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Encyclopedia > Thomas Malthus
History of economics
Classical economics
Thomas Robert Malthus
Name: Thomas Robert Malthus
Birth: February 13, 1766(1766-02-13)
(Surrey, England)
Death: December 23, 1834 (aged 68)
(Bath, England)
Nationality: British
Field: demography, macroeconomics, evolutionary economics
Influences: Adam Smith, David Ricardo
Opposed: William Godwin, Marquis de Condorcet, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Ricardo
Influenced: Charles Darwin, Francis Place, Garrett Hardin, John Maynard Keynes, Pierre Francois Verhulst, Alfred Russel Wallace
Contributions: Malthusian growth model

Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 176623 December 1834),[1] was a political economist and British demographer. He is known for his views on population growth and his theory emphasizing a populations potential to increase rapidly. It has been suggested that Economic schools of thought be merged into this article or section. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... Public domain photo of very old painting. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Circulation in macroeconomics Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that deals with the performance, structure, and behavior of a national economy as a whole. ... Evolutionary economics is a relatively new economic methodology that is modeled on biology. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... David Ricardo (18 April 1772–11 September 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... David Ricardo (18 April 1772–11 September 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Francis Place (3rd November, 1771 - 1st January, 1854) was an early supporter of contraceptives, and a radical of the early nineteenth century who befriended and supported many important figures, including Joseph Hume, Sir Francis Burdett, and Jeremy Bentham. ... Garrett Hardin Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was a controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas who was most known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the commons. ... Keynes redirects here. ... Pierre François Verhulst (October 28, 1804 - February 15, 1849, Brussels, Belgium) doctor in number theory from the University of Ghent 1825. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... The Malthusian growth model, sometimes called the simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on a constant rate of compound interest. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Modern commentators generally refer to him as Thomas Malthus, but during his lifetime he went by his middle name, Robert.

Contents

Life

Thomas Robert Malthus, the second son of eight children (six of them girls) born to Daniel and Henrietta Malthus near Guildford, Surrey, came into a prosperous family, with his father a personal friend of the philosopher David Hume and an acquaintance of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The young Malthus received his education at home in Bramcote, Nottinghamshire and at the Dissenting Academy, Warrington until his admission to Jesus College, Cambridge in 1784. There he studied many subjects and took prizes in English declamation, Latin and Greek, but he majored in mathematics. He earned a masters degree in 1791 and won election as a fellow of Jesus College two years later. In 1797, he took orders and became an Anglican country parson. , For other places with the same name, see Guildford (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Bramcote is a settlement in the Broxtowe district of Nottinghamshire, about five miles south-west of Nottingham. ... This article is about the Borough in the north-west of England. ... College name The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge Named after The Virgin Mary Saint John the Evangelist Saint Radegund Jesus Lane and Jesus Parish Established 1496 Location Jesus Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... A parson is a member of the Protestant clergy. ...


Malthus married his first-cousin once removed, Harriet Eckersall, on April 12, 1804, and had three children: Henry, Emily and Lucy. In 1805 he became Britain's first professor in political economy at the East India Company College (now known as Haileybury) at Hertford Heath, near Hertford in Hertfordshire. His students affectionately referred to him as "Pop" or "Population" Malthus. In 1818 Malthus became a Fellow of the Royal Society. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The East India Company College was from 1805 to 1858 the college of the British East India Company (EIC). ... This article is about the school in England. ... Hertford Heath is a small village near the main town of Hertford. ... Hertford (standard pronunciations /hɑtֽfəd/ and /hɑֽfəd/; local pronunciation /[h]ɑːʔֽfəd/) is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is in the East Hertfordshire district of that county. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...


Malthus refused to have his portrait painted until 1833 because of embarrassment over a cleft lip. After surgical correction, Malthus then became considered "handsome." Malthus also had a cleft palate (inside his mouth) that affected his speech. These cleft-related birth defects occurred relatively commonly in his family. For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... Cleft lip is a congenital deformity caused by a failure in facial development during pregnancy. ... Cleft palate is a condition in which the two plates of the skull that form the hard palate (roof of the mouth) are not completely joined. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ...


Malthus is buried at Bath Abbey in England. Bath Abbey at sunset Bath Abbey is the last in a series of monastic churches built in Bath and is still in active use. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The Principle of Population

Between 1798 and 1826 Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, An Essay on the Principle of Population, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey change in his own perspective on the subject. He wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates, (notably Rousseau) regarding the future improvement of society. Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin (1756-1836) and of the Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794). An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ...


