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Encyclopedia > Thomas More
Saint Thomas More

Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527).
Martyr
Born February 7, 1478, London, England
Died 6 July 1535 (aged 57), London, England
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Communion
Beatified 1886, near London Hill by Pope Leo XIII
Canonized 1935, Rome by Pope Pius XI
Major shrine Canterbury (head), Tower of London (body)
Feast June 22 (Roman Catholic), July 6 (Anglican & Traditional Roman Catholics)
Attributes Martyr; Axe; dressed in a Chancellor's robe with a neck chain of office
Patronage Adopted children, Arlington, Virginia, civil servants, court clerks, difficult marriages, large families, Pensacola-Tallahassee, Florida, lawyers, politicians and statesmen, stepparents, widowers, Ateneo de Manila Law School, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters
Saints Portal

Saint Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), also Sir Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and statesman who in his lifetime earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar, and occupied many public offices, including Lord Chancellor (1529 – 1532). Sir Thomas coined the word "utopia", a name he gave to an ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described in the eponymous book published in 1516. Chiefly, he is remembered for his principled refusal to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be Supreme Head of the Church in England, which ended his political career and led to his execution for treason. Playtext from the 2005 Royal Shakespeare Company production. ... Thomas More College is a liberal arts college located in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2548, 376 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas More Lord Mayor of London Hans Holbein the Younger Mortification of the flesh Lord Chancellor Frick Collection... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Traditionalist Catholic and Traditional Catholic are broad terms used to denote Roman Catholics who reject some or all of the reforms that were instituted after the Second Vatican Council, in particular the revised rite of Mass, which was promulgated in 1969 by Pope Paul VI as part of the process... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Icon of St. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pensacola-Tallahassee (Latin: Dioecesis Pensacolensis-Talloseiensis is a Roman Catholic diocese in Florida. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Traditionally, a stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent enters a new marriage, whether the parent was widowed or divorced. ... The Ateneo de Manila Law School is the law school of the Ateneo de Manila University, a private Jesuit university in the Philippines. ... The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters, popularly known as UST Artlets or simply UST AB, is the liberal arts college of the University of Santo Tomas, the oldest and the largest university in the city of Manila, Philippines. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Look up reputation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Disambiguation page Complex number Concept in Social Theory ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title held by the King Henry VIII of England that signified his leadership over the Church of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


In 1935, four hundred years after his death, Pope Pius XI canonized St Thomas More in the Roman Catholic Church, and later declared Patron Saint of politicians and statesmen by Pope John Paul II. St Thomas More shares his feast day, June 22 on the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, with Saint John Fisher, the only remaining loyal Bishop (owing to the apparent and coincident natural deaths of eight aged bishops) [1] during the English Reformation to maintain, at the King's mercy, allegiance to the Pope. In 1980, Sir Thomas More was added to the Church of England's calendar of saints. Traditional Roman Catholics continue celebrating his feast day on July 6, the day of his martyrdom. He was voted thirty-seventh of the historical 100 Greatest Britons. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... For other uses, see John Fisher (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a citizen to his state or sovereign. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The Anglican church commemorates many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorates various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ... Traditionalist Catholic and Traditional Catholic are broad terms used to denote Roman Catholics who reject some or all of the reforms that were instituted after the Second Vatican Council, in particular the revised rite of Mass, which was promulgated in 1969 by Pope Paul VI as part of the process... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... // Not to be confused with the later ITV Greatest Britons show. ...


He was an active persecutor of Protestant Reformers, and in his role as Lord Chancellor, managed government officials in the conviction and execution of those found guilty of heresy.

Contents

Early political career

From 1510 to 1518, Thomas More was one of the two undersheriffs of the city of London, a position of much responsibility, wherein he earned a reputation as an honest and effective public servant. In 1517 More entered the King's service as counsellor and personal servant. After a diplomatic mission to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, he was knighted, and made under-treasurer in 1521. As secretary and personal advisor to King Henry VIII, Sir Thomas became governmentally influential (welcoming diplomats, drafting official documents) and liaison between the King and his Lord Chancellor Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, the Archbishop of York. Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... The Undersheriff in American law enforcement is the second in charge of an American Sheriffs Office. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other uses, see Secretary (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


In 1523 More became the Speaker of the House of Commons. As such, he expressed the first known request by a Speaker of the House for free speech. [2] He later was high steward for the universities of Oxford and of Cambridge. In 1525, he was chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, a position holding administrative and judicial control of much of northern England. Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a sinecure office in the British government. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ...


