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Encyclopedia > Thomas Hare

Thomas Hare (March 28, 1806 - May 6, 1891) was an English barrister who was involved in the theory and advocacy of election methods. Image File history File links Thare. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ...


Hare lends his name to the following:

An English barrister, political reformer, and close friend of philosopher John Stuart Mill, Hare "invented" the method of elections technically referred to today as STV (the Single Transferable Vote). Thomas Hare was not a mathematician, thus never subjected his STV system to a rigorous mathematical analysis. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Example ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) (also known as the Alternative Vote (AV) and by several other names) is an voting system used for single winner elections in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... The Hare quota is a formula used to calculate the minimum number, or quota, of votes required to capture a seat in some forms of single transferable vote or largest remainder method party-list proportional representation voting systems. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The Hamilton method is a version of the largest remainder method for allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ...


This method of elections has since become the favorite of advocates of electoral reform, has been used throughout the world. While continuing to be the main method of elections in Australia and the Republic of Ireland, it has been widely used in numerous corporations and organizations, and has been employed as a single-member variant in local elections in a few jurisdictions of the United States.


Mill described Hare's system as "the greatest improvement of which the system of representative government is susceptible; an improvement which…exactly meets and cures the grand, and what before seemed inherent, defect of the representative system". Indeed, the popularity of Instant-runoff voting today could be attributed to Mill's pronouncements about STV, rather than actual scientific merit. [citation needed]


Works

  • A treatise on election of representatives, parliamentary and municipal (1859)
  • The election of representatives parliamentary and municipal : a treatise (1865)
  • The machinery of representation (1875)

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