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Encyclopedia > Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson


In office
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
Vice President(s)   Aaron Burr (1801–1805),
George Clinton (1805–1809)
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by James Madison

In office
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by Aaron Burr

In office
September 26, 1789 – December 31, 1793
President George Washington
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Edmund Randolph

Born April 13, 1743
Shadwell, Virginia
Died July 4, 1826 (aged 83)
Charlottesville, Virginia
Political party Jeffersonian Republican
Spouse Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson
Religion Deist
Signature

Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806). Image File history File links T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (64th in leap years). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Shadwell in Virginia was the childhood home of Thomas Jefferson. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: C-Ville Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Albemarle County Founded 1762  - Mayor David E. Brown Area    - City 26. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (October 19, 1748 (O.S.) - September 6, 1782) was the wife of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... The Louisiana Purchase. ... Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. ...


As a political philosopher, Jefferson was a man of the Enlightenment and knew many intellectual leaders in Britain and France. He idealized the independent yeoman farmer as exemplar of the republican virtue, distrusted cities and financiers, and favored states' rights and a strictly limited federal government. Jefferson supported the separation of church and state and was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1779, 1786). He was the eponym of Jeffersonian democracy and the founder and leader of the Jeffersonian Republican party (eventually to become known as the Democratic-Republican Party), which dominated American politics for a quarter-century. Jefferson served as the wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781), first United States Secretary of State (1789–1793) and second Vice President (1797–1801). The Age of Enlightenment (French: , German: ) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. ... Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale in 1800. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a presidential... Tim Kaine, the current Governor The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of...


A polymath, Jefferson achieved distinction as an horticulturist, architect, archaeologist, paleontologist, author, inventor, and the founder of the University of Virginia, among other roles. President John F. Kennedy welcomed forty-nine Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962, saying, "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House—with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."[1] Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Cosette Dwyer is an amazing author. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... JFK redirects here. ...

Contents

Appearance and temperament

Jefferson was six feet,two-and-one-half inches (189 cm) in height, slender, erect and sinewy. He had angular features, a very ruddy complexion, strawberry blond hair and hazel-flecked, grey eyes. He was a poor public speaker who mumbled through his most important addresses. There was grace, nevertheless, in his manners; and his frank and earnest address, his quick sympathy (though he seemed cold to strangers), and his vivacious, desultory, informing talk gave him an engaging charm. He was a man of intense convictions and an emotional temperament. In later years, he was negligent in dress and loose in bearing. Strawberry blonde is A light reddish-blonde or orange hair color A 1941 film directed by Raoul Walsh and starring Rita Hayworth and James Cagney. ...


"The Sage of Monticello" also cultivated an image that earned him the other nickname, "Man of the People". He affected a popular air by greeting White House guests in homespun attire like a robe and slippers. Dolley Madison, wife of James Madison (Jefferson's secretary of state), and Jefferson's daughters relaxed White House protocol and turned formal state dinners into more casual and entertaining social events.[2][3]Although a foremost defender of a free press, Jefferson at times sparred with partisan newspapers and appealed to the people.[4] Madison in 1818 The only surviving photograph of Dolley Madison Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the wife of President James Madison, who served from 1809 until 1817. ...


Jefferson's writings were utilitarian and evidenced great intellect, and he had an affinity for languages. He learned Gaelic in order to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ...


As President, he discontinued the practice of delivering the State of the Union Address in person, instead sending the address to Congress in writing (the practice was eventually revived by Woodrow Wilson); he gave only two public speeches during his Presidency. Jefferson had a lisp[citation needed] and preferred writing to public speaking partly because of this. He burned all of his letters between himself and his wife at her death, creating the portrait of a man who at times could be very private. Indeed, he preferred working in the privacy of his office than the public eye.[5] 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...


Early life and education

Thomas Jefferson was born on 13 April 1743 (Gregorian N.S) into a wealthy Virginia family, the third of eight children. His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, and a cousin of Peyton Randolph. Jefferson's father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor who owned plantations in Albemarle County (Shadwell, then Edge Hill, Virginia.) April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Isham Randolph was the grandfather of President Thomas Jefferson. ... Peyton Randolph (September, 1721 – October 21, 1775) was the first President of the Continental Congress. ... Peter Jefferson was the father of President Thomas Jefferson. ... Albemarle County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... Edge Hill, Virginia, USA, was the childhood home of Thomas Jefferson. ...

Painting of Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale (1805)
Painting of Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale (1805)

In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by William Douglas, a Scottish minister. At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin, Greek, and French. In 1757, when he was 14 years old, his father died. Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land and dozens of slaves. He built his home there, which eventually became known as Monticello. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x1180, 188 KB) Rembrandt Peale: Painting of Thomas Jefferson (1805) Source: New York Historical Society File links The following pages link to this file: Rembrandt Peale Visual list of American artists ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x1180, 188 KB) Rembrandt Peale: Painting of Thomas Jefferson (1805) Source: New York Historical Society File links The following pages link to this file: Rembrandt Peale Visual list of American artists ... Self-Portrait - Rembrandt Peale Rembrandt Peale (22 February 1778 - 3 October 1860) was a United States Neoclassical painter. ... William Douglas can be one of several people: William Douglas, Duke of Hamilton (1635-1694) William Lewis Douglas who served as governor of Massachusetts from 1905 until 1906 William Orville Douglas who was a jurist and justice This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... This poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery in Britain and the United States. ... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ...


After his father's death, he was taught at the school of the learned minister James Maury from 1758 to 1760.[2] The school was in Fredericksville Parish near Gordonsville, Virginia, twelve miles from Shadwell, and Jefferson boarded with Maury's family. There he received a classical education and studied history and science. James Maury was Thomas Jeffersons early teacher. ... Gordonsville is a town located in Virginia. ... Classical education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages of Western culture is roughly based on the ancient Greek concept of Paideia. ...


In 1760 Jefferson entered the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg at the age of 16; he studied there for two years, graduating with highest honors in 1762. At William & Mary, he enrolled in the philosophy school and studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under W&M Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Sir Isaac Newton (Jefferson called them the "three greatest men the world had ever produced"[3]). He also perfected his French, carried his Greek grammar book wherever he went, practiced the violin, and read Tacitus and Homer. A keen and diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields and, according to the family tradition, frequently studied fifteen hours a day. His closest college friend, John Page of Rosewell, reported that Jefferson "could tear himself away from his dearest friends, to fly to his studies." The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... William Small (1734-1775) was a British physician and a member of the Lunar Society. ... Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...


In college, Jefferson was a member of a secret organization called the falt hat club, now the namesake of the William & Mary daily student newspaper. He lodged and boarded at the College in the building known today as the Sir Christopher Wren Building, attending communal meals in the Great Hall, and morning and evening prayers in the Wren Chapel. Jefferson often attended the lavish parties of royal governor Francis Fauquier, where he played his violin and developed an early love for wines. [6]After graduating in 1762 with highest honors, he studied law with his friend and mentor, George Wythe, and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767. The Wren Building is a highly notable building on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... A Painting of Francis Fauquier Francis Fauquier was a Lieutenant Governor of the colony of Virginia (in what is today the United States), and served as acting governor from 1758 until his death in 1768. ... George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ...


In 1771, Jefferson courted an 18-year-old plantation owner's daughter, Angela McShane, for a short time. In 1772, Jefferson married a 23-year-old widow, Martha Wayles Skelton. They had six children: Martha Jefferson Randolph (1772–1836), Jane Randolph (1774–1775), a stillborn or unnamed son (1777), Mary Wayles (1778–1804), Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781), and Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785). Martha died on September 6, 1782 and Jefferson never remarried. Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (October 19, 1748 - September 6, 1782) was the wife of the third U.S. President, Thomas Jefferson. ... Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph (September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836) , was the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and his wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Political career from 1774 to 1800

Rudolph Evans' statue of Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence preamble to the right
Rudolph Evans' statue of Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence preamble to the right

Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2610 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2610 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...

Colonial legislator

Jefferson practiced law and served in the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1774, he wrote A Summary View of the Rights of British America, which was intended as instructions for the Virginia delegates to a national congress. The pamphlet was a powerful argument of American terms for a settlement with Britain. It helped speed the way to independence, and marked Jefferson as one of the most thoughtful patriot spokesmen. Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ...


The Second Continental Congress

Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence and a contributor to American political and civil culture. The Continental Congress delegated the task of writing the Declaration to a Committee of Five that unanimously solicited Jefferson, considered the best writer, to write the first draft, and in fact wrote all of them with no help at all. A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Continental Congress is the label given to these two girls that i know. ... The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776 to draft the United States Declaration of Independence. ...