Marriages and family

The Thomas More Family, by Hans Holbein the Younger
The Thomas More Family, by Hans Holbein the Younger

In 1505, aged twenty-seven, More married his first wife, Jane Colt, ten years his junior. According to his son-in-law and first biographer William Roper, More wanted to marry Jane's second sister, but felt Jane would be humiliated if a younger sister married first. Their marriage was happy and bore four children; three daughters and a son — Margaret (Meg, his favourite), Elizabeth (Beth), Cicely (Cecy), and John (Jack); besides his children, More adopted an orphan girl, Margaret Giggs. As a very devoted father, he asked his children write to him when away, even if they had nothing particular to say, and did not beat them. Unusual for the era, he educated his daughters as he did his son, saying that women were just as intelligent as men, taking particular pride in eldest daughter Meg's achievements. A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs cleanup. ... William Roper (1496 - 1578), biographer, son of a Kentish gentleman, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas More. ... Etymology: Late Latin humiliatus, past participle of humiliare, from Latin humilis low. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Portrait of Margaret Roper, from a 1593 reproduction of a now-lost Hans Holbein portrait of all of the women of Thomas Mores family. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ...


Jane Colt died in 1511, and More remarried almost immediately, so his children would have a mother. His second wife, Alice Middleton, was a widow seven years his senior; they bore no children, although he adopted her daughter, Alice; of wife Alice, he said: "nec bella, nec puella" — neither a pearl, nor a girl. Erasmus cruelly described her nose as "the hooked beak of the harpy". Despite very different characters, More and Alice were affectionate, though unable to educate her as he had educated Jane and his daughters. In his epitaph, which he wrote himself, More praised Jane for bearing him four children, and Alice for being a loving stepmother. He declared that he could not tell whom he loved best, and expressed the hope that they would all be reunited in death. Erasmus redirects here. ... Harpy (from Latin: Harpyia, Greek: Άρπυια, Harpuia, pl. ... For other uses, see Epitaph (disambiguation). ... A stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent marries someone new. ...


Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sir John More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Saint Thomas More
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Granger (or Grainger)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agnes Granger (or Grainger)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Scholarly and literary work

Woodcut by Ambrosius Holbein for a 1518 edition of Utopia. The traveler Raphael Hythloday is depicted in the lower left-hand corner describing to a listener the island of Utopia, whose layout is schematically shown above him.
Woodcut by Ambrosius Holbein for a 1518 edition of Utopia. The traveler Raphael Hythloday is depicted in the lower left-hand corner describing to a listener the island of Utopia, whose layout is schematically shown above him.

Despite his busy political career, he was a prolific scholar and literary man. His writing and scholarship earned him great reputation as a Christian Renaissance humanist in continental Europe, and his friend Erasmus of Rotterdam dedicated to him the masterpiece, In Praise of Folly; (the book's title puns More's name, "moria" is folly in Greek.) In his communications with other humanists, Erasmus described him as a model Man of Letters and as an omnium horarum homo. The humanistic project embraced by Erasmus and Thomas More sought re-examination and revitalization of Christian theology by studying the Bible and the writings of the Church Fathers in light of classical Greek literary and philosophic tradition. More and Erasmus collaborated on a Latin translation of the works of Lucian, published in Paris in 1506. Download high resolution version (600x857, 240 KB)Woodcut by Ambrosius Holbein for the 1518 edition of Thomas Mores Utopia. ... Download high resolution version (600x857, 240 KB)Woodcut by Ambrosius Holbein for the 1518 edition of Thomas Mores Utopia. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Portrait of a Young Man 1518 Oil on wood 43 x 32 cm Hermitage Museum Ambrosius Holbein (1494 - 1519) was a German painter. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... Erasmus redirects here. ... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Latin title: Moriae Encomium, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509 by Erasmus of... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History of King Richard III

Between 1513 and 1518, More worked on a History of King Richard III, an unfinished historiography, based on Sir Robert Honorr's Tragic Deunfall of Richard II, Suvereign of Britain (1485), that also greatly influenced William Shakespeare's play Richard III. Both More's and Shakespeare's works are controversial to contemporary historians for their unflattering portrait of King Richard III, a bias partly due to both authors' allegiance to the reigning Tudor dynasty that wrested the throne from Richard III with the Wars of the Roses. More's work, however, little mentions King Henry VII, the first Tudor king, perhaps for having persecuted his father, Sir John More. Some historians see an attack on royal tyranny, rather than on Richard III, himself, or on the House of York. 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ...


The History of King Richard III is a Renaissance historiography, remarkable for its More's literary skill and adherence to classical precepts than for its historical accuracy. More's work, and that of contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, reflects a move from mundane medieval chronicles to a dramatic writing style, for example, the shadowy King Richard is an outstanding, archetypal tyrant drawn from the pages of Sallust, and should be read as a meditation on power and corruption as well as a history of the reign of Richard III. The 'History of King Richard III was written and published in both English and Latin, each written separately, and with information deleted from the Latin edition to suit a European readership. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Polydore Vergil or Virgil (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Utopia

In 1516 More wrote his most famous and controversial work, Utopia, a novel wherein a traveller, Raphael Hythloday (in Greek, his name and surname allude to archangel Raphael, purveyor of truth, and mean "speaker of nonsense"), describes the political arrangements of the imaginary island country of Utopia (Greek pun ou-topos [no place], eu-topos [good place]) to himself and to Peter Giles. This novel presents the city of Amaurote as "of them all this is the worthiest and of most dignity". De Optimo Reipublicae Statu deque Nova Insula Utopia (translated On the Best State of a Republic and on the New Island of Utopia) or more simply Utopia is a 1516 book by Sir (Saint) Thomas More. ...