Malthus regarded ideals of future improvement in the lot of humanity with scepticism, considering that throughout history a segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty. He explained this phenomenon by pointing out that population growth generally preceded expansion of the population's resources, in particular the primary resource of food:

"...in all societies, even those that are most vicious, the tendency to a virtuous attachment is so strong that there is a constant effort towards an increase of population. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition."

"The way in which, these effects are produced seems to be this. We will suppose the means of subsistence in any country just equal to the easy support of its inhabitants. The constant effort towards population... increases the number of people before the means of subsistence are increased. The food therefore which before supported seven millions must now be divided among seven millions and a half or eight millions. The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the proportion of the work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease, while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to rise. The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. During this season of distress, the discouragements to marriage, and the difficulty of rearing a family are so great that population is at a stand. In the mean time the cheapness of labour, the plenty of labourers, and the necessity of an increased industry amongst them, encourage cultivators to employ more labour upon their land, to turn up fresh soil, and to manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage, till ultimately the means of subsistence become in the same proportion to the population as at the period from which we set out. The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the restraints to population are in some degree loosened, and the same retrograde and progressive movements with respect to happiness are repeated."

Malthus also saw that societies through history had experienced at one time or another epidemics, famines, or wars: events that masked the fundamental problem of populations overstretching their resource limitations:

"The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and tens of thousands. Should success be still incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with the food of the world."

To give a mathematical perspective to his observations, Malthus proposed the idea that population, if unchecked, increases at a geometric rate (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc.), whereas the food-supply grows at an arithmetic rate (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.). Diagram showing the geometric series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... which converges to 2. ... In mathematics, an arithmetic progression or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant. ...


In the first edition of the Essay, Malthus suggested that only natural causes (such as accidents and old age), misery (war, pestilence, plague, and above all famine) [Book I, Ch. 2], and vice (which for Malthus included infanticide, murder, contraception and homosexuality)[citation needed] [Book I, Ch. 5.] could check excessive population-growth. In the second and subsequent editions, Malthus raised the possibility of moral restraint (marrying late or not at all, coupled with sexual abstinence prior to, and outside of, marriage) as a check on the growth of population. (Others[who?] criticised him, however, for implying that restraint applied only to the working and poor classes.) He also proposed the gradual abolition of poor laws that gave no incentive to birth control, supporting instead private charity. Dope Hiphop crew out of Sydney Australia. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... The Poor Law was the system for the provision of social security in operation in England and the United Kingdom from the 16th century until the establishment of the Welfare State in the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


Malthus took offence at criticism that he lacked a caring attitude towards the situation of the poor. He wrote in an addition to the 1817 edition:

"I have written a chapter expressly on the practical direction of our charity; and in detached passages elsewhere have paid a just tribute to the exalted virtue of benevolence. To those who have read these parts of my work, and have attended to the general tone and spirit of the whole, I willingly appeal, if they are but tolerably candid, against these charges ... which intimate that I would root out the virtues of charity and benevolence without regard to the exaltation which they bestow on the moral dignity of our nature.... (p. 607)[2]

Some[who?] have argued that Malthus did not fully recognise the human capacity to increase food supply. On this subject Malthus wrote: "The main peculiarity which distinguishes man from other animals, is the means of his support, is the power which he possesses of very greatly increasing these means."[citation needed]


Malthus's expectations of growth in population

Since 1800, global food production has generally kept pace with population growth, but increasing numbers of humans call for new ways "to increase yields while preserving natural habitats and biodiversity".[3]


Elwell states that Malthus made no specific prediction regarding the future; and that what some interpret as prediction merely constituted Malthus's illustration of the power of geometric (or exponential) population growth compared to the arithmetic growth of food-production.[4] Rather than predicting the future, the Essay offers an evolutionary social theory. Eight major points regarding evolution appear in the 1798 Essay:[5]

  1. subsistence severely limits population-level
  2. when the means of subsistence increases, population increases
  3. population-pressures stimulate increases in productivity
  4. increases in productivity stimulate further population-growth
  5. since this productivity can not keep up with the potential of population growth for long, population requires strong checks to keep it in line with carrying-capacity
  6. individual cost/benefit decisions regarding sex, work, and children determine the expansion or contraction of population and production
  7. checks will come into operation as population exceeds subsistence-level
  8. the nature of these checks will have significant effect on the rest of the sociocultural system — Malthus points specifically to misery, vice, and poverty

Malthusian theory has had great influence on evolutionary theory, both in biology (as acknowledged by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace) and in the social sciences (compare Herbert Spencer). Malthus's population theory has also profoundly affected the modern-day ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris. He can thus rank as a key contributing element of the canon of socioeconomic theory. This article is about biological evolution. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gerhard Emmanuel Lenski (born August 13, 1924) is an American sociologist known for contributions to the sociology of religion, social inequality, and ecological-evolutionary social theory (which is related to cultural evolution). ... Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ...