State legislator

In September 1776, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected to the new Virginia House of Delegates. During his term in the House, Jefferson set out to reform and update Virginia's system of laws to reflect its new status as a democratic state. He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to abolish primogeniture, establish freedom of religion, and streamline the judicial system. In 1778, Jefferson's "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge" led to several academic reforms at his alma mater, including an elective system of study — the first in an American university. The Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the Virginia General Assembly. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...

John Trumbull's famous painting is usually incorrectly identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration. What the painting actually depicts is the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. Trumbull's painting can also be found on the back of the U.S. $2 bill
John Trumbull's famous painting is usually incorrectly identified as a depiction of the signing of the Declaration. What the painting actually depicts is the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. Trumbull's painting can also be found on the back of the U.S. $2 bill[4]

Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... Image File history File links Declaration_independence. ... John Trumbull, 1756–1843 John Trumbull (June 6, 1756 – November 10, 1843) was a famous American artist from the time of the American Revolutionary War. ... The Committee of Five was the group delegated by the Second Continental Congress on June 11, 1776 to draft the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The U.S. two dollar bill ($2) is a denomination of U.S. currency. ...

Governor of Virginia

Jefferson served as governor of Virginia from 1779–1781. As governor, he oversaw the transfer of the state capitol from Williamsburg to the more central location of Richmond in 1780. He continued to advocate educational reforms at the College of William and Mary, including the nation's first student-policed honor code. In 1779, at Jefferson's behest, William and Mary appointed George Wythe to be the first professor of law in an American university. Dissatisfied with the rate of changes he wanted to push through, he later became the founder of the University of Virginia, which was the first university at which higher education was completely separate from religious doctrine. Tim Kaine, the current Governor The Governor of Virginia serves as the chief executive of the Commonwealth of Virginia for a four-year term. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... An honor code or honor system is a set of rules or principles governing a community based on a set of rules or ideals that define what constitutes honorable behavior within that community. ... George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806), was a lawyer, a judge, a prominent law professor and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ...


Virginia was invaded twice by the British during Jefferson's term as governor. He, along with Patrick Henry and other Virginia Patriot leaders, were but ten minutes away from being captured by Banastre Tarleton, a British colonel leading a cavalry column that was raiding the area in June 1781.[5] Public disapproval of his performance delayed his future political prospects, and he was never again elected to office in Virginia.[6] Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... Lieutenant-Colonel Banastre Tarleton by Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir Banastre Tarleton, 1st Baronet (August 21, 1754–January 25, 1833) was a British soldier and politician. ...


Minister to France

Memorial plaque on the Champs Elysees, Paris, France, marking where Jefferson lived while he was Minister to France. The plaque was erected after World War I to commemorate the centenary of Jefferson's founding of the University of Virginia.
Memorial plaque on the Champs Elysees, Paris, France, marking where Jefferson lived while he was Minister to France. The plaque was erected after World War I to commemorate the centenary of Jefferson's founding of the University of Virginia.

From 1785–1789, Jefferson served as minister to France. He lived in a residence on the Champs Elysees in Paris. He did not attend the Constitutional Convention. He did generally support the new Constitution, although he thought the document flawed for lack of a Bill of Rights. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 507 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1377 × 1629 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Memorial plaque marking where Thomas Jefferson lived in Paris. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 507 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1377 × 1629 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Memorial plaque marking where Thomas Jefferson lived in Paris. ... Avenue des Champs- es from Place de la Concorde Looking east along the Champs- es from the top of the Arc de Triomphe The Champs- es (pronounced /ʃɑ̃zelize/, IPA; /SA~ ze. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Avenue des Champs- es from Place de la Concorde Looking east along the Champs- es from the top of the Arc de Triomphe The Champs- es (pronounced /ʃɑ̃zelize/, IPA; /SA~ ze. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... The Philadelphia Convention—also known as the Constitutional Convention—took place in May through September, 1787, to address problems in the government of the United States of America following independence from Britain. ... This article is about the general concept of a bill of rights. ...


Secretary of State

After returning from France, Jefferson served as the first Secretary of State under George Washington (1789–1793). Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton began sparring over national fiscal policy, especially the funding of the debts of the war. In further sparring with the Federalists, Jefferson came to equate Hamilton and the rest of the Federalists with Tories and monarchists who threatened to undermine republicanism. In the late 1790s, he worried that "Hamiltonianism" was taking hold. He equated this with "Royalism", and made a point to state that "Hamiltonians were panting after...and itching for crowns, coronets and mitres".[7] Jefferson and James Madison founded and led the Republican party, which eventually became Democratic-Republican Party. He worked with Madison and his campaign manager John J. Beckley to build a nationwide network of Republican allies to combat Federalists across the country — what historians call the First Party System. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... Fiscal policy is the economic term that defines the set of principles and decisions of a government in setting the level of public expenditure and how that expenditure is funded. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... John James Beckley (August 4, 1757 – April 8, 1807) was the first U.S. Librarian of Congress, serving from 1802 to 1807. ... The First Party System is the term political scientists and historians give to the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ...


Jefferson strongly supported France against Britain when war broke out between those nations in 1793. Historian Lawrence S. Kaplan notes Jefferson's "visceral support for the French cause", while agreeing with Washington that the nation should not get involved in the fighting.[8] The arrival in 1793 of an aggressive new French minister, Citizen Genêt caused a crisis for the Secretary of State, as he watched Genêt try to violate American neutrality, manipulate public opinion, and even go over Washington's head in appealing to the people; projects which Jefferson helped to thwart. As Schachner observes that Jefferson believed that political success at home depended on the success of the French army in Europe:[9] Edmond-Charles Genêt (January 8, 1763 – July 14, 1834), also known as Citizen Genêt, was a French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution. ...

Jefferson still clung to his sympathies with France and hoped for the success of her arms abroad and a cordial compact with her at home. He was afraid that any French reverses on the European battlefields would give "wonderful vigor to our monocrats, and unquestionably affect the tone of administering our government. Indeed, I fear that if this summer should prove disastrous to the French, it will damp that energy of republicanism in our new Congress, from which I had hoped so much reformation."

A Break from office

Jefferson at the end of 1793 retired to Monticello where he continued to orchestrate opposition to Hamilton and Washington. However, the Jay Treaty of 1794, orchestrated by Hamilton, brought peace and trade with Britain — while Madison, with strong support from Jefferson, wanted, Miller says, "to strangle the former mother country" without actually going to war. "It became an article of faith among Republicans that 'commercial weapons' would suffice to bring Great Britain to any terms the United States chose to dictate." Jefferson, in retirement, strongly encouraged Madison.[10] The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ...


The 1796 election and Vice Presidency

As the Republican candidate in 1796 he lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President (1797–1801). He wrote a manual of parliamentary procedure, but otherwise avoided the Senate. John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of...

Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800
Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800

With a quasi-War with France underway (that is, an undeclared naval war), the Federalists under John Adams started a navy, built up the army, levied new taxes, readied for war and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. Jefferson interpreted the Alien and Sedition Acts as an attack on his party more than on dangerous enemy aliens; they were used to attack his party, most notably Matthew Lyon, Congressman from Vermont. He and Madison rallied support by anonymously writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions which declared that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states. Should the federal government assume such powers, its acts under them could be voided by a state. The Resolutions' importance lies in being the first statements of the states' rights theory that led to the later concepts of nullification and interposition. Image File history File linksMetadata TJeffersonrpeale. ... Image File history File linksMetadata TJeffersonrpeale. ... Self-Portrait - Rembrandt Peale Rembrandt Peale (22 February 1778 - 3 October 1860) was a United States Neoclassical painter. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... Matthew Lyon (July 14, 1749 - August 1, 1822), (father of Chittenden Lyon and great-grandfather of William Peters Hepburn), was a printer, farmer, soldier, and politician, serving as a United States Representative from Vermont and from Kentucky. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... The process of nullification may refer to: The Hartford Convention, in which New England Federalists considered secession from the United States of America. ... Interposition, in the context of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, refers to an asserted right of U.S. states to protect their individual interests from federal violation or any abridgement of states rights deemed by those states to be dangerous or unconstitutional. ...


The election of 1800

Working closely with Aaron Burr of New York, Jefferson rallied his party, attacking the new taxes especially, and stood for the Presidency in 1800. Consistent with the traditions of the times, he did not formally campaign for the position. Prior to the passage of the 12th Amendment, a problem with the new union's electoral system arose. He tied with Burr for first place in the Electoral College, leaving the House of Representatives (where the Federalists still had some power) to decide the election. This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution altered Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...


After lengthy debate within the Federalist-controlled House, Hamilton convinced his party that Jefferson would be a lesser political evil than Burr and that such scandal within the electoral process would undermine the still-young regime. The issue was resolved by the House, on 17 February 1801 after thirty-six ballots, when Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice President. Burr's refusal to remove himself from consideration created ill will with Jefferson, who dropped Burr from the ticket in 1804 after Burr killed Hamilton in a duel. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A contemporary artistic rendering of the 11 June 1804 duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton by J. Mund. ...