Utopia contrasts the contentious social life of European states with the perfectly orderly, reasonable social arrangements of Utopia and its environs (Tallstoria, Nolandia, and Aircastle). In Utopia, private property does not exist, and almost complete religious toleration exists. The novels principal message is the social need for order and discipline, rather than liberty. The country of Utopia tolerates different religious practices, but does not tolerate atheists. More theorizes that if a man did not believe in a god or in an afterlife he could never be trusted, because, logically, he would not acknowledge any authority or principle outside himself. For the Religioustolerance. ...


More used the novel describing an imaginary nation as means of freely discussing contemporary controversial matters; speculatively, More based Utopia on monastic communalism, based upon the Biblical communalism in the Acts of the Apostles. For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ...


Utopia is a forerunner of the utopian literary genre, wherein ideal societies and perfect cities are detailed. Although Utopianism typically is a Renaissance movement, combining the classical concepts of perfect societies of Plato and Aristotle with Roman rhetorical finesse (cf. Cicero, Quintilian, epideictic oratory), it continued into the Enlightenment. Utopia 's original edition included the symmetrical "Utopian alphabet", that was omitted from later editions; it is a notable, early attempt at cryptography that might have influenced the development of shorthand. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Epideictic rhetoric, or ceremonial rhetoric, is one of the three branches of rhetoric as outlined in Classical rhetoric. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ...


Religious polemics

Utopia is evidence that he greatly valued harmony and a strict hierarchy. All challenges to uniformity and hierarchy were perceived as dangers; practically, the greatest danger he saw was the challenge that heretics posed to the established faith. For Thomas More, the most important thing was maintaining the unity of Christendom; to his mind, the Lutheran Reformation's fragmentation and discord were dreadful. Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ...


His personal counter-attack began in the manner expected from a writer. He assisted Henry VIII with writing the Defence of the Seven Sacraments (1521), a polemic response to Martin Luther's On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. When Luther replied with Contra Henricum Regem Anglie (Against Henry, King of the English), More was tasked with writing a counter-response, Responsio ad Lutherum (Reply to Luther). This violent exchange had many intemperate personal insults; it deepened More's commitment to the order and discipline outlined in Utopia. Henry VIII redirects here. ... The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book, written by King Henry VIII of England in 1521. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church is a theological and historical work by the Protestant Reformer, Martin Luther. ... Look up ad hominem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Henry VIII's divorce

On the death in 1502 of Henry's elder brother, Arthur, Henry became heir apparent to the English throne, and in 1509 he married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille, as a means of preserving the English alliance with Spain. Henry also found himself in love with Catherine. At this time, Pope Julius II issued a formal dispensation from canon law based on the Biblical injunction (Leviticus 20:21) against a man marrying his brother's widow. This dispensation was based partly on Catherine's testimony that the marriage between her and Arthur had not been consummated. 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Arthur Tudor (19 September/20 September 1486–2 April 1502) was the first son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and therefore, heir to the throne of England and Wales. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was queen of Castile and Leon. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Dispensation is the act of distributing goods or services, especially those that are regulated, as in the practice of pharmacists. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... As a verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion, such as a transaction, concept, plan or action. ...


For many years the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine was smooth, but Catherine failed to provide a male heir and Henry eventually became enamored of Elizabeth Blount, one of Queen Catherine's ladies in the court, and still later of Anne Boleyn. In 1527, Henry instructed Thomas Cardinal Wolsey to petition Pope Clement VII for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, on the grounds that the pope had no authority to override a Biblical injunction, and that therefore Julius's dispensation had been invalid, rendering his marriage to Catherine void. The pope steadfastly refused such an annulment. Henry reacted by forcing Wolsey to resign as Lord Chancellor and appointing Thomas More in his place in October 1529. Henry then began to embrace the argument that the Pope was only the Bishop of Rome and therefore had no authority over the Christian Church as a whole. Elizabeth Blount, better known as Bessie Blount (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ...


Chancellorship

More, until then fully devoted to Henry and to the cause of royal prerogative, initially cooperated with the king's new policy, denouncing Wolsey in Parliament and proclaiming the opinion of the theologians at Oxford and Cambridge that the marriage of Henry to Catherine had been unlawful. But as Henry began to deny the authority of the Pope, More's qualms grew. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Campaign against Protestantism

For More, heresy was a disease, a threat to the peace and unity of both church and society. His early actions against the Protestants included aiding Cardinal Wolsey in preventing Lutheran books from being imported into England. He also assisted in the production of a Star Chamber edict against heretical preaching. Many literary polemics appeared under his name, as listed above. After becoming Lord Chancellor of England, More set himself the following task: For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (c. ... The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ...

