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Encyclopedia > Thomas Hodgskin
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Thomas Hodgskin (b. December 12, 1787 Chatham, Kent, d. - August 21, 1869 Feltham, Middlesex) was an english writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of early trade unions. December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Jump to: navigation, search Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Jump to: navigation, search In common usage capitalism refers to an economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated, and where investment and the production, distribution and prices of commodities (goods and services) are determined privately in a free market, rather... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Born of a father who worked in the Chatham Naval Dockyard, Hodgskin joined the navy at the age of 12. He rose rapidly through the ranks in the years of naval struggle with the French to the rank of first lieutenant. Following the naval defeat of the French the opportunities for advancement closed and Hodgskin increasingly ran into disciplinary trouble with his superiors, eventually leading to his court martial and dismissal in 1812. This prompted his first book "An Essay on Naval Discipline" (1813) a scathing critique of the brutal authoritarian regime then current in the navy. 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Entering Edinburgh University for study he later came to London in 1815 and entered the utilitarian circle around Francis Place, Jeremy Bentham and James Mill. With their support he spent the next five years in a programme of travel and study around Europe which resulted, inter alia, in a second book "Travels in North Germany" (1820). Edinburghs location in Scotland Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... Francis Place (3rd November, 1771 - 1st January, 1854) was an early supporter of contraceptives, and a radical of the early nineteenth century who befriended and supported many important figures, including Joseph Hume, Sir Francis Burdett, and Jeremy Bentham. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, eccentric, and legal and social reformer. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), historian and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


After 3 years in Edinburgh, Hodgskin returned to London in 1823 as a journalist. Influenced by, amongst others, Jean Baptiste Say, his views on political economy had diverged from the utilitarian orthodoxy of David Ricardo and James Mill. During the controversy around the parliamentary acts to first legalise and then ban worker's "combinations" Mill and Ricardo had been in favour of the ban whereas Hodgskin supported the right to organise. Taking Ricardo's labour theory of value he used it to denounce the appropriation of the most part of value produced by the labour of industrial workers as illegitimate. He propounded these views in a series of lectures at the London Mechanics Institute where he debated with William Thompson with whom he shared the critique of capitalist expropriation but not the proposed remedy. The results of these lectures and debates he published as "Labour Defended against the Claims of Capital" (1825), "Popular Political Economy" (1827) and "Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted" ((1832). The title of "Labour Defended" was a jibe at James Mill's earlier "Commerce Defended" and signalled his opposition to the latters taking sides with the capitalists against their employees. Jump to: navigation, search Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... David Ricardo (April 18, 1772 — September 11, 1823), a British political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), historian and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory in economics and political economy concerning a market-oriented society: the theory equates the value of an exchangeable good or service (i. ... Jump to: navigation, search William Thompson (b. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), historian and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ...


Though his criticism of Employers appropriation of the lion's share of the value produced by their employees went on to influence subsequent generations of socialists, including Karl Marx, Hodgskin's fundamental Deist beliefs identified production and exchange based on the labour theory of value (freed from the supposedly illegitimate expropriations of rent, interest and owners profits) as part of "natural right", the divinely ordained proper relations of society contrasted to "artificial" contrivances - the source of disharmonies and conflicts. He rejected the proto-communism of William Thompson and Robert Owens by the same appeal to "natural right". Despite his high profile in the agitated revolutionary times of the 1820s, he retreated into the realm of Whig journalism after the Reform Act of 1832. He became an advocate of free trade and spent 15 years writing for The Economist. He continued working as a journalist for the rest of his life. Jump to: navigation, search Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London, England) was an influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Historical and modern Deism is defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory in economics and political economy concerning a market-oriented society: the theory equates the value of an exchangeable good or service (i. ... Jump to: navigation, search William Thompson (b. ... Robert Bowie Owens (1870 - 1940) was a U.S. electrical engineer. ... This article is about the British Whig party. ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Front cover of September 3, 2005 edition. ...


External Links

Labour Defended


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Thomas Hodgskin was the son of a storekeeper at the naval dockyards at Chatham Kent and had served in the British navy during the Napoleonic wars.
In contrast Hodgskin was concise and skilled in making his arguments in a language the ordinary worker could both readily understand and re-use amongst his or her peers.
Whereas the previous three were all acutely aware of the clashing interests of the labouring and owning classes and the extent to which the bosses ideologies suited their class interests, it is Marx that puts forward the theory of the class struggle as the motor of history.
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