Presidency 1801–1809

Thomas Jeffersons Presidency, from 1801 to 1809, was the first to start and end in the White House (though at the time it was known as the Presidential Mansion). ...

Administration and cabinet

The Jefferson Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Thomas Jefferson 1801 – 1809
Vice President Aaron Burr 1801 – 1805
George Clinton 1805 – 1809
Secretary of State James Madison 1801 – 1809
Secretary of War Henry Dearborn 1801 – 1809
Secretary of Treasury Samuel Dexter 1801
Albert Gallatin 1801 – 1809
Attorney General Levi Lincoln, Sr. 1801 – 1804
Robert Smith 1805
John Breckinridge 1805 – 1806
Caesar A. Rodney 1807 – 1809
Postmaster General Joseph Habersham 1801
Gideon Granger 1801 – 1809
Navy Benjamin Stoddert 1801
Robert Smith 1801 – 1809


The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry Dearborn For his son, see Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Samuel Dexter (May 14, 1761–May 4, 1816) was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinet. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Levi Lincoln, Sr. ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ... John Breckinridge served many positions in government throughout his life. ... Caesar Augustus Rodney (January 4, 1772 _ June 10, 1824) was the United States Attorney General from 1807 to 1811, a U.S. Senator from Delaware from 1822 to 1823, and the U.S. Minister to Argentina from 1823 until his death in Buenos Aires in 1824. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Joseph Habersham Joseph Habersham (July 28, 1751–November 17, 1815) was an American businessman, Continental Congressman, soldier in the Continental Army and Postmaster General of the United States. ... Gideon Granger (July 19, 1767–December 31, 1822) was an American political leader. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Benjamin Stoddert (1751-1813) was the first United States Secretary of the Navy from May 1, 1798 to March 31, 1801. ... Robert Smith (November 3, 1757 – November 26, 1842) was the second United States Secretary of the Navy from 1801 to 1809 and the sixth United States Secretary of State from 1809 to 1811. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the...

Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | 1771 births | 1834 deaths ... Henry Brockholst Livingston (25 November 1757 - 18 March 1823) was an American jurist and a native of New York City. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | 1765 births | 1826 deaths ...

States admitted to the Union

  • Ohio – March 1, 1803

Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

Father of a university

After leaving the Presidency, Jefferson continued to be active in public affairs. He also became increasingly obsessed with founding a new institution of higher learning, specifically one free of church influences where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other universities. A letter to Joseph Priestley, in January 1800, indicated that he had been planning the university for decades before its establishment. Image File history File links Lawn. ... Image File history File links Lawn. ... The West Lawn in snow, 1914. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ...


His dream was realized in 1819, with the founding of the University of Virginia. Upon its opening in 1825, it was then the first university to offer a full slate of elective courses to its students. One of the largest construction projects to that time in North America, it was notable for being centered about a library rather than a church. In fact, no campus chapel was included in his original plans. Until his death, he invited university students and faculty of the school to his home; Edgar Allan Poe was among them. The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ...


Jefferson is widely recognized for his architectural planning of the UVa campus, an innovative design that is a powerful representation of his aspirations for both state sponsored education and an agrarian democracy in the new Republic. His educational idea of creating specialized units of learning is physically expressed in the configuration of his campus plan, which he called the Academical Village. Individual academic units are expressed visually as distinct structures, called Pavilions, facing a grassy quadrangle, each housing classroom, faculty office, and residences. Each is visually equal in importance, and they are linked together with a series of open air arcades that are the front facades of student accommodations. Gardens and vegetable plots are placed behind, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle.


His highly ordered site plan establishes an ensemble of buildings surrounding a central rectangular quadrangle, named the Lawn, which is lined on either side with the academic teaching units and their linking arcades. The quad is enclosed at one end with the library, the repository of knowledge, at the head of the table. The remaining side opposite the library remained open-ended for future growth. The lawn rises gradually as a series of stepped terraces, each a few feet higher than the last, rising up to the library set in the most prominent position at the top, while also suggesting that the Academical Village facilitates easier movement to the future.


Stylistically, Jefferson was a proponent of the Greek and Roman styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy by historical association. Each academic unit is designed with a two story temple front facing the quadrangle, while the library is modeled on the Roman Pantheon. The ensemble of buildings surrounding the quad is an unmistakable architectural statement of the importance of secular public education, while the exclusion of religious structures reinforces the principal of separation of church and state. The campus planning and architectural treatment remains today as a paradigm of the ordering of manmade structures to express intellectual ideas and aspirations. A survey of members of the American Institute of Architects identified Jefferson's campus as the most significant work of architecture in America.


The university was designed as the capstone of the educational system of Virginia. In his vision, any citizen of the commonwealth could attend school with the sole criterion being ability. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Jefferson's death

Jefferson died on the Fourth of July, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the same day as John Adams' death. Thomas Jefferson was deep in debt when he died. His possessions were sold at auction. In 1831, Jefferson's 552 acres (223 hectares) were sold for $7,000 to James T. Barclay. Thomas Jefferson is buried on his Monticello estate, in Charlottesville, Virginia. In his will, he left Monticello to the United States to be used as a school for orphans of navy officers. His epitaph, written by him with an insistence that only his words and "not a word more" be inscribed, reads: These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ... Nickname: C-Ville Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Albemarle County Founded 1762  - Mayor David E. Brown Area    - City 26. ... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ...

Jefferson's gravesite
Jefferson's gravesite
HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON
AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ...

Interests and activities

Jefferson was an accomplished architect who was extremely influential in bringing the Neo-Palladian style—popular among the Whig aristocracy of Britain—to the United States. The style was associated with Enlightenment ideas of republican civic virtue and political liberty. Jefferson designed his famous home, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia; it included automatic doors, the first swivel chair, and other convenient devices invented by Jefferson. Nearby is the only university ever to have been founded by a U.S. president, the University of Virginia, of which the original curriculum and architecture Jefferson designed. Today, Monticello and the University of Virginia are together one of only four man-made World Heritage Sites in the United States of America. Jefferson also designed Poplar Forest, near Lynchburg, in Bedford County, Virginia, as a private retreat from a very public life. Jefferson is also credited with the architectural design of the Virginia State Capitol building, which was modeled after the Maison Carrée at Nîmes in southern France, an ancient Roman temple. Jefferson's buildings helped initiate the ensuing American fashion for Federal style architecture. An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ... Nickname: C-Ville Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Albemarle County Founded 1762  - Mayor David E. Brown Area    - City 26. ... The following is a partial list of chair types, with internal or external cross references about most of the chairs. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Thomas Jefferson, the architect of such buildings as Monticello, the University of Virginia, and Virginias State Capitol, built the more remote and lesser-known Poplar Forest in Bedford County, Virginia as a private retreat from a very public life. ... The Allied Arts Building in downtown Lynchburg, completed in 1931. ... Bedford County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia. ... Virginia State Capitol Building at Richmond, Virginia The Virginia State Capitol is the seat of state government in the Commonwealth of Virginia, located in Richmond, the third State Capital of Virginia. ... The Maison Carrée at Nimes, France, is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ...


Jefferson's interests included archeology, a discipline then in its infancy. He has sometimes been called the "father of archeology" in recognition of his role in developing excavation techniques. When exploring an Indian burial mound on his Virginia estate in 1784, Jefferson avoided the common practice of simply digging downwards until something turned up. Instead, he cut a wedge out of the mound so that he could walk into it, look at the layers of occupation, and draw conclusions from them. The following alphabetical lists includes men and women commonly known as the father or mother of something. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ...

Thomas Jefferson enjoyed his fish pond at Monticello. It was around three feet (1 m) deep and mortar lined. He used the pond to keep fish that were recently caught as well as to keep eels fresh. This pond has been restored and can be seen from the west side of Monticello. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1469 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Monticello Historic houses in Virginia Architecture of the United States List of United States presidential residences Around the World in 80 Treasures Jack Jouett Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1469 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Monticello Historic houses in Virginia Architecture of the United States List of United States presidential residences Around the World in 80 Treasures Jack Jouett Metadata... Monticello, located near Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, the third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. ...


In 1780, he joined Benjamin Franklin's American Philosophical Society. He served as president of the society from 1797 to 1815. Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ...


Jefferson was an avid wine lover and noted gourmet. During his years in France (1784–1789) he took extensive trips through French and other European wine regions and sent the best back home. He is noted for the bold pronouncement: "We could in the United States make as great a variety of wines as are made in Europe, not exactly of the same kinds, but doubtless as good." While there were extensive vineyards planted at Monticello, a significant portion were of the European wine grape Vitis vinifera and did not survive the many vine diseases native to the Americas. A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Binomial name Vitis vinifera L. For thousands of years, the fruit and plant of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine, have been harvested for both medicinal and nutritional value; its history is intimately entwined with the history of wine. ...