Influence

Malthus's theory of population has proven very influential. In 1978 Michael H. Hart published a book called The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, which placed Malthus at number 80 in this worldwide ranking. Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ...


At Haileybury, Malthus developed a theory of demand-supply mismatches which he called gluts. Considered ridiculous at the time, his theory foreshadowed later theories about the Great Depression, and the works of admirer and economist John Maynard Keynes. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Keynes redirects here. ...


Before Malthus, commentators had regarded high fertility as an economic advantage, since it increased the number of workers available to the economy. Malthus, however, looked at fertility from a new perspective and convinced most economists that even though high fertility might increase the gross output, it tended to reduce output per capita. A number of other notable economists, such as David Ricardo (whom Malthus knew personally) and Alfred Marshall admired Malthus and/or came under his influence. Gross Output is an economic concept used in national accounts such as the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) and the US National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA). ... Economists are scholars conducting research in the field of economics. ... David Ricardo (18 April 1772–11 September 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... Alfred Marshall Alfred Marshall (July 26, 1842–July 13, 1924), born in Bermondsey, London, England, became one of the most influential economists of his time. ...


A distinguished early convert to Malthusianism, British Prime Minister William Pitt The Younger (in office: 1783 - 1801 and 1804 - 1806), after reading the work of Malthus promptly withdrew a bill he had introduced that called for the extension of Poor Relief. Pitt also launched the first modern census in the UK (conducted in 1801). In the 1830s Malthus's writings strongly influenced Whig reforms which overturned Tory paternalism and brought in the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Under the terms of the Elizabethan Poor Law 1601 poor relief was help given to the poor. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... This article deals chiefly with the English Poor Laws covering England and Wales. ...


Concerns about Malthus's theory helped promote the idea of a national population census in the UK. Government official John Rickman became instrumental in the carrying out of the first modern British census in 1801. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... John Rickman (1771-1840) was an English statistician and government official of the early 19th century. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


Malthus took pride in the fact that some of the earliest converts to his population theory included the leading creationist and natural theologian, Archdeacon William Paley, whose Natural Theology first appeared in 1802. Both men regarded Malthus's Principle of Population as additional proof of the existence of a deity. Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... The attempt to provide proofs or arguments for the existence of God is known as natural theology. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ...


Ironically, given Malthus's own opposition to contraception, his work exercised a strong influence on Francis Place (1771–1854), whose Neo-Malthusian movement became the first to advocate contraception. Place published his Illustrations and Proofs of the Principles of Population in 1822. Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... Francis Place (3rd November, 1771 - 1st January, 1854) was an early supporter of contraceptives, and a radical of the early nineteenth century who befriended and supported many important figures, including Joseph Hume, Sir Francis Burdett, and Jeremy Bentham. ... Neo-malthusianism is a set of doctrines derived from Thomas Malthuss theory that limited resources keep populations in check and reduce economic growth. ...


Malthus's idea of man's "struggle for existence" had an influence on Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution. Other scientists related this idea to plants and animals, which helped to define a piece of the evolutionary puzzle. This struggle for existence of all creatures provides the catalyst by which natural selection produces the "survival of the fittest", a phrase coined by Herbert Spencer.[6] Darwin, in his book The Origin of Species, called his theory an application of the doctrines of Malthus in an area without the complicating factor of human intelligence. Darwin, a life-long admirer of Malthus, referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher"[7] and wrote in his notebook that "Malthus on Man should be studied". Wallace called Malthus's essay "...the most important book I read..." and considered it "the most interesting coincidence" that reading Malthus led both himself and Darwin, independently, towards the idea of evolution. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Survival of the fittest (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ...


Thanks to Malthus, Darwin recognized the significance of competition between populations of the same species, as well as the importance of competition between species. Malthusian thinking on population also explained how an incipient species could become a full-blown species in a very short time-frame. Robert M. Young, Professor of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalytic Studies at Sheffield University in England, perhaps best highlighted the significance of Malthus's influence on Darwin in Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture in 1965. Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The first Director-General of UNESCO, evolutionist and humanist Julian Huxley, wrote of "The Crowded World" in his Evolutionary Humanism (1964), calling for a "World Population Policy". Huxley openly criticised Communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation. Today world organizations such as the United Nations Population Fund acknowledge that the debate over how many people the Earth can support effectively started with Malthus. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ...