Now seeing that the king's gracious purpose in this point, I reckon that being his unworthy chancellor, it appertaineth... to help as much as in me is, that his people, abandoning the contagion of all such pestilent writing, may be far from infection.

As Lord Chancellor, More had six Lutherans burned at the stake and imprisoned as many as forty others. His chief concern in this matter was to wipe out collaborators of William Tyndale, the exiled Lutheran who in 1525 had published a Protestant translation of the Bible in English which was circulating clandestinely in England (Tyndale had also written The Practyse of Prelates (1530), opposing Henry VIII's divorce on the grounds that it was unscriptural and was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts). Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


In June 1530 it was decreed that offenders were to be brought before the King's Council, rather than being examined by their bishops, the practice hitherto. Actions taken by the Council became ever more severe. In 1531, one Richard Bayfield, a book peddler, was burned at Smithfield. Further burnings followed. In The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, yet another polemic, More took particular interest[citation needed] in the execution of Sir Thomas Hitton, describing him as "the devil's stinking martyr." Rumors circulated during and after More's lifetime concerning his treatment of heretics, with some, such as John Foxe (who "placed Protestant sufferings against the background of ... the Antichrist" [3]) in his Book of Martyrs, claiming that he had often used violence or torture while interrogating them. More strongly denied these allegations, swearing "As help me God," that heretics had never been given, "so much as a flypaper on the forehead."[4] June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...


Resignation

In 1530 More refused to sign a letter by the leading English churchmen and aristocrats asking the Pope to annul Henry's marriage to Catherine. In 1531 he attempted to resign after being forced to take an oath declaring the king the Supreme Head of the English Church "as far as the law of Christ allows." In 1532 he asked the king again to relieve him of his office, claiming that he was ill and suffering from sharp chest pains. This time Henry granted his request. Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...


Trial and execution

The last straw for Henry came in 1533, when More refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn as the Queen of England. Technically, this was not an act of treason as More had written to Henry acknowledging Anne's queenship and expressing his desire for his happiness[5]—but his friendship with the old queen, Catherine of Aragon, still prevented him from attending Anne's triumph. His refusal to attend her coronation was widely interpreted as a snub against her. A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla), was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ...


Shortly thereafter More was charged with accepting bribes, but the patently false charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence. In 1534 he was accused of conspiring with Elizabeth Barton, a nun who had prophesied against the king's divorce, but More was able to produce a letter in which he had instructed Barton not to interfere with state matters. Elizabeth Barton (known as The Nun of Kent, The Holy Maid of London or The Holy Maid of Kent; 1506? – April 20, 1534) was executed for prophesying that if King Henry VIII of England married Anne Boleyn against the wishes of the Pope, he would die within six months. ...


On 13 April of that year More was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance to the parliamentary Act of Succession. More accepted Parliament's right to declare Anne the legitimate queen of England, but he refused to take the oath because of an anti-papal preface to the Act asserting Parliament's authority to legislate in matters of religion by denying the authority of the Pope, which More would not accept. The oath is written here in modern-day English. is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Succession Act of Henry VIIIs reign was passed by the Parliament of England in March 1534, and removed Mary from the line of the succession, leaving Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

....And at the day of the last prorogation of this present Parliament, as well the nobles spiritual and temporal as other the Commons of this present Parliament, most lovingly accepted and took such oath as then was devised in writing for maintenance and defence of the said Act, and meant and intended at that time that every other the king's subjects should be bound to accept and take the same, upon the pains contained in the said Act, the tenor of which oath hereafter ensueth: 'Ye shall swear to bear faith, truth, and obedience alonely to the king's majesty, and to his heirs of his body of his most dear and entirely beloved lawful wife Queen Anne, begotten and to be begotten, and further to the heirs of our said sovereign lord according to the limitation in the statute made for surety of his succession in the crown of this realm, mentioned and contained, and not to any other within this realm, for foreign authority or potentate: and in case any oath be made, or has been made, by you, to any person or persons, that then ye are to repute the same as vain and annihilate; and that, to your cunning, wit, and uttermost of your power, without guile, fraud, or other undue means, you shall observe, keep, maintain, and defend the said Act of Accession, and all the whole effects and contents thereof, and all other Acts and statutes made in confirmation, or for the execution of the same, or of anything therein contained; and this ye shall do against all manner of persons, of what estate, dignity, degree, or condition soever they be, and in no wise do or attempt, nor to your power suffer to be done or attempted, directly or indirectly, any thing or things privily or apartly to the let, hindrance, damage, or derogation thereof, or of any part of the same, by any manner of means, or for any manner of pretence; so help you God, all saints, and the holy Evangelists.' And forasmuch as it is convenient for the sure maintenance and defence of the same Act that the said oath should not only be authorized by authority of Parliament, but also be interpreted and expounded by the whole assent of this present Parliament, that is was meant and intended by the king's majesty, the Lords and Commons of the Parliament, at the said day of the said last prorogation, that every subject should be bounden to take the same oath, according to the tenor and effect thereof, upon the pains and penalties contained in the said Act.... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ...