In 1801, he published A Manual of Parliamentary Practice that is still in use. In 1812 Jefferson published a second edition.


After the British burned Washington, D.C. and the Library of Congress in August 1814, Jefferson offered his own collection to the nation. In January 1815, Congress accepted his offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6,487 books, and the foundation was laid for a great national library. Today, the Library of Congress' website for federal legislative information is named THOMAS, in honor of Jefferson.[7]. His two volume 1764 edition of the Quran was used by Rep. Keith Ellison in 2007 for his swearing in to the U.S. House of representatives.[11] The Great Hall interior. ... The Great Hall interior. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Keith Maurice Ellison (born August 4, 1963) is an American lawyer and politician who became the first Muslim[1][2] to be elected to the United States Congress when he won the vacant seat for Minnesotas 5th congressional district in the House of Representatives, one of eight congressional districts... In mid-November 2006 it was reported that Keith Ellison, the first Muslim elected to the United States Congress (for Minnesotas 5th congressional district), will take his oath of office with his hand upon the Koran, the Islamic holy book. ...


Political philosophy

In his May 28, 1818 letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, Jefferson expressed his faith in mankind and his views on the nature of democracy.
In his May 28, 1818 letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, Jefferson expressed his faith in mankind and his views on the nature of democracy.

Jefferson was a leader in developing Republicanism in the United States. He insisted that the British aristocratic system was inherently corrupt and that Americans' devotion to civic virtue required independence. In the 1790s he repeatedly warned that Hamilton and Adams were trying to impose a British-like monarchical system that threatened republicanism. He supported the War of 1812, hoping it would drive away the British military and ideological threat from Canada. Jefferson's vision for American virtue was that of an agricultural nation of yeoman farmers minding their own affairs. It stood in contrast to the vision of Alexander Hamilton, who envisioned a nation of commerce and manufacturing, which Jefferson said offered too many temptations to corruption. Jefferson's deep belief in the uniqueness and the potential of America made him the father of American exceptionalism. In particular, he was confident that an under-populated America could avoid what he considered the horrors of class-divided, industrialized Europe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (507x640, 62 KB) Summary A letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah by Thomas Jefferson, May 28, 1818. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (507x640, 62 KB) Summary A letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah by Thomas Jefferson, May 28, 1818. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Mordecai Manuel Noah was a Jewish American diplomat, journalist, and utopian born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 14 July 1785; he died in New York, 22 May 1851. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ...


Jefferson's republican political principles were heavily influenced by the Country party of 18th century British opposition writers. He was influenced by John Locke (particularly relating to the principle of inalienable rights.) Historians find few traces of any influence by his French contemporary, Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[12] Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... There have been several groups known as the Country Party. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are in some sense fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...


His opposition to the Bank of the United States was fierce: "I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale."[13] Nevertheless Madison and Congress, seeing the financial chaos caused by the lack of a national bank in the War of 1812, disregarded his advice and created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ...


Jefferson believed that each individual has "certain unalienable rights". That is, these rights exist with or without government; man cannot create, take, or give them away. It is the right of "liberty" on which Jefferson is most notable for expounding. He defines it by saying "rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law', because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual."[14] Hence, for Jefferson, though government cannot create a right to liberty, it can indeed violate it. And the limit of an individual's rightful liberty is not what law says it is but is simply a matter of stopping short of prohibiting other individuals from having the same liberty. A proper government, for Jefferson, is one that not only prohibits individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of other individuals, but also restrains itself from diminishing individual liberty. Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ...


Jefferson's commitment to equality was expressed in his successful efforts to abolish primogeniture in Virginia, the rule by which the first born son inherited all the land.[15] This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Jefferson believed that individuals have an innate sense of morality that prescribes right from wrong when dealing with other individuals—that whether they choose to restrain themselves or not, they have an innate sense of the natural rights of others. He even believed that moral sense to be reliable enough that an anarchist society could function well, provided that it was reasonably small. On several occasions, he expressed admiration for tribal, communal way of living of Native Americans:[16] In fact, Jefferson is sometimes seen as a philosophical anarchist.[17] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... http://www. ... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ...


He said in a letter to Colonel Carrington: "I am convinced that those societies (as the Indians) which live without government, enjoy in their general mass an infinitely greater degree of happiness than those who live under the European governments." However, Jefferson believed anarchism to be "inconsistent with any great degree of population."[18] Hence, he did advocate government for the American expanse provided that it exists by "consent of the governed". Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ...


In the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson wrote: A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Jefferson's dedication to "consent of the governed" was so thorough that he believed that individuals could not be morally bound by the actions of preceding generations. This included debts as well as law. He said that "no society can make a perpetual constitution or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs always to the living generation." He even calculated what he believed to be the proper cycle of legal revolution: "Every constitution then, and every law, naturally expires at the end of nineteen years. If it is to be enforced longer, it is an act of force, and not of right." He arrived at nineteen years through calculations with expectancy of life tables, taking into account what he believed to be the age of "maturity"—when an individual is able to reason for himself.[19] He also advocated that the National Debt should be eliminated. He did not believe that living individuals had a moral obligation to repay the debts of previous generations. He said that repaying such debts was "a question of generosity and not of right".[20] Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ...


Jefferson's very strong defense of States' Rights, especially in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798, set the tone for hostility to expansion of federal powers. However, some of his foreign policies did in fact strengthen the government. Most important was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, when he used the implied powers to annex a huge foreign territory and all its French and Indian inhabitants. His enforcement of the Embargo Act, while it failed in terms of foreign policy, demonstrated that the federal government could intervene with great force at the local level in controlling trade that might lead to war. States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... The Louisiana Purchase. ... The Embargo Act of 1807 was a United States law prohibiting all export of cargo from US ports. ...


View on the Carrying of Arms

Jefferson’s commitment to liberty extended to many areas of individual freedom. In his "Commonplace Book," he copied a passage from Cesare Beccaria related to the issue of gun control. The quote reads, "Laws that forbid the carrying of arms . . . disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes . . . Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man." Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ...


View on Corporations

Jefferson’s quote, "I hope we shall crush... in its birth the aristocracy of our moneyed corporations, which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength and bid defiance to the laws of our country [8]" is often attributed to being a strong warning against corporations and their function in American government and society. A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name...


However the term “corporations” in this context is an anachronism and in the 18th century was commonly understood to mean the joint-stock company. Please also refer to Corporation (feudal Europe). For instance, in 18th century England, the joint-stock company was a distinct entity created by the King of England as Royal Charter trading companies. These entities were awarded legal monopoly in designated regions of the world. Examples include the British East India Company, which effectively had a monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company eventually transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858. Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... In feudal Europe, corporations were aggregations of business interests in compact, usually with an explicit license from city, church, or national leaders. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock companies. ...


The de facto government created monopoly in which Jefferson referred, bears no great resemblance to the modern day public and/or private corporation and should not be taken out of its proper historical context. Rather, it should be placed into the context of Jefferson's overall view that the British aristocratic system and its derivatives such as these government created monopolies, were inherently corrupt. Corporate redirects here. ...


Views on the judiciary

Trained as a lawyer, Jefferson was a great writer but never a good speaker or advocate and never comfortable in court. He believed that judges should be technical specialists but should not set policy. He denounced the 1801 Supreme Court ruling in Marbury v. Madison as a violation of democracy, but he did not have enough support in Congress to propose a Constitutional amendment to overturn it. He continued to oppose the doctrine of judicial review: Holding Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 is unconstitutional to the extent it purports to enlarge the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court beyond that permitted by the Constitution. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice. ...

To consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions [is] a very dangerous doctrine indeed, and one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy. Our judges are as honest as other men and not more so. They have with others the same passions for party, for power, and the privilege of their corps. Their maxim is boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem [good justice is broad jurisdiction], and their power the more dangerous as they are in office for life and not responsible, as the other functionaries are, to the elective control. The Constitution has erected no such single tribunal, knowing that to whatever hands confided, with the corruptions of time and party, its members would become despots. It has more wisely made all the departments co-equal and co-sovereign within themselves.[21]

Views on political violence

Concerning the Shays Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, Jefferson wrote to William Smith, John Adams's son-in-law, "What signify a few lives lost in a generation or two? The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure." Several anti-government groups have pointed to these words of his to justify their movement. Timothy McVeigh, the Oklahoma City bomber, was wearing a T-shirt when arrested bearing the words, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."[22] The Shays Rebellion (also Shayss or Shays) was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts, United States, that lasted from 1786 to 1787. ... William Stephens Smith (November 8, 1775 - June 10, 1816) was a member of Congress (1913-1915) from the state of New York. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Timothy James McVeigh (April 23, 1968 – June 11, 2001) was an American terrorist convicted of eleven federal offenses and ultimately executed as a result of his role in the April 19, 1995, Oklahoma City bombing. ... The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


Religious views

The eye of God has instigated the American eagle to snatch from Jefferson's hand the "Constitution & Independence" of the U.S. before he can cast it on an "Altar to Gallic Despotism," whose flames are being fed by the writings of Thomas Paine, Helvetius, Rousseau, and other freethinkers.