Julian Huxley's brother, the author Aldous Huxley, in his book Brave New World, refers to Malthusian theories on population. The inhabitants of his novel use a popular form of birth control known as the "Malthusian Belt". The females in the novel, including the female protagonist Lenina Crowne, mention it frequently. Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Lenina Crowne is one of the main protagonists in Aldous Huxleys novel Brave New World. ...


Malthus continues to have considerable influence to this day. Paul R. Ehrlich, author of The Population Bomb(1968), furnishes a recent example of this. (Ehrlich predicted, in the late 1960s, that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the 1970s, and that by 1980 inhabitants of the United States would have a life-expectancy of only 42 years.) Other examples of applied Malthusianism include the 1972 book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome, and the Global 2000 report to the then President of the United States of America Jimmy Carter. Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov issued many appeals for population-control reflecting the perspective articulated by people from Thomas Malthus through Paul R. Ehrlich. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing global population, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... The Club of Rome is a global think tank that deals with a variety of international political issues. ... GLOBAL 2000 On May 23, 1977, President Jimmy Carter asked the Council on Environmental Quality and the U.S. State Department to prepare a one-year study of population and environmental issues facing the world through the year 2000 to serve as a guide for long-term decision making. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ...


More recently, a school of "neo-Malthusian" scholars has begun to link population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact. In the early 1980s, James Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius. Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics and Lempert has explained Stalin's purges and the Russian Revolution of 1917 in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy. Ted Robert Gurr has also modeled political violence, such as in the Palestinian territories and in Rwanda/Congo (two of the world's regions of most rapidly-growing population) using similar variables in several comparative cases. These approaches compete with explanations of events as a result of political ideology and suggest that political ideology as a construct follows demographic forces. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Goldstone (1931-1999) was an Emmy winning director of both television and theatre movies during the sixties, seventies and early eighties. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of Charles I of England and the supporters... David Howard Lempert is an internationally known Anthropologist, Author, Social Entrepreneur, and Development Consultant. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Ted Robert Gurr (born Spokane, WA, 1936; Ph. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


Many regard[citation needed] Malthus as the founder of modern demography. Malthus proposed his Principle of Population as a universal natural law for all species, not just humans. Instead, today, commentators widely regard[citation needed] his theory as only an approximate natural law of population dynamics for all species: this because scientists have proven[citation needed] that nothing can sustain exponential growth at a constant rate indefinitely. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... In mathematics, exponential growth (or geometric growth) occurs when the growth rate of a function is always proportional to the functions current size. ...


Nonetheless, Malthus continues to openly inspire and influence futuristic visions, such as those of K Eric Drexler relating to space advocacy and molecular nanotechnology. As Drexler put it in Engines of Creation (1986): "In a sense, opening space will burst our limits to growth, since we know of no end to the universe. Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right." K. Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology. ... Space advocacy is a political position that favors the exploration, utilization, and colonization of outer space. ... Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ...


Malthus has also inspired retired physics professor, Albert Bartlett, to lecture over 1,500 times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation. Albert A. Bartlett is a retired Emeritus Professor of Physics University of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Professor Bartlett has lectured over 1,500 times on Arithmetic, Population, and Energy. He has famously stated that The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function. ... Sustainable living refers to an individual or societys lifestyle that can be sustained with limited exhaustion of natural resources. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name. The logistic function of Pierre Francois Verhulst (1804-1849) results in the well-known S-curve. Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in 1838 only after reading Malthus's essay. The Malthusian growth model, sometimes called the simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on a constant rate of compound interest. ... Logistic curve, specifically the sigmoid function A logistic function or logistic curve models the S-curve of growth of some set P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as competition arises, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops. ... Pierre François Verhulst (October 28, 1804 - February 15, 1849, Brussels, Belgium) doctor in number theory from the University of Ghent 1825. ... The logistic function or logistic curve is defined by the mathematical formula: for real parameters a, m, n, and . ...


Some commentators[citation needed] have disputed the efficacy of Malthus's arithmetic model of food-supply, noting that food supply has kept pace with population for the past two centuries.


Malthus's position as professor at the British East India Company training college, which he held until his death in 1834, gave his theories considerable influence over Britain's administration of India through most of the 19th century, continuing even under the Raj after the Company's dissolution in 1858. In a major result of this influence, the official response to India's periodic famines (which had occurred every decade or two for centuries) became one of not entirely benign neglect: the authorities regarded the famines as necessary to keep the "excess" population in check. In some cases administrators even banned private efforts to transport food into famine-stricken areas. However, this "Malthusian" policy did not take account of the enormous economic damage done by such famines through loss of human capital, collapse of credit structures and financial institutions, and the destruction of physical capital (especially in the form of livestock), social infrastructure and commercial relationships. As a (presumably unintended) consequence, production often did not recover to pre-famine levels in the affected areas for a decade or more after each disaster, well after the replacement of the lost population. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...