Four days later he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he wrote his devotional Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation. For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


On 1 July 1535, More was tried before a panel of judges that included the new Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Audley, as well as Anne Boleyn's father, brother, and uncle. He was charged with high treason for denying the validity of the Act of Succession. More believed he could not be convicted as long as he did not explicitly deny that the king was the head of the church, and he therefore refused to answer all questions regarding his opinions on the subject. Thomas Cromwell, at the time the most powerful of the king's advisors, brought forth the Solicitor General, Richard Rich, to testify that More had, in his presence, denied that the king was the legitimate head of the church. This testimony was almost certainly perjured (witnesses Richard Southwell and Mr. Palmer both denied having heard the details of the reported conversation), but on the strength of it the jury voted for More's conviction. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... pie is nice Year 1535 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden (c. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Her Majestys Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney General, whose duty is to advise the Crown and Cabinet on the law. ... Richard Rich, 1st Baron Rich (1496/7 - June 12, 1567), was Lord Chancellor during the reign of King Edward VI of England. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... Sir Richard Southwell (c. ...


More was tried, and found guilty, under the following section of the Treason Act 1534. Treasons Act 1534 (citation ) was an Act passed by English Parliament during the reign of King Henry VIII of England in 1534. ...

Be it therefore enacted by the assent and consent of our sovereign lord the king, and the Lords spiritual and temporal, and Commons in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that if any person or persons, after the first day of February next coming, do maliciously wish, will or desire, by words or writing, or by craft imagine, invent, practise, or attempt any bodily harm to be done or committed to the king's most royal person, the queen's, or their heirs apparent, or to deprive them or any of them of their dignity, title, or name of their royal estates, or slanderously and maliciously publish and pronounce, by express writing or words, that the king our sovereign lord should be heretic, schismatic, tyrant, infidel or usurper of the crown, or rebelliously do detain, keep, or withhold from our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, any of his or their castles, fortresses, fortalices, or holds within this realm, or in any other the king's dominions or marches, or rebelliously detain, keep, or withhold from the king's said highness, his heirs or successors, any of his or their ships, ordnances, artillery, or other munitions or fortifications of war, and do not humbly render and give up to our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, or to such persons as shall be deputed by them, such castles, fortresses, fortalices, holds, ships, ordnances, artillery, and other munitions and fortifications of war, rebelliously kept or detained, within six days next after they shall be commanded by our said sovereign lord, his heirs or successors, by open proclamation under the great seal: That then every such person and persons so offending in any the premises, after the said first day of February, their aiders, counsellors, consenters, and abettors, being thereof lawfully convicted according to the laws and customs of this realm, shall be adjudged traitors, and that every such offence in any the premises, that shall be committed or done after the said first day of February, shall be reputed, accepted, and adjudged high treason, and the offenders therein and their aiders, consenters, counsellors, and abettors, being lawfully convicted of any such offence as is aforesaid, shall have and suffer such pains of death and other penalties, as is limited and accustomed in cases of high treason. Bold print shown as in original article

Before his sentencing, More spoke freely of his belief that "no temporal man may be the head of the spirituality". He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered (the usual punishment for traitors) but the king commuted this to execution by beheading. The execution took place on 6 July. When he came to mount the steps to the scaffold, he is widely quoted as saying (to the officials): "See me safe up: for my coming down, I can shift for myself"; while on the scaffold he declared that he died "the king's good servant, but God's first."[6] Another statement he is believed to have remarked to the executioner is that his beard was completely innocent of any crime, and did not deserve the axe; he then positioned his beard so that it would not be harmed.[7] More's body was buried at the Tower of London, in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. His head was placed over London Bridge for a month after which it was rescued by his daughter, Margaret Roper, before it could be thrown in the River Thames. The skull is believed to rest in the Roper Vault of St. Dunstan's, Canterbury. Seventeenth century print of the execution, by hanging, drawing and quartering, of the members of the Gunpowder plot. ... Beheading. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Side of St. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Margaret Roper, from a 1593 reproduction of a now-lost Hans Holbein portrait of all of the women of Thomas Mores family. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Church dedicated to St. ...


Canonization

Statue of Thomas More in front of Chelsea Old Church, Cheyne Walk, London.
Statue of Thomas More in front of Chelsea Old Church, Cheyne Walk, London.