During the presidential campaign of 1800, the Federalists attacked Jefferson as an infidel, claiming that Jefferson's intoxication with the religious and political extremism of the French Revolution disqualified him from public office. But Jefferson wrote at length on religion and many scholars agree with the claim that Jefferson was a deist, a common position held by intellectuals in the late 18th century. As Avery Cardinal Dulles, a leading Roman Catholic theologian reports, "In his college years at William and Mary [Jefferson] came to admire Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, and John Locke as three great paragons of wisdom. Under the influence of several professors he converted to the deist philosophy."[23] Dulles concludes: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (402 × 450 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (402 × 450 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... His Eminence Avery Robert Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (born August 24, 1918 in Auburn, New York) is currently the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University, a position he has held since 1988. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ...

In summary, then, Jefferson was a deist because he believed in one God, in divine providence, in the divine moral law, and in rewards and punishments after death; but did not believe in supernatural revelation. He was a Christian deist because he saw Christianity as the highest expression of natural religion and Jesus as an incomparably great moral teacher. He was not an orthodox Christian because he rejected, among other things, the doctrines that Jesus was the promised Messiah and the incarnate Son of God. Jefferson's religion is fairly typical of the American form of deism in his day.

Biographer Merrill Peterson summarizes Jefferson's theology: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

First, that the Christianity of the churches was unreasonable, therefore unbelievable, but that stripped of priestly mystery, ritual, and dogma, reinterpreted in the light of historical evidence and human experience, and substituting the Newtonian cosmology for the discredited Biblical one, Christianity could be conformed to reason. Second, morality required no divine sanction or inspiration, no appeal beyond reason and nature, perhaps not even the hope of heaven or the fear of hell; and so the whole edifice of Christian revelation came tumbling to the ground.[24]
The Declaration of Independence incorporates concepts from Deism
The Declaration of Independence incorporates concepts from Deism

Jefferson used deist terminology in repeatedly stating his belief in a creator, and in the United States Declaration of Independence used the terms "Creator" and "Nature's God". Jefferson believed, furthermore, it was this Creator that endowed humanity with a number of inalienable rights, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". His experience in France just before the French Revolution made him deeply suspicious of Catholic priests and bishops as a force for reaction and ignorance. Similarly, his experience in America with inter-denominational intolerance served to reinforce this skeptical view of religion. In a letter to Willam Short, Jefferson wrote: "the serious enemies are the priests of the different religious sects, to whose spells on the human mind its improvement is ominous."[25] Image File history File links Original_Declaration_of_Independence_NARA.jpg‎ Took place on July 4th, 1776. ... Image File history File links Original_Declaration_of_Independence_NARA.jpg‎ Took place on July 4th, 1776. ... A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial deism. ... God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... William Short (1759-1849) had been Thomas Jeffersons Private Secretary when he was Minister in Paris, 1786-1789, and, unlike some of Jeffersons other secretaries (such as James Madison and James Monroe), he never became a famous politician. ...


Jefferson was raised in the Church of England, at a time when it was the established church in Virginia and only denomination funded by Virginia tax money. Before the Revolution, Jefferson was a vestryman in his local church, a lay position that was part of political office at the time. He also had friends who were clergy, and he supported some churches financially. During his Presidency, Jefferson attended the weekly church services held in the House of Representatives. Jefferson later expressed general agreement with his friend Joseph Priestley's Unitarianism, that is the rejection of the doctrine of Trinity. In a letter to a pioneer in Ohio he wrote, "I rejoice that in this blessed country of free inquiry and belief, which has surrendered its conscience to neither kings or priests, the genuine doctrine of only one God is reviving, and I trust that there is not a young man now living in the United States who will not die a Unitarian."[26] The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... A vestryman is a member of his local churchs vestry, or leading body. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ...


Jefferson did not believe in the divinity of Jesus, but he had high esteem for Jesus' moral teachings, which he viewed as the "principles of a pure deism, and juster notions of the attributes of God, to reform [prior Jewish] moral doctrines to the standard of reason, justice & philanthropy, and to inculcate the belief of a future state."[27] Jefferson did not believe in miracles. He made his own condensed version of the Gospels, omitting Jesus' virgin birth, miracles, divinity, and resurrection, primarily leaving only Jesus' moral philosophy, of which he approved. This compilation was published after his death and became known as the Jefferson Bible. The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was an attempt by Thomas Jefferson to glean the teachings of Jesus from the Christian Gospels. ...

[The Jefferson Bible] is a document in proof that I am a real Christian, that is to say, a disciple of the doctrines of Jesus, very different from the Platonists, who call me infidel and themselves Christians and preachers of the gospel, while they draw all their characteristic dogmas from what its author never said nor saw.[28]

However, early in his administration he attended church services in the House of Representatives. He also permitted church services in executive branch buildings throughout his administration, believing that Christianity was a prop for republican government. [29]


Church and state

Jefferson is portrayed on the United States two-dollar bill
Jefferson is portrayed on the United States two-dollar bill

For Jefferson, separation of church and state was not an abstract right but a necessary reform of the religious "tyranny" of one Christian sect over many other Christians - and of the interference of the state in affairs of religion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 201 × 236 pixelsFull resolution (201 × 236 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Closeup of Thomas Jefferson on the Image:US $2 bicentennial. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 201 × 236 pixelsFull resolution (201 × 236 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Closeup of Thomas Jefferson on the Image:US $2 bicentennial. ... Face of the Series 1995 $2 bill Back of the Series 1995 $2 bill The United States two dollar bill ($2) is a current denomination of U.S. currency. ...


Following the Revolution, Jefferson played a leading role in the disestablishment of religion in Virginia. Previously the Anglican Church had tax support. As he wrote in his Notes on Virginia, a law was in effect in Virginia that "if a person brought up a Christian denies the being of a God, or the Trinity …he is punishable on the first offense by incapacity to hold any office …; on the second by a disability to sue, to take any gift or legacy …, and by three year' imprisonment." Prospective officer-holders were required to swear that they did not believe in the central Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ that, according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, occurs in the Eucharist and that is called in Greek (see Metousiosis). ...


From 1784 to 1786, Jefferson and James Madison worked together to oppose Patrick Henry's attempts to again assess taxes in Virginia to support churches. Instead, in 1786, the Virginia General Assembly passed Jefferson's Bill for Religious Freedom, which he had first submitted in 1779 and was one of only three accomplishments he put in his own epitaph. The law read: Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered primarily for his stirring oratory. ... The Virginia General Assembly is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U.S. state. ... Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. ...

No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer, on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.[30]

One of Jefferson’s least well known writings is: "Millions of innocent men, women and children, since the introduction of Christianity, have been burned, tortured, fined and imprisoned. What has been the effect of this coercion? To make half the world fools and half hypocrites; to support roguery and error all over the world"- Thomas Jefferson, in his Notes on Virginia. [9]


Jefferson sought what he called a "wall of separation between Church and State", which he believed was a principle expressed by the First Amendment. This phrase has been cited several times by the Supreme Court in its interpretation of the Establishment Clause.[31] In an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptist Association, he wrote: The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... Nickname: The Hat City Located in Fairfield County, Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Danbury Region Housatonic Valley Incorporated (town) 1702 Incorporated (city) 1889 Consolidated 1965 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Mark D. Boughton (R) Area  - City 114. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ...

Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between church and State.[32]

Jefferson refused to issue proclamations calling for days of prayer and thanksgiving during his Presidency, yet he did do so as Governor in Virginia. His private letters indicate he was skeptical of too much interference by clergy in matters of civil government. His letters contain the following observations: "History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people maintaining a free civil government",[33] and, "In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own."[34] "May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all), the signal of arousing men to burst the chains under which monkish ignorance and superstition had persuaded them to bind themselves, and to assume the blessings and security of self-government".[35] Yet, Jefferson advocated the influence of religion in abolishing the institution of slavery in America stating, "Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his justice can not sleep forever: that considering numbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation is among possible events: that it may become probable by supernatural interference!” [36] Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802, which contains the phrase wall of separation between church and state. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ...