Malthusian theory also influenced British policies in Ireland during the 1840s: the government neglected relief-measures during the Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849), seeing mass starvation as a natural and inevitable consequence of the island's supposed over-population. Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ...


Although many people assume[citation needed] that Malthus's pessimistic views gave economics the nickname "the Dismal Science", the historian Thomas Carlyle actually coined the phrase in 1849 in reference to laissez-faire economic theories in general. The dismal science is another, often derogatory, name for economics devised by the Victorian historian Thomas Carlyle. ... Thomas Carlyle (4 December 1795 – 5 February 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Criticism

Contemporaries of Malthus

William Godwin responded to Malthus's criticisms of his own arguments with On Population (1820). William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ...


Other theoretical and political critiques of Malthus and Malthusian thinking emerged soon after the publication of the first Essay on Population, most notably in the work of the reformist industrialist Robert Owen, of the essayist William Hazlitt[8] and of the economists John Stuart Mill and Nassau William Senior,[9] and moralist William Cobbett. Note also True Law of Population (1845) by politician Thomas Doubleday, an adherent of Cobbett's views. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Nassau William Senior (September 26, 1790 - June 4, 1864), English economist, was born at Compton, Berkshire, the eldest son of the Rev. ... William Cobbett, portrait in oils possibly by George Cooke around 1831. ... Thomas Doubleday (born: February 1790 - died: 18 December 1870) was an English politician and author born in Newcastle-on-Tyne. ...


Marxist

Much opposition to Malthus's ideas came in the middle of the nineteenth century with the writings of Karl Marx (Capital, 1867) and Friedrich Engels (Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy, 1844), who argued that what Malthus saw as the problem of the pressure of population on the means of production actually represented the pressure of the means of production on population. They thus viewed it in terms of their concept of the reserve army of labour. In other words, the seeming excess of population that Malthus attributed to the seemingly innate disposition of the poor to reproduce beyond their means actually emerged as a product of the very dynamic of capitalist economy. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ... Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Engels called Malthus's hypothesis "...the crudest, most barbarous theory that ever existed, a system of despair which struck down all those beautiful phrases about love thy neighbour and world citizenship."


Vladimir I. Lenin sharply criticized Malthusian theory and its neo-Malthusian version,[10] calling it a "reactionary doctrine" and "an attempt on the part of bourgeois ideologists to exonerate capitalism and to prove the inevitability of privation and misery for the working class under any social system". Lenin redirects here. ...


Biological

Biologist Ronald Fisher expressed criticism of the use of Malthus's theory as a basis for the theory of natural selection.[11] John Maynard Smith criticised Malthus's hypothesis, doubting that famine functioned as the great leveler that Malthus saw it as.[citation needed] Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ...


Cornucopian

Some 19th-century economists believed that improvements in the division and specialization of labor, increased capital investment, and other factors had rendered some of Malthus's warnings implausible. In the absence of any improvement in technology or increase of capital equipment, an increased supply of labor may have a synergistic effect on productivity that overcomes the law of diminishing returns. As American land-economist Henry George observed with characteristic piquancy in dismissing Malthus: "Both the jayhawk and the man eat chickens; but the more jayhawks, the fewer chickens, while the more men, the more chickens." Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... Specialization is the separation of tasks within a system. ... // Definition Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is a large industrial building where workers manufacture goods or products. ... In economics, diminishing returns is the short form of diminishing marginal returns, the concept that, as more of an input is applied, each additional unit produces less and less additional output. ... Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the Single Tax on land. ...


Many 20th-century economists, such as Julian Lincoln Simon, have also criticised Malthus's conclusions. They note that despite the predictions of Malthus and the Neo-Malthusians, massive geometric population growth in the 20th century has not resulted in a Malthusian catastrophe, largely due to the influence of technological advances and the expansion of the market economy, division of labor, and stock of capital goods. The skeptical environmentalist, Bjørn Lomborg, echoes such arguments. Some[citation needed], such as British physicist John Maddox, thus regard Malthus as a failed prophet of doom.[citation needed] This article is about the economist Julian Simon. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution by Thomas Malthus. ... Diagram showing the geometric series 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... which converges to 2. ... Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... In economics, capital goods refer to real products that are used in the production of other products but are not incorporated into the new product that is derived from the production of the older product. ... The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (TSE) is a controversial book by political scientist Bjørn Lomborg, which argues that claims made about global warming, overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, and a variety of other global environmental issues are exaggerations and unsupported by... Bjørn Lomborg (born January 6, 1965) is an Adjunct Professor at the Copenhagen Business School and a former director of the Environmental Assessment Institute in Copenhagen. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ...