More was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonized with John Fisher after a mass petition of English Catholics in 1935, as in some sense a 'patron saint of politics' in protest against the rise of secular, anti-religious Communism.[citation needed] His joint feast day with Fisher is 22 June. In 2000 this trend continued, with Saint Thomas More declared the "heavenly Patron of Statesmen and Politicians" by Pope John Paul II.[8] He even has a feast day, 6 July, in the Anglican calendar of saints. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 285 KB) Summary Statue of Thomas More, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 285 KB) Summary Statue of Thomas More, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London. ... Chelsea Old Church (All Saints) is on the north bank of the River Thames (Chelsea Embankment) near Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London, England. ... Cheyne Walk (pronounced Chaynee) is the most historic street in Chelsea, a bit of picturesque old London. Most of the houses were built in the early eighteenth century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... For other uses, see John Fisher (disambiguation). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... The Anglican church commemorates many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorates various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...


Influence and reputation

The steadfastness and courage with which More held on to his religious convictions in the face of ruin and death and the dignity with which he conducted himself during his imprisonment, trial, and execution, contributed much to More's posthumous reputation, particularly among Catholics.


More's conviction for treason was widely seen as unfair, even among Protestants. His friend Erasmus, himself no Protestant, was broadly sympathetic to reform movements within the Catholic Church, declared after his execution that More had been "more pure than any snow" and that his genius was "such as England never had and never again will have." Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ...

House of Thomas More in London.

Roman Catholic writer G. K. Chesterton said that More was the "greatest historical character in English history." ImageMetadata File history File links HouseOfMore. ... ImageMetadata File history File links HouseOfMore. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ...


Literary Echoes and Evaluations

More was portrayed as a wise and honest statesman in the 1592 play Sir Thomas More, which was probably written in collaboration by Henry Chettle, Anthony Munday, William Shakespeare, and others, and which survives only in fragmentary form after being censored by Edmund Tylney, Master of the Revels in the government of Queen Elizabeth I (any direct reference to the Act of Supremacy was censored out). Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Playtext from the 2005 Royal Shakespeare Company production. ... Henry Chettle (1564?-1607?) was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer of the Elizabethan era. ... Anthony Munday (or Monday) (1560?–August 10, 1633), was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Master of the Revels was an office within the British royal household that originally had minor responsibilities for overseeing royal festivities. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Catholic science fiction writer R. A. Lafferty wrote his novel Past Master as a modern equivalent to More's Utopia, which he saw as a satire. In this novel, Thomas More is brought through time to the year 2535, where he is made king of the future world of "Astrobe", only to be beheaded after ruling for a mere nine days. One of the characters in the novel compares More favorably to almost every other major historical figure: "He had one completely honest moment right at the end. I cannot think of anyone else who ever had one." He was also greatly admired by the Anglican clergyman, Jonathan Swift. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Raphael Aloysius Lafferty (November 7, 1914 - March 18, 2002) was a noted science fiction and fantasy writer of Irish descent, famous for his original use of language, metaphor, and narrative structure[1], as well as for his etymological wit. ... Past Master is a novel by science fiction writer R. A. Lafferty. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and...


The 20th century agnostic playwright Robert Bolt portrayed More as the ultimate man of conscience in his play A Man for All Seasons. That title is borrowed from Robert Whittington, who in 1520 wrote of him: Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and a two-time Oscar winning screenwriter. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... This article is about the play. ... Robert Whittington (c. ...

"More is a man of an angel's wit and singular learning. I know not his fellow. For where is the man of that gentleness, lowliness and affability? And, as time requireth, a man of marvelous mirth and pastimes, and sometime of as sad gravity. A man for all seasons." [9]

In 1966, the play was made into the successful film A Man for All Seasons directed by Fred Zinnemann, adapted for the screen by the playwright himself, and starring Paul Scofield in an Oscar-winning performance. The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture for that year. In 1988, Charlton Heston starred and directed in a made-for-television remake of the film. A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolts play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. ... Fred Zinnemann (April 29, 1907–March 14, 1997) was an Austrian-American film director. ... David Paul Scofield, CH, CBE (born 21 January 1922) is a British actor who was born in Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, England. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ...


Karl Zuchardt wrote a novel, Stirb Du Narr! ("Die you fool!"), about More's struggle with King Henry, portraying More as an idealist bound to fail in the power struggle with a ruthless ruler and an unjust world. Karl Zuchardt was a German writer, born in the German Empire in Leipzig, 1887 and died in 1968 in the then German Democratic Republic. ...


As the author of Utopia, More has also attracted the admiration of modern socialists. While Roman Catholic scholars maintain that More's attitude in composing Utopia was largely ironic and that he was at every point an orthodox Christian, Marxist theoretician Karl Kautsky argued in the book Thomas More and his Utopia (1888) that Utopia was a shrewd critique of economic and social exploitation in pre-modern Europe and that More was one of the key intellectual figures in the early development of socialist ideas. Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Ironic redirects here. ... Karl Kautsky (October 16, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ...