While the debate over Jefferson's understanding over the separation of Church and state is far from being settled, as are his particular religious tenets, his dependence on divine Providence is not nearly as ambiguous. As he stated, in his second inaugural address:

I shall need, too, the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our fathers, as Israel of old, from their native land and planted them in a country flowing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered our infancy with His providence and our riper years with His wisdom and power, and to whose goodness I ask you to join in supplications with me that He will so enlighten the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures that whatsoever they do shall result in your good, and shall secure to you the peace, friendship, and approbation of all nations.[37]

Jefferson and slavery

Jefferson portrayed
on the U.S. Nickel

1938–2004

2005

2006

Jefferson owned many slaves over his lifetime. Some find it baffling that Thomas Jefferson owned slaves yet was outspoken in saying that slavery was immoral and it should be abolished. Biographers point out that Jefferson was deep in debt and had encumbered his slaves by notes and mortgages; he could not free them until he finally was debt-free, which he never was.[38] Jefferson seems to have suffered pangs and trials of conscience as a result.[39] The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five-hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1523x1500, 492 KB) Summary Obtained from the U.S. Mint. ... Download high resolution version (2400x2373, 1349 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1978x1980, 2138 KB) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Jefferson Nickel (United States...


During his long career in public office, Jefferson attempted numerous times to abolish or limit the advance of slavery. According to a biographer, Jefferson "believed that it was the responsibility of the state and society to free all slaves".[40] In 1769, as a member of the House of Burgesses, Jefferson proposed for that body to emancipate slaves in Virginia, but he was unsuccessful.[41] In his first draft of the Declaration of Independence (1776), Jefferson condemned the British crown for sponsoring the importation of slavery to the colonies, charging that the crown "has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere." However, this language was dropped from the Declaration at the request of delegates from South Carolina and Georgia. Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... See also : Human nature (disambiguation) Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...


In 1778, the legislature passed a bill he proposed to ban further importation of slaves into Virginia; although this did not bring complete emancipation, in his words, it "stopped the increase of the evil by importation, leaving to future efforts its final eradication". In 1784, Jefferson's draft of what became the Northwest Ordinance stipulated that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude" in any of the new states admitted to the Union from the Northwest Territory.[42] In 1807, he signed a bill abolishing the slave trade. Jefferson attacked the institution of slavery in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1784): This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance) was an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Notes was the only full-length book authored by Thomas Jefferson. ...

There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us. The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other.[43]

In this same work, Jefferson advanced his suspicion that blacks were inferior to whites "in the endowments both of body and mind".[44] He also wrote, "Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than that these people are to be free. [But] the two races...cannot live in the same government. Nature, habit, opinion has drawn indelible lines of distinction between them." [10] According to historian Stephen Ambrose: "Jefferson, like all slaveholders and many other white members of American society, regarded Negroes as inferior, childlike, untrustworthy and, of course, as property. Jefferson, the genius of politics, could see no way for African-Americans to live in society as free people."[45] His solution seems to have been for slaves to be freed then deported peacefully failing which the same result would be imposed by war and that, in Jefferson's words, "human nature must shudder at the prospect held up [by war]. We should in vain look for an example in the Spanish deportation or deletion of the Moors. This precedent [the Spanish deportation or deletion] would fall far short of our case.[46] Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ...


On February 25, 1809, Jefferson repudiated his earlier view, writing:

Sir,--I have received the favor of your letter of August 17th, and with it the volume you were so kind to send me on the "Literature of Negroes". Be assured that no person living wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a complete refutation of the doubts I have myself entertained and expressed on the grade of understanding allotted to them by nature, and to find that in this respect they are on a par with ourselves. My doubts were the result of personal observation on the limited sphere of my own State, where the opportunity for the development of their genius were not favorable and those of exercising it still less so. I expressed them therefore with great hesitation; but whatever be their degree of talent it is no measure of their rights. Because Sir Isaac Newton was superior to others in understanding, he was not therefore lord of the person or property of others. On this subject they are gaining daily in the opinions of nations, and hopeful advances are making toward their re-establishment on an equal footing with the other colors of the human family. I pray you therefore to accept my thanks for the many instances you have enabled me to observe of respectable intelligence in that race of men, which cannot fail to have effect in hastening the day of their relief; and to be assured of the sentiments of high and just esteem and consideration which I tender to yourself with all sincerity.[47]

The downturn in land prices after 1819 pushed Jefferson further into debt. Jefferson finally emancipated his five most trusted slaves; the others were sold after his death to pay his debts.[48]


The Sally Hemings controversy

For more details on this topic, see Sally Hemings and Jefferson DNA Data.

Regarding marriage between blacks and whites, Jefferson wrote that "[t]he amalgamation of whites with blacks produces a degradation to which no lover of his country, no lover of excellence in the human character, can innocently consent."[49] This is the subject of considerable controversy since Jefferson has been recognized as the father of at least some of the children of his slave Sally Hemings. In addition, Hemings was likely the half-sister of Jefferson's deceased wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. The allegation that Jefferson fathered children with Hemings first gained widespread public attention in 1802, when journalist James T. Callender, wrote in a Richmond newspaper, "...[Jefferson] keeps and for many years has kept, as his concubine, one of his slaves. Her name is Sally." Jefferson never responded publicly about this issue but is said to have denied it in his private correspondence.[50] Sally Hemings (Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia, circa 1773 or 1773 – Charlottesville, Virginia, 1835) was a quadroon slave owned by Thomas Jefferson. ... Thomas Jefferson There was a long controversy regarding whether or not Thomas Jefferson could have fathered any sons by Sally Hemmings. ... It has been suggested that Anti-miscegenation laws be merged into this article or section. ... Sally Hemings (Shadwell, Albemarle County, Virginia, circa 1773 or 1773 – Charlottesville, Virginia, 1835) was a quadroon slave owned by Thomas Jefferson. ... Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (October 19, 1748 (O.S.) - September 6, 1782) was the wife of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. ...


A 1998 DNA study concluded that there was a DNA link between some of Hemings descendants and the Jefferson family, but did not conclusively prove that Jefferson himself was their ancestor. Three studies were released in the early 2000s, following the publication of the DNA evidence. In 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, which runs Monticello, appointed a multi-disciplinary, 9-member in-house research committee of Ph.D.s and an M.D. to study the matter of the paternity of Hemings's children. The committee concluded "it is very unlikely that any Jefferson other than Thomas Jefferson was the father of [Hemings's six] children."[51] In 2001, the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society[52] commissioned a study by an independent 13-member Scholars Commission. The commission concluded that the Jefferson paternity thesis was not persuasive. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly then published articles reviewing the evidence from a genealogical perspective and concluded that the link between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings was valid.[53] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


Monuments and memorials

Further information: List of places named for Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson on Mount Rushmore
  • April 13, 1943, the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth, the Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. The interior includes a 19 foot statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words which are inscribed around the monument near the roof: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man".

This is a list of places in the United States named for Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson High School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Jefferson High School, Los Angeles, California Jefferson High School, El Paso, Texas Jefferson City, capital of Missouri Jefferson County, Iowa Jefferson County, New York Jefferson County, Washington Jefferson County... Download high resolution version (1327x999, 133 KB)Picture of the Jefferson Memorial from across the tidal basin Taken by Raul654 on June 23, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1327x999, 133 KB)Picture of the Jefferson Memorial from across the tidal basin Taken by Raul654 on June 23, 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Jefferson Memorial from outside The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C. that is dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, an American Founding Father and the third president of the United States. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1891x1142, 426 KB) Summary Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1891x1142, 426 KB) Summary Mt. ... (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln represent the first 150 years of American history. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The Jefferson Memorial from outside The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C. that is dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, an American Founding Father and the third president of the United States. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln represent the first 150 years of American history. ... The U.S. two dollar bill ($2) is a denomination of U.S. currency. ... The United States five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of currency equaling one-twentieth, or five-hundredths, of a United States dollar. ... Treasury securities are government bonds issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Nickname: C-Ville Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Albemarle County Founded 1762  - Mayor David E. Brown Area    - City 26. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

See also

The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale in 1800. ... This is a list of places in the United States named for Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson High School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Jefferson High School, Los Angeles, California Jefferson High School, El Paso, Texas Jefferson City, capital of Missouri Jefferson County, Iowa Jefferson County, New York Jefferson County, Washington Jefferson County... The Monticello Association is a non-profit organization of people claiming to be the lineal descendants of Thomas Jefferson, 3rd president of the United States. ... Notes was the only full-length book authored by Thomas Jefferson. ... Jeffersons Rotunda, University of Virginia. ... The Plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States was a report submitted to the U.S. House of Representatives on July 13, 1790 by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. ... Species Jeffersonia diphylla Jeffersonia dubia Jeffersonia which is also known as Twinleaf or Rheumatism root, is a small genus of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Berberidaceae. ...