Anthropological

In The Malthus Factor: Population, Poverty, and Politics in Capitalist Development, anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution, anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement and the various international development movements. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Economic

Malthus argued that as wages increase within an economy, the birth-rate increases while the death-rate decreases. He reasoned that high incomes allowed people to have sufficient means to raise their children, thus resulting in greater desire to have more children which increases the population. In addition, high incomes also allowed people to afford proper medication to fight off potentially harmful diseases, thus decreasing the death-rate. As a result, wage-increases caused population to grow as the birth-rate increases and the death-rate decreases. He further argued that as the supply of labor increases with the increased population-growth at a constant labor demand, the wages earned would decrease eventually to subsistence, where the birth-rate equals the death-rate, resulting in no growth in population. However, the world generally has experienced quite a different result than the one Malthus predicted. During the late 19th and early 20th century, the population (and wages) increased as the industrial revolution gathered pace. However, birth rates in highly-developed nations have dropped to bare replacement-levels, such that many Western nations like the US and Canada only grow due to immigration, and Japan faces a declining population when the post-World War II generation dies off. Countries by birth rate, CIA map, not dated demography, natality, childbirths per 1,000 people per year. ... Mortality rate is the annual number of deaths per 1000 people. ... Media:Example. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Malthus assumed a constant labor-demand in his assessment of England[citation needed], and in doing so he ignored the effects of industrialization. As the world became more industrialized, the level of technology and production grew, causing an increase in labor-demand. Thus, even though labor-supply increased, so did the demand for labor. In fact, the labor-demand arguably increased more than the supply, as measured by the historically observed increase in real wages globally with population growth.


Epitaph

Sacred to the memory of the Rev Thomas Robert Malthus, long known to the lettered world by his admirable writings on the social branches of political economy, particularly by his essay on population.

One of the best men and truest philosophers of any age or country, raised by native dignity of mind above the misrepresentation of the ignorant and the neglect of the great, he lived a serene and happy life devoted to the pursuit and communication of truth.

Supported by a calm but firm conviction of the usefulness of his labors.

Content with the approbation of the wise and good.

His writings will be a lasting monument of the extent and correctness of his understanding.

The spotless integrity of his principles, the equity and candour of his nature, his sweetness of temper, urbanity of manners and tenderness of heart, his benevolence and his piety are still dearer recollections of his family and friends.

Born Feb 14 1766 Died 29 Dec 1834.

[citation needed]

References in popular culture

  • Ebenezer Scrooge from A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens, represents the perceived ideas of Malthus, famously illustrated by his explanation as to why he refuses to donate to the poor and destitute: "If they would rather die they had better do it, and decrease the surplus population". (Although Dickens may have had some Malthusian concerns (evident in Hard Times and other novels), he concentrated his attacks on Utilitarianism and on those who preached the achievement of Utopia through work, with labour as the answer to all social ills.)
  • In Robert A. Heinlein's novel, The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, the character Bernardo de la Paz says to Mannie: "This planet isn't crowded; it is just mismanaged ... and the unkindest thing you can do for a hungry man is to give him food. 'Give.' Read Malthus. It is never safe to laugh at Dr. Malthus; he always has the last laugh."
  • In Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World, people generally regard fertility as a nuisance, as cloning has enabled the society to maintain the population at precisely the level the controllers want. The women, therefore, carry contraceptives with them at all times in a "Malthusian belt".
  • In John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman Dr. Grogan' says of Malthus: "For him the tragedy of homo sapiens is that the least fit to survive breed the most".
  • George R. R. Martin's novel Tuf Voyaging features a planet called S'uthlam (an anagram for "Malthus") which constantly faces the danger of mass famine because of its rapidly expanding population.
  • A Broadway musical about drought, Urinetown, ends with a shout of "Hail Malthus!"
  • In the Season 1 finale of the Sliders, "The Luck of the Draw", Thomas Malthus is referenced.
  • He is also mentioned frequently in Bioy Casare's La invención de Morel.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Ebenezer Scrooge encounters Ignorance and Want in Dickenss novel, A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is the main character in Charles Dickens 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol. ... For other uses, see A Christmas Carol (disambiguation). ... Dickens redirects here. ... Hard Times is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... John Robert Fowles John Robert Fowles (March 31, 1926 – November 5, 2005) was an English novelist and essayist. ... The French Lieutenants Woman is a 1969 novel by John Fowles. ... George Raymond Richard Martin, sometimes called GRRM, born September 20, 1948 in Bayonne, New Jersey is an American author and screenwriter of science fiction, horror, and fantasy. ... A collection of interconnected science fiction short stories by George R.R. Martin, written from the late 1970s onwards and published in collected form in 1987. ... Henry Millers Theatre 2003, Charles Shaughnessy. ... For other possible meanings, see Slider (disambiguation). ...

