, Miami Florida. Transcript online at positiveatheism.org. Accessed 4 November 2006
  17. ^ Thomas Edison, Introduction to The Life and Works of Thomas Paine, Citadel Press, New York, 1945 Vol. I, p.vii-ix. Reproduced online on thomaspaine.org, accessed 4 November 2006.
  18. ^ http://www.tutor2u.net/schools/Sir-Thomas-Paine-Sixth-Form.html
  19. ^ The Tom Paine Project, Lewes Town Council. Accessed online 4 November 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...

Bibliography

Primary sources

  • 1995. Collected Writings, Eric Foner, ed. The Library of America. ISBN 978-1-88301103-1
  • 1998. Rights of Man, Common Sense, and Other Political Writings, ed. by Mark Philp. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283557-2.
  • 1976. Common Sense, Issac Kramnick, ed.
  • 1948. The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. Edited by Philip S. Foner.
  • Agrarian Justice.
  • Of The Religion of Deism Compared With The Christian Religion.
  • Origin of Freemasonry.

Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943 in New York City) is an American historian. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ...

Secondary sources

  • Aldridge, A. Owen, 1984. Thomas Paine's American Ideology.
  • Bernard Bailyn, 1990. "Common Sense", in Bailyn, Faces of Revolution.
  • Butler, Marilyn, 1984. Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy.
  • Gregory Claeys, 1989. Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought.
  • Moncure Daniel Conway, 1892. The Life of Thomas Paine, 2 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons. Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Facsimile.
  • Howard Fast, 1946. Citizen Tom Paine (historical novel).
  • Eric Foner, 1976. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. Oxford University Press. The standard biography
  • Hawke, David Freeman, 1992. Paine.
  • Robert G. Ingersoll, 1892, "Thomas Paine," North American Review.
  • Kates, Gary, 1989, "From Liberalism to Radicalism: Tom Paine's Rights of Man," Journal of the History of Ideas: 569-87.
  • Kaye, Harvey J., 2005. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. Hill and Wang.
  • Keane, John, 1995. Tom Paine: A Political Life. London.
  • Larkin, Edward, 2005. Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Nelson, Craig, 2006. Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Moderrn Nations. Viking.
  • Powell, David, 1985. Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile. Hutchinson.
  • Vincent, Bernard, 2005. The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the age of revolutions.

It has been suggested that The Peopling of British North America be merged into this article or section. ... Moncure Daniel Conway Moncure Daniel Conway (March 17, 1832 - November 5, 1907), was an American clergyman and author. ... Howard Melvin Fast (November 11, 1914 – March 12, 2003) was a Jewish American novelist and television writer. ... Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943 in New York City) is an American historian. ... NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ... First issue of the North American Review with signature of its editor William Tudor (1779-1830). ...

See also

The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...

External links

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  • Common Sense: The Rhetoric of Popular Democracy[2] at edsitement.neh.gov
Persondata
NAME Paine, Thomas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Pain, Thomas
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pamphleteer
DATE OF BIRTH 29 January 1737
PLACE OF BIRTH Thetford, England
DATE OF DEATH 8 June 1809
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, USA

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Thomas Paine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2952 words)
Paine was born on 29 January 1737, to impoverished parents: Joseph Pain, a (lapsed) Quaker, and Frances Cocke Pain, an Anglican, in Thetford, Norfolk, in eastern England.
Paine's strength lay in his ability to present complex ideas in clear and concise form, as opposed to the more philosophical approaches of his Enlightenment contemporaries in Europe, and it was Paine who proposed the name United States of America for the new nation.
Paine was arrested and imprisoned in December 1793.
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