Notes

  1. ^ April 29, 1962 dinner honoring 49 Nobel Laureates (Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations, 1988, from Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1962, p. 347).
  2. ^ The Thomas Jefferson Papers Timeline: 1743 -1827. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  3. ^ Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson: Writings, p. 1236
  4. ^ http://www.americanrevolution.org/deckey.html
  5. ^ Bennett, William J. (2006). "The Greatest Revolution", America: The Last Best Hope (Volume I): From the Age of Discovery to a World at War. Nelson Current, 99. ISBN 1-59555-055-0. 
  6. ^ Ferling, John Adams vs Jefferson 2004 p 26
  7. ^ Ferling p 59
  8. ^ "Foreign Affairs," in Peterson, ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Encyclopedia (1986) p 325
  9. ^ Schachner 1:495
  10. ^ Miller (1960), 143–4, 148–9.
  11. ^ "But It's Thomas Jefferson's Koran!", The Washington Post, January 3, 2007, p. C03.  Retrieved on Jan. 3, 2007
  12. ^ J. G. A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (1975), 533; see also Richard K. Matthews, The Radical Politics of Thomas Jefferson, (1986), p. 17, 139n.16.
  13. ^ Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor May 28, 1816, in Appleby and Ball (1999) p 209); also Bergh, ed. Writings 15:23
  14. ^ Letter to Isaac H. Tiffany, April 4, 1819 in Appleby and Ball (1999) p 224.
  15. ^ Brown 1954 pp 51–2
  16. ^ Notes on Virginia
  17. ^ Adler, Mortimer Jerome. The Great Ideas. Open Court Publishing 2000. p. 378
  18. ^ Letter to James Madison, 30 Jan 1787
  19. ^ Letter to James Madison, 6 September 1789
  20. ^ Letter to James Madison, 6 Sep 1789; Daniel Scott Smith, "Population and Political Ethics: Thomas Jefferson's Demography of Generations," The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 56, No. 3 (Jul., 1999), pp. 591–612 in jstor
  21. ^ Letter to William C. Jarvis, 1820
  22. ^ Hitchens, Author of America: Thomas Jefferson, 2005, pp. 68
  23. ^ Avery Cardinal Dulles, "The Deist Minimum" First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Issue: 149. (Jan 2005) pp 25+ http://www.firstthings.com/ftissues/ft0501/articles/dulles.htm
  24. ^ Peterson 1975 p 50–51
  25. ^ Letter to William Short, April 13, 1820
  26. ^ Letter to Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse June 26, 1822
  27. ^ Letter to Joseph Priestley, April 9 1803, Thomas Jefferson. Lipscomb and Bergh, eds., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, vol. x, p.374
  28. ^ Letter to Charles Thomson 9 January 1816
  29. ^ http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel06-2.html
  30. ^ Merrill D. Peterson, ed., Thomas Jefferson: Writings (1984), p. 347
  31. ^ Reynolds (98 U.S. at 164, 1879); Everson (330 U.S. at 59, 1947); McCollum (333 U.S. at 232, 1948)
  32. ^ Letter to Danbury Baptist Association, CT, January 1, 1802
  33. ^ Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, December 6, 1813
  34. ^ Letter to Horatio G. Spafford, March 17, 1814
  35. ^ Letter to Roger C. Weightman June 24, 1826
  36. ^ Notes on the State of Virginia, Q.XVIII, 1782.
  37. ^ Jefferson's Second Inaugural Address
  38. ^ Herbert E. Sloan, Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (2001) pp. 14–26, 220–1.
  39. ^ Hitchens, Christopher, Author of America: Thomas Jefferson, Atlas Books/HarperCollinsPublishers (Eminent Lives series), 2005, pp. 48
  40. ^ Willard Sterne Randall, Thomas Jefferson: A Life. p 593.
  41. ^ The Works of Thomas Jefferson in Twelve Volumes at the Library of Congress.
  42. ^ Ordinance of 1787 Lalor Cyclopædia of Political Science
  43. ^ Notes on the State of Virginia, Ch 18.
  44. ^ Notes on the State of Virginia Query 14
  45. ^ Flawed Founders by Stephen E. Ambrose.
  46. ^ Hitchens, Christopher, Author of America: Thomas Jefferson, 2005, pp. 34–35
  47. ^ Letter of February 25, 1809 from Thomas Jefferson to French author Monsieur Gregoire, from The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (H. A. Worthington, ed.), Volume V, p. 429. Citation and quote from Morris Kominsky, The Hoaxers, pp. 110-111.
  48. ^ Peterson (1975) 991–92, 1007.
  49. ^ Quiz: Question 11 - Was Thomas Jefferson racist?"Jefferson's Blood," PBS - Frontline (1995–2006 wgbh educational foundation).
  50. ^ The Thomas Jefferson - Sally Hemings Myth and the Politicization of American History
  51. ^ Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, Appendix J: The Possible Paternity of Other Jeffersons, A Summary of Research
  52. ^ The Scholars Commission on the Jefferson-Hemings Issue
  53. ^ Helen F. M. Leary, "Sally Hemings's Children: A Genealogical Analysis of the Evidence," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 89, no. 3 (Sep. 2001), 165–207. [1]

The Great Hall interior. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... William Bennett on NBCs Meet the Press William John Bennett (born July 31, 1943) is an American conservative pundit and politician. ... John G.A. Pocock is a British historian, noted for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period, for his contributions to the intellectual history of political thought in general, and his studies of historiography in relation to Edward Gibbon and his contemporiaries. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... --69. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Robert C. Weightman was born in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1786. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Morris Kominsky (September 28, 1901 — April 1975) was the author of The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars and Damned Liars (1970). ...

References

Primary sources

  • Thomas Jefferson: Writings: Autobiography / Notes on the State of Virginia / Public and Private Papers / Addresses / Letters (1984, ISBN 978-0-94045016-5) Library of America edition; see discussion of sources at [11]. There are numerous one-volume collections; this is perhaps the best place to start.
  • Thomas Jefferson, Political Writings ed by Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball. Cambridge University Press. 1999 online
  • Lipscomb, Andrew A. and Albert Ellery Bergh, eds. The Writings Of Thomas Jefferson 19 vol. (1907) not as complete nor as accurate as Boyd edition, but covers TJ from birth to death. It is out of copyright, and so is online free.
  • Edwin Morris Betts (editor), Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book, (Thomas Jefferson Memorial: December 1, 1953) ISBN 1-882886-10-0. Letters, notes, and drawings—a journal of plantation management recording his contributions to scientific agriculture, including an experimental farm implementing innovations such as horizontal plowing and crop-rotation, and Jefferson's own moldboard plow. It is a window to slave life, with data on food rations, daily work tasks, and slaves' clothing. The book portrays the industries pursued by enslaved and free workmen, including in the blacksmith's shop and spinning and weaving house.
  • Boyd, Julian P. et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. The definitive multivolume edition; available at major academic libraries. 31 volumes covers TJ to 1800, with 1801 due out in 2006. See description at [12]
  • The Jefferson Cyclopedia (1900) large collection of TJ quotations arranged by 9000 topics; searchable; copyright has expired and it is online free.
  • The Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606–1827, 27,000 original manuscript documents at the Library of Congress online collection
  • Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), London: Stockdale. This was Jefferson's only book
    • Shuffleton, Frank, ed., (1998) Penguin Classics paperback: ISBN 0-14-043667-7
    • Waldstreicher, David, ed., (2002) Palgrave Macmillan hardcover: ISBN 0-312-29428-X
    • online edition
  • Cappon, Lester J., ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters (1959)
  • Howell, Wilbur Samuel, ed. Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings (1988). Jefferson's Manual of Parliamentary Practice, written when he was vice-President, with other relevant papers
  • Smith, James Morton, ed. The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, 3 vols. (1995)

Biographies

  • Appleby, Joyce. Thomas Jefferson (2003), short interpretive essay by leading scholar
  • Bernstein, R. B. Thomas Jefferson. (2003) Well regarded short biography
  • Burstein, Andrew. Jefferson's Secrets: Death and Desire at Monticello. (2005).
  • Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason (1988) well-reviewed short biography
  • Ellis, Joseph J. American Sphinx:The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1996). Prize winning essays; assumes prior reading of a biography
    • "American Sphinx: The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson." essay by leading scholar online at [13]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time, 6 vols. (1948–82). Multi-volume biography of TJ by leading expert; A short version is online
  • Onuf, Peter "The Scholars' Jefferson," William and Mary Quarterly 3d Series, L:4 (October 1993), 671–699. Historiographical review or scholarship about TJ; online through JSTOR at most academic libraries.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. "Politics and the Misadventures of Thomas Jefferson's Modern Reputation: a Review Essay." Journal of Southern History 2006 72(4): 871–908. Issn: 0022-4642 Fulltext in Ebsco
  • Peterson; Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975), a standard scholarly biography
  • Peterson, Merrill D. ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography (1986), 24 essays by leading scholars on aspects of Jefferson's career.
  • Schachner, Nathan. Thomas Jefferson: A Biography (1951) 2 vol.
  • Salgo, Sandor. Thomas Jefferson: Musician and Violinist (1997), a book detailing Thomas Jefferson's love of music