See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... A cornucopian is someone who posits that there are few intractable natural limits to growth, and believes the planet can provide a practically limitless abundance of natural resources. ... This is a list of scientific phenomena and concepts named after people (eponymous phenomena). ... The Food Race refers to the relationship between food supply and human population postulated by Daniel Quinn. ... For other uses, see Daniel Quinn (disambiguation). ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... The Club of Rome is a global think tank that deals with a variety of international political issues. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The term plague is usually define mnd as a pestilence, an epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality. ... This is a list of countries by birth rate, based on The World Factbook, as at September 2005. ... Death rate by country This is a list of countries and territories by death rate, based on The World Factbook, as of September 2006. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... // This is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a cousin, niece, nephew, aunt or uncle. ... This is a list of major epidemics. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... This is an index of lists of people who died, by cause of death, in alphabetical order of cause. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... In demonology Malthus is an Earl of Hell, commanding 26 legions of demons, who is said to have a rough voice when speaking. ... Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population. ... The Malthusian growth model, sometimes called the simple exponential growth model, is essentially exponential growth based on a constant rate of compound interest. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution on the basis of the writings of Thomas Malthus. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM200) was completed on December 10, 1974 by the U.S. National Security Council under the direction of Henry Kissinger. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Giovanni Botero (c. ... Henry Millers Theatre 2003, Charles Shaughnessy. ...

Further reading

  • The Social Contract Press Vol. 8, No. 3; Spring, 1998 Malthus Bicentenary issue devoted entirely to Malthus
  • Negative Population Growth organization: a collection of essays for the Malthus Bicentenary
  • National Academics Forum, Australia: a collection of essays for the Malthus Bicentenary Conference, 1998
  • Rohe, John F., A Bicentennial Malthusian Essay: Conservation, Population and the Indifference to Limits, Rhodes & Easton, Traverse City, MI. 1997
  • Conceptual Origins of Malthus's 'Essay on Population', Facsimile Reprint of 8 Books in 6 volumes, edited by Yoshinobu Nanagita (ISBN: 978-4-902454-14-7) www.aplink.co.jp/ep/4-902454-14-9.htm

Footnotes

  1. ^ Several sources give Malthus's date of death as 29 December 1834. See: But the 1911 Britannica gives 23 December 1834.
  2. ^ cited in http://www.naf.org.au/roberts.rtf.
  3. ^ Antony Trewavas: "Malthus foiled again and again", in Nature 418, 668-670 (8 August 2002), retrieved 2008-02-23
  4. ^ Elwell, Frank (2001-4-19). Reclaiming Malthus. Retrieved on 2007-11-22.
  5. ^ See Elwell (2001) for an extended exposition
  6. ^ Spiegel, Henry William. 1992. The Growth of Economic Thought. Durham: Duke University Press, page 282
  7. ^ Letter to J.D. Hooker, 5 June, 1860
  8. ^ Malthus And The Liberties Of The Poor, 1807
  9. ^ Two Lectures on Population , 1829
  10. ^ See V. I. Lenin: "The Working Class and NeoMalthusianism" in Pravda No. 137, June 16, 1913; see also http://www.rcgfrfi.easynet.co.uk/ww/lenin/1913-wcn.htm
  11. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=6bLZQzDd0f4C&printsec=frontcover#PPA194,M1