A number of modern writers, such as Richard Marius, have attacked More for alleged religious fanaticism and intolerance (manifested, for instance, in his persecution of heretics). James Wood calls him, "cruel in punishment, evasive in argument, lusty for power, and repressive in politics".[10] The polemicist Jasper Ridley goes much further, describing More as "a particularly nasty sadomasochistic pervert" in his book The Statesman and the Fanatic, a line of thinking also followed by Joanna Dennyn in her biography of Anne Boleyn. Richard Curry Marius (1933-1999) was a Reformation scholar, a novelist of the American South, a speechwriter, and a teacher of writing and English literature at Harvard University. ... James Wood (born 1965 in Durham, United Kingdom) is a literary critic and novelist. ... Jasper Godwin Ridley (1920 – 2004) was a British writer, known for historical biographies. ...


Aaron Zelman, in his nonfiction book "The State Versus the People" describes genocide and the history of governments which have acted in a totalitarian manner. In the first chapters "Utopia" is reviewed along with Plato's "The Republic". Zelman noted facts about "Utopia" which were ridiculous in the real world, such as agriculture, and could not draw a conclusion whether More was being humorous towards his work or seriously advocating a nation-state. It is pointed out, as a serious point for consideration, that "More is the only Christian saint to be honored with a statue at the Kremlin", which implies that his work had serious influence on the Soviet Union, despite its general antipathy towards organized religion. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ...


Other biographers, such as Peter Ackroyd, have offered a more sympathetic picture of More as both a sophisticated humanist and man of letters, as well as a zealous Roman Catholic who believed in the necessity of religious and political authority. Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ...


The protagonist of Walker Percy's novel, Love in the Ruins, is Dr. Thomas More, a reluctant Catholic. Walker Percy (May 28, 1916 – May 10, 1990) was an American Southern author whose interests included philosophy and semiotics. ...


Sir Thomas More is mentioned briefly in The Shins' song, So Says I on the album Chutes Too Narrow - "Tell Sir Thomas More we've got another failed attempt 'cause if it makes them money they might just give you life this time." The Shins is a United States indie rock group comprising singer, songwriter and guitarist James Russell Mercer, keyboardist/guitarist/bassist Martin Crandall, bassist/guitarist Dave Hernandez, drummer Jesse Sandoval, and Eric Johnson of the Fruit Bats. ... So Says I is a song by American indie rock band The Shins, the third track of their second album Chutes Too Narrow. ... Alternate cover LP cover artwork Chutes Too Narrow is The Shins 2003 follow-up to their debut album, Oh, Inverted World. ...


He is also the focus of the Al Stewart song A Man For All Seasons from the 1978 album Time Passages. Al Stewart (born Alastair Ian Stewart on September 5, 1945, Glasgow, Scotland), is a British singer-songwriter and musician. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Time Passages is a 1978 album by Al Stewart. ...


Jeremy Northam portrays More in the television series, The Tudors, where he is shown as a peaceful man—a sometime-advisor to Henry VIII, a devout Catholic, and family head. However, Season 1, Episode 7 hints at a different side of More, as he unabashedly expresses his loathing for Lutheranism. Yet throughout the season, it shows a conflicted side of More: He orders that Martin Luther's books be destroyed, yet when the books are actually burned, he expresses a sense of unease and regret. In episode 10 of the same series, More is shown exercising his new power as chancellor by burning convicted heretics. Jeremy Philip Northam (born December 1, 1961 in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England) is an English actor. ... The Tudors is an Emmy Award-nominated television series that examines the early reign of Henry VIII, with Jonathan Rhys Meyers in the lead role. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ...


Institutions Named after Thomas More

Thomas More College of Liberal Arts is a four year liberal arts college in Merrimack, NH and Rome Italy. The Thomas More College of Liberal Arts is dedicated to Classical education in the Catholic intellectual tradition. ...


Thomas More College is a private Diocesan college in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. Thomas More College is a liberal arts college located in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. ...


College of Saint Thomas More is a small, private, Catholic (but not Diocesan) college in Fort Worth, Texas. The College of Saint Thomas More is a private four year liberal arts Roman Catholic college based in Fort Worth, Texas. ...


Comunidad Educativa Tomas Moro is a private Non-Catholic school in México City, México


Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, CT has the Thomas More Honors Program.


The Thomas More Law Center is a legal aid organization that provides law services for those arguing conservative-aligned issues, especially those dealing with religious liberty and expression. The Thomas More Law Center is a conservative Christian, not-for-profit law center based in Ann Arbor, Michigan and active throughout the United States. ...


Magdalen College School, Oxford's politics society is named the St Thomas More society. Magdalen College School is an independent school for boys located in Oxford, England. ...


The Cathedral of St. Thomas More is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington, Virginia. Cathedral of Saint Thomas More is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington, located in Arlington County, Virginia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


More House School is a London secondary school for girls.


In the United States there are St. Thomas More Catholic Churches in Munster, IN; New York City (Manhattan), NY; Chapel Hill, NC; Elgin, IL; Allentown, PA; Manhattan, KS; Houston, TX; Austin, TX; Boynton Beach, FL, Omaha, NE, Tulsa, OK; Iowa City, IA; and in Paducah, KY. The Catholic chapel of Yale University is dedicated to him. The St. Thomas More Church is the church of the Queens Campus of St. John's University in New York. There is also a St. Thomas More Church in Sheldon, Birmingham, United Kingdom. St. ...