Academic studies

  • Ackerman, Bruce. The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy. (2005)
  • Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson (1889; Library of America edition 1986) famous 4-volume history
    • Wills, Garry, Henry Adams and the Making of America (2005), detailed analysis of Adams' History
  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
  • Brown; Stuart Gerry. The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison 1954
  • Channing; Edward. The Jeffersonian System: 1801–1811 (1906), "American Nation" survey of political history
  • Dunn, Susan. Jefferson's Second Revolution: The Election Crisis of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism (2004)
  • Elkins; Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995) in-depth coverage of politics of 1790s
  • Fatovic, Clement. "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives." : American Journal of Political Science, 2004 48(3): 429–444. Issn: 0092-5853 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta, Jstor, and Ebsco
  • Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (2004)
  • Finkelman, Paul. Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson (2001), esp ch 6–7
  • Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "I Tremble for My Country": Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia Gentry, (University Press of Florida; 206 pages; 2007). Argues that the TJ's critique of his fellow gentry in Virginia masked his own reluctance to change
  • Hitchens, Christopher, Author of America: Thomas Jefferson, HarperCollins (2005.)
  • Horn, James P. P. Jan Ellen Lewis, and Peter S. Onuf, eds. The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic (2002) 17 essays by scholars
  • Jayne, Allen. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence: Origins, Philosophy and Theology (2000); traces TJ's sources and emphasizes his incorporation of Deist theology into the Declaration.
  • Roger G. Kennedy. Mr. Jefferson's Lost Cause: Land, Farmers, Slavery, and the Louisiana Purchase (2003).
  • Knudson, Jerry W. Jefferson and the Press: Crucible of Liberty. (2006)
  • Lewis, Jan Ellen, and Onuf, Peter S., eds. Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, Civic Culture. (1999)
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1987) intellectual history approach to Jefferson's Presidency
  • Matthews, Richard K. "The Radical Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson: An Essay in Retrieval," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XXVIII (2004)
  • Mayer, David N. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (2000)
  • Onuf, Peter S. Jefferson's Empire: The Languages of American Nationhood. (2000). Online review
  • Onuf, Peter S., ed. Jeffersonian Legacies. (1993)
  • Onuf, Peter. "Thomas Jefferson, Federalist" (1993) online journal essay
  • Perry, Barbara A. "Jefferson's Legacy to the Supreme Court: Freedom of Religion." Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 181–198. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Peterson, Merrill D. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind (1960), how Americans interpreted and remembered Jefferson
  • Rahe, Paul A. "Thomas Jefferson's Machiavellian Political Science". Review of Politics 1995 57(3): 449–481. ISSN 0034–6705 Fulltext online at Jstor and Ebsco. Machiavelli's the Discourses on Livy set the context for Jefferson's republican views on limited government, the politics of distrust, populism, executive power, and a comprehensive legislative program for the state of Virginia. The Louisiana Purchase illustrated Jefferson's adherence to the Machiavellian principle that even a republic requires a prince capable of meeting emergencies. Jefferson also echoed the Machiavellian dictate that corruption and lethargy pose a significant threat to popular liberty
  • Sears, Louis Martin. Jefferson and the Embargo (1927), state by state impact
  • Sloan, Herbert J. Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (1995). Shows the burden of debt in Jefferson's personal finances and political thought.
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801–1815 (1968). "New American Nation" survey of political and diplomatic history
  • Staloff, Darren. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding. (2005)
  • Taylor, Jeff. Where Did the Party Go?: William Jennings Bryan, Hubert Humphrey, and the Jeffersonian Legacy (2006), on Jefferson's role in Democratic history and ideology.
  • Tucker, Robert W. and David C. Hendrickson. Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1992), foreign policy
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. "Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall: What Kind of Constitution Shall We Have?" Journal of Supreme Court History 2006 31(2): 109–125. Issn: 1059-4329 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Valsania, Maurizio. "'Our Original Barbarism': Man Vs. Nature in Thomas Jefferson's Moral Experience." Journal of the History of Ideas 2004 65(4): 627–645. Issn: 0022-5037 Fulltext: in Project Muse and Swetswise
  • Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr. Jefferson and Education. (2004).
  • Wiltse, Charles Maurice. The Jeffersonian Tradition in American Democracy (1935), analysis of Jefferson's political philosophy
  • PBS interviews with 24 historians

Jefferson and religion

  • Gaustad, Edwin S. Sworn on the Altar of God: A Religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson (2001) Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 0-8028-0156-0
  • Sanford, Charles B. The Religious Life of Thomas Jefferson (1987) University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-1131-1
  • Sheridan, Eugene R. Jefferson and Religion, preface by Martin Marty, (2001) University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 1-882886-08-9

Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Joseph John Ellis (1943- ) is a Pulitzer Prize - winning professor of history at Mount Holyoke College. ... Dumas Malone was a biographer of Thomas Jefferson. ... (1909-2007) Born into a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary in 1909, Sandor Salgo studied music in Budapest. ... Niccolò Machiavelli is primarily known as the author of The Prince. ... Martin E. Marty (b. ...

External links and sources

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Preceded by
Patrick Henry
Governor of Virginia
1779 – 1781
Succeeded by
William Fleming
Preceded by
Benjamin Franklin
United States Minister Plenipotentiary to France
1785 – 1789
Succeeded by
William Short
Preceded by
John Jay
(as United States Secretary for Foreign Affairs)
United States Secretary of State
September 26, 1789December 31, 1793
Succeeded by
Edmund Randolph
Preceded by
(none)
Democratic-Republican Party presidential candidate
1796 (won Vice Presidency)(a), 1800 (won Presidency), 1804 (won)
Succeeded by
James Madison
Preceded by
John Adams
Vice President of the United States
March 4, 1797March 4, 1801
Succeeded by
Aaron Burr
President of the United States
March 4, 1801March 4, 1809
Succeeded by
James Madison
(a) Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each Presidential elector would cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. Thus, in 1796, the Republican Party fielded Jefferson as a Presidential candidate, but he came in second and therefore became Vice President.


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  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Persondata
NAME Jefferson, Thomas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American President
DATE OF BIRTH April 13, 1743
PLACE OF BIRTH Albemarle County, Virginia
DATE OF DEATH July 4, 1826
PLACE OF DEATH Charlottesville, Virginia


The Age of Enlightenment (French: , German: ) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (1724-1764), Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... François Quesnay. ... For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) the father of modern chemistry, was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748 – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... The 18th century writers in France who compiled the French Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia), most prominently Diderot, were known as the Encyclopédistes. ... Erhard Weigel (1625–1699) was a German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) and an enlightened monarch of the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Thomas Abbt (born 25 November 1738 in Ulm - died 3 November 1766 in Bückeburg) was a mathematician and German writer. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ... Johann Adam Weishaupt (* 6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt; † 18 November 1830 in Gotha) was a German who founded the Order of the Illuminati. ...  , IPA: , (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832), commonly known as Goethe, was a German poet, novelist, theorist, and scientist who is considered one of the giants of the literary world. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss or Gauß ( ; Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist of profound genius who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy, and optics. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... This article is about John Locke, the English philosopher. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1749 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher, and feminist. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (1668–1744) was a Neapolitan philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Marquis of Beccaria Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria or Cesare, marchese di Beccaria-Bonesana (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [[30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... David Rittenhouse. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Thomas Paine (Thetford, England, 29 January 1737 – 8 June 1809, New York City, USA) was a pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical intellectual, and deist. ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that reasoning be merged into this article or section. ... Sapere aude is a Latin phrase meaning Dare to know or Dare to be wise. Most famously, it is found in Immanuel Kants essay What Is Enlightenment?. The original use seems to be in Epistle II of Horaces Epistularum liber primus [1], line 40: Dimidium facti qui coepit... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Albemarle County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: C-Ville Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Albemarle County Founded 1762  - Mayor David E. Brown Area    - City 26. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography of Thomas Jefferson (562 words)
Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785.
During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen.
Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia.
Thomas Jefferson: Father Of Invention | Winter 2000 Early America Review (1580 words)
Jefferson, a strong proponent of equality among all people, was not sure if it was fair or even constitutional to grant what was essentially a monopoly to an inventor, who would then be able to grant the use of his idea only to those who could afford it.
Jefferson felt that science and invention were the most certain means of advancing social progress and human happiness, for his goals were essentially humanitarian in science, as they were in all aspects of his life.
Jefferson, always the scientist, warmed to his duties and became more open to the idea of patents when he saw how many inventors put forth their ideas as a result of the new system of protection, claiming that "it had given spring to invention beyond my conception." (As cited in Malone, 1951).
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