is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Case, Karl E. & Fair, Ray C. (1999). Principles of Economics (5th ed.). Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-961905-4.
  • Dupâquier, J. (2001). "Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834)," International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 9151-9156. Abstract.
  • Elwell, Frank W. (2001), A Commentary on Malthus's 1798 Essay on Population as Social Theory, The Edwin Mellon Press.
  • Hollander, Samuel (1997). The Economics of Thomas Robert Malthus. University of Toronto Press.
  • Evans, L.T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion - Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. Dedicated to Malthus by the author. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
  • James, Patricia (1979). Population Malthus: his Life and Times. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Compact Macromodels of the World System Growth. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [1].
  • Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00559-0 [2].
  • Korotayev A. & Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends in Africa. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00560-4 [3].
  • Lempert, David, A Demographic-Economic Explanation of Political Stability: Mauritius as a Microcosm,Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 3 No. 1, 1987; and Daily Life in a Crumbling Empire, Columbia University Press/ Eastern European Monographs, 1996.
  • Maddox, John, The Doomsday Syndrome - An Assault on Pessimism (1972).
  • Maynard Smith, John The Theory of Evolution (1958, 1966, 1975). Canto (Cambridge University Press) - (1993, 1995, 1997, 2000). ISBN 0-521-45128-0
  • Mayr, Ernst What evolution is (2001). Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-60741-3
  • Peterson, William (1999). Malthus, Founder Of Modern Demography (2nd ed.) Transaction. ISBN 0-7658-0481-6.
  • Ross, Eric B: The Malthus factor : population, poverty, and politics in capitalist development. Zed Books, London, 1998 ISBN 1-85649-564-7
  • Sober, Elliot The Nature Of Selection (1984). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76748-5. Also for the quote from Ronald Fisher.
  • Spiegel, Henry William. 1992. The Growth of Economic Thought. Durham: Duke University Press
  • Carl Zimmer Evolution - The Triumph of an Idea (2001). Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-019906-7

The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2001), edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work. ... Samuel Hollander (born April 6, 1937) is a British/Canadian/Israeli economist. ... Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ... David Howard Lempert is an internationally known Anthropologist, Author, Social Entrepreneur, and Development Consultant. ... Sir John Royden Maddox (born November 27, 1925 in Penllergaer, Swansea), a trained chemist and physicist, is a prominent science writer. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... Elliott Sober -- Hans Reichenbach Professor and William F. Vilas Research Professor in the Department of Philosophy at University of Wisconsin. ... Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. ... Carl Zimmer Carl Zimmer is a popular science writer and weblogger, especially regarding the study of evolution. ...

External links

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Thomas Malthus
Persondata
NAME Malthus, Thomas Robert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English demographer and political economist
DATE OF BIRTH February 13, 1766
PLACE OF BIRTH Surrey, England
DATE OF DEATH December 23, 1834
PLACE OF DEATH Haileybury, Hertford, England
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Garrett Hardin Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was a controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas who was most known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the commons. ... Albert A. Bartlett is a retired Emeritus Professor of Physics University of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Professor Bartlett has lectured over 1,500 times on Arithmetic, Population, and Energy. He has famously stated that The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... This article is a list connected to the template History of economic thought. ... Ancient economic thought refers to economics ideas from people before the middle ages. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Merchant capitalism is a term used by economic historians to refer to the earliest phase in the development of capitalism as an economy and social system. ... The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... The English historical school of economics, although not nearly as famous as its German counterpart, sought a return of inductive methods in economics, following the triumph of the deductive approach of David Ricardo in the early 19th century. ... The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... --Duk 06:58, 18 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of human-made institutions in shaping economic behavior. ... The Stockholm School, or Stockholmsskolan, is a school of economic thought. ... Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought favoring free-market economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago in the middle of the 20th century. ... Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Microfinance is a term for the practice of providing financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance to poor people. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... It has been suggested that Economic schools of thought be merged into this article or section. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Haileybury is a name used by various places and institutions: Places Haileybury, Ontario in Canada Institutions Haileybury and Imperial Service College, a coeducational English public school Lambrook Haileybury junior school at Winkfield Row, Bracknell, Berks. ... Hertford (standard pronunciations /hɑtֽfəd/ and /hɑֽfəd/; local pronunciation /[h]ɑːʔֽfəd/) is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is in the East Hertfordshire district of that county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834). (4864 words)
Malthus asserted that there was only two things that kept population down: vice and misery, two necessary evils (their agents being war, famine, and disease).
Incidentally, Malthus, having become a fellow of the College in 1793, was to act at one point as a judge and sentencer of a junior student who had been absent without leave from the College; the young student was Coleridge, having entered the College in 1791.
Malthus was to write and publish other works for which he is not as well known, as for example, in 1815, there came out, "An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent," and, in 1820, "Principles of Political Economy." Walter Bagehot was not too much impressed, overall, with Malthus as an economist.
Thomas Robert Malthus - LoveToKnow 1911 (1703 words)
THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766-1834), English economist, was born in 1766 at the Rookery, near Guildford, Surrey, a small estate owned by his father, Daniel Malthus, a gentleman of good family and independent fortune, of considerable culture, the friend and correspondent of Rousseau and one of his executors.
Again, it is surely plain enough that the apprehension by individuals of the evils of poverty, or a sense of duty to their possible offspring, may retard the increase of population, and has in all civilized communities operated to a certain extent in that way.
Malthus has in more modern times derived a certain degree of reflected lustre from the rise and wide acceptance of the Dar, winian hypothesis.
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