The Thomas More Building at the Royal Courts of Justice in the Strand, London, is an 11 storey office block built in January 1990 containing the courts of the Chancery Division of the High Court. These are known as the Thomas More Courts. Universidad Thomas More, Managua, Nicaragua The main entrance The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is a building in London, which houses the Court of Appeal and the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation, (New York: Viking, 2004), 194
  2. ^ Official "Brief chronology of the House of Commons" - PDF - november 2006. Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
  3. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, 277
  4. ^ Peter Ackroyd,The Life of Thomas More, pg 298
  5. ^ Eric W. Ives The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (2004), p. 47. More wrote on the subject of the Boleyn marriage that, "[I] neither murmur at it nor dispute upon it, nor never did nor will ... I faithfully pray to God for his Grace and hers both long to live and well, and their noble issue too..."
  6. ^ Account of trial. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  7. ^ Henry Hyde, US Congressman (September 9, 1988). United States Congressional Record Conference Report on H.R. 4783, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriation Act, 1989. House of Representatives, Proceedings and Debates of the 100th Congress, Second Session, Volume 134, Page H7332-03 (H7333) (noting that when Thomas More when he was beheaded by Henry VIII, More gave notoriety to his beard with his famous line. He said to the axeman, "Be careful of my beard, it hath committed no treason").
  8. ^ Apostolic letter issued moto proprio proclaiming Saint Thomas More Patron of Statesmen and Politicians[1]
  9. ^ A Man for all Seasons: an Historian's Demur
  10. ^ Wood, James, The Broken Estate, Essays on Literature and Belief, Pimlico, 2000, ISBN 0-7126-6557-9, 16.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Eric William Ives (1931 -) is a well-respected British historian and an expert on the Tudor period (1485 - 1603. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Henry Hyde, see Henry Hyde (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ... Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of the organs of Roman Catholic ecclesiastical authority, e. ...

Biographies

  • William Roper, "The Life of Sir Thomas More" (written by More's son-in-law ca. 1555, but first printed in 1626)
  • Cresacre More, The life and death of Sir Thomas Moore, Lord High Chancellour of England (written by his great-grandson), 1630
  • Princesse de Craon, Thomas Morus, Lord Chancelier du Royaume d'Angleterre au XVIe siècle (First edition in French, 1832/1833 - First edition in Dutch 1839/1840)
  • E.E. Reynolds, The Trialet of St Thomas More, (1964)
  • E.E. Reynolds, Thomas More and Erasmus, (1965)
  • Richard Marius, Thomas More: A Biography (1984)
  • Gerard Wegemer, Thomas More: A Portrait of Courage (1995)
  • Peter Ackroyd, The Life of Thomas More (1999)
  • John Foxe, Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Saints Portal

William Roper (1496 - 1578), biographer, son of a Kentish gentleman, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas More. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Dutch is a West Germanic, Low German language spoken worldwide by around 21 million people. ... Richard Curry Marius (1933-1999) was a Reformation scholar, a novelist of the American South, a speechwriter, and a teacher of writing and English literature at Harvard University. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

See also

This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ...

External links

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Thomas More
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Nevill
Speaker of the House of Commons
1523
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Audley
Preceded by
Sir Richard Wingfield
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1525 – 1529
Succeeded by
Sir William Fitzwilliam
Preceded by
Thomas Cardinal Wolsey
Lord Chancellor
1529 – 1532
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Audley
(Keeper of the Great Seal) 
Persondata
NAME More, Thomas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English lawyer, writer
DATE OF BIRTH 7 February 1478
PLACE OF BIRTH London, England
DATE OF DEATH 6 July 1535
PLACE OF DEATH London, England
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas More - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2951 words)
Both More's and Shakespeare's works are controversial among modern historians for their exceedingly unflattering portrayal of King Richard, a bias due at least in part to the authors' allegiance to the reigning Tudor dynasty, which had wrested the throne from Richard at the end of the Wars of the Roses.
Thomas Cromwell, at the time the most powerful of the king's advisors, brought forth the Solicitor General, Richard Rich, to testify that More had, in his presence, denied that the king was the legitimate head of the church.
More was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonized with John Fisher after a mass petition of English Catholics in 1935, as in some sense a 'patron saint of politics' in protest against the rise of secular, anti-religious regimes like Nazism and Communism.
The Life of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) (802 words)
Thomas More was born in Milk Street, London on February 7, 1478, son of Sir John More, a prominent judge.
More had garnered Henry's favor, and was made Speaker of the House of Commons in 1523 and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1525.
In April, 1534, More refused to swear to the Act of Succession and the Oath of Supremacy, and was committed to the Tower of London on April 17.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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