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Encyclopedia > Thomas Edison
Thomas Alva Edison

"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Alva Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1932)
Born February 11, 1847(1847-02-11)
Milan, Ohio
Died October 18, 1931 (aged 84)
West Orange, New Jersey
Occupation Inventor, entrepreneur
Religious beliefs Deist
Spouse Mary Edison, Mina Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. Edison is the last name of Thomas Edison (1847–1931), the United States inventor. ... thomas alva edison File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Edison Categories: U.S. history images ... Harpers redirects here. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Milan is a village located in Erie and Huron counties in Ohio. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... Map of Edison Township in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1651 Incorporated March 17, 1870 (as Raritan Township) Government  - Type Faulkner Act Mayor-Council  - Mayor Jun Choi Area  - Township  30. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Below is a list of Edison patents. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Edison's birthplace
Edison's birthplace

Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, and was raised in Port Huron, Michigan. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr. (1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Nancy Matthews Edison nee Elliott (1810–1871). His family was of Dutch origin.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x744, 191 KB) Photographer: Carl Waite TITLE: Thomas A. Edison Birthplace, Front Street & Choate Avenue, Milan, Erie County, OH CALL NUMBER: HABS OHIO,22-MILA,1- REPRODUCTION NUMBER: [See Call Number] MEDIUM: Measured Drawing(s): 2 (18 x 24) Photo(s... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x744, 191 KB) Photographer: Carl Waite TITLE: Thomas A. Edison Birthplace, Front Street & Choate Avenue, Milan, Erie County, OH CALL NUMBER: HABS OHIO,22-MILA,1- REPRODUCTION NUMBER: [See Call Number] MEDIUM: Measured Drawing(s): 2 (18 x 24) Photo(s... Milan is a village located in Erie and Huron counties in Ohio. ... A statue of Thomas Edison with the Blue Water Bridge in the background. ... Marshalltown is a rural community located just west of Digby, on Digby Neck, an isthmus of Nova Scotia, Canada, between the Bay of Fundy and Saint Marys Bay. ...

Thomas Edison as a boy.
Thomas Edison as a boy.

In school, the young Edison's mind often wandered, and his teacher, the Reverend Engle, was overheard calling him "addled." This ended Edison's three months of official schooling. He recalled later, "My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint." His mother then home schooled him.[2] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1437x1799, 155 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1437x1799, 155 KB) Summary http://www. ... Homeschooling[1] ( also called home education), home learning or homeschool[1] – is the education of children at home, typically by parents or guardians, rather than in a public or private school. ... R. G. Parkers School of natural philosophy is the scientific textbook credited with inspiring the inventor Thomas Edison. ... The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (often shortened to The Cooper Union) is a college founded in 1859 in New York City. ...


Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of Edison's deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle ear infections. Around the middle of his career Edison attributed the hearing loss to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical lab in a boxcar caught fire, and was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan, along with his apparatus and chemicals. In his later years he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears.[3][4] Kimball Township is a civil township of St. ...


Edison's family was forced to move to Port Huron, Michigan, when the railroad bypassed Milan in 1854,[5] but his life there was bittersweet. He sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, as well as vegetables that he sold to supplement his income. This began Edison's long streak of entrepreneurial ventures as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents would eventually lead him to found General Electric, which is still a publicly traded company, and 13 other companies. A statue of Thomas Edison with the Blue Water Bridge in the background. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... GE redirects here. ...


Edison became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J.U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. Edison's first telegraphy job away from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario, on the Grand Trunk Railway.[6] In 1866, at the age of 19, Thomas Edison moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where as an employee of Western Union he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift at work which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes -- reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a battery when he spilled sulphuric acid onto the floor. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss' desk below. The next morning he was fired.[7] Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... Mount Clemens is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) was a railway system which operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, as well as the American states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. ... Louisville redirects here. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ...


One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey, home. Franklin Leonard Pope was born in Great Barrington, Mass. ... Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Some of Edison's earliest inventions were related to telegraphy, including a stock ticker. His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, (U. S. Patent 90,646),[8] which was granted on June 1, 1869.[9] Stock Ticker working replica Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, the Ticker tape timer, stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Marriages and children

On December 25, 1871, at the age of 24, Edison married 16-year-old Mary Stilwell, whom he had met two months earlier. They had three children: is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

  • Marion Estelle Edison (1873–1965), nicknamed "Dot"
  • Thomas Alva Edison Jr. (1876–1935), nicknamed "Dash"
  • William Leslie Edison (1878–1937)[10]

Mary Edison died on August 9, 1884. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On February 24, 1886, at the age of 39, Edison married 20-year-old Mina Miller in Akron, Ohio.[11] She was the daughter of inventor Lewis Miller, co-founder of the Chautauqua Institution and a benefactor of Methodist charities. They also had three children: is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... Lewis Miller was an Ohio businessman who made a fortune in the late 19th century as inventor of the first combine (harvester-reaper machine) with the blade mounted efficiently in front of the horse rather than pulled behind it. ... The Chautauqua Institution is a non-profit adult education center and summer resort located on 750 acres in Chautauqua, New York. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...

Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on August 24, 1947.[16][17] Charles Edison (August 3, 1890–July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Rosedale Cemetery is a cemetery located in Orange, in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Map of City of Orange in Essex County The City of Orange Township is a City in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Theodore Miller Edison (July 10, 1898 — November 24, 1992) was the sixth child and fourth son of inventor Thomas Edison. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Beginning his career

Photograph of Edison with his phonograph, taken by Mathew Brady in 1877.
Photograph of Edison with his phonograph, taken by Mathew Brady in 1877.

Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey, with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained him fame was the phonograph in 1877. This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park," New Jersey, where he lived. His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder and had poor sound quality. The tinfoil recordings could only be replayed a few times. In the 1880s, a redesigned model using wax-coated cardboard cylinders was produced by Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Charles Tainter. This was one reason that Thomas Edison continued work on his own "Perfected Phonograph." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2640x3327, 2372 KB) Edited (dust & speck removal only) from Commons original by User:Janke This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2640x3327, 2372 KB) Edited (dust & speck removal only) from Commons original by User:Janke This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... Chichester Bell was a cousin to Alexander Graham Bell and instrumental in developing improved versions of the phonograph. ... Charles Sumner Tainter, ca. ...

Image File history File links Thomas_Edison_Mary_had_lamb. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ...

Menlo Park

Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, removed to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. (Note the organ against the back wall)
Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, removed to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. (Note the organ against the back wall)
Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879.
Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879.
U.S. Patent #223898 Electric Lamp
U.S. Patent #223898 Electric Lamp

Edison's major innovation was the first industrial research lab, which was built in Menlo Park, New Jersey. It was the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development work under his direction. His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results. The large research group, which included engineers and other workers, based much of their research on work done by others before them. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2274x1819, 2788 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Edison Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2274x1819, 2788 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thomas Edison Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A Ford Model T, used for giving tourist rides, is shown above at Greenfield Village. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x862, 58 KB) Summary Thomas Edisons first lightbulb - used to demonstrate his invention at Menlo Park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x862, 58 KB) Summary Thomas Edisons first lightbulb - used to demonstrate his invention at Menlo Park. ... Light bulb - Edison This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Light bulb - Edison This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Edison Township is a township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ...


William J. Hammer, a consulting electrical engineer, began his duties as a laboratory assistant to Edison in December 1879. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880, he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In his first year, the plant under General Manager Francis Robbins Upton turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting." An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Tonearm redirects here. ... Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence, (a general term for heat-driven light emissions which includes the simple case of black body radiation). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... hello iam Francis Robbins Upton ...


Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a 17 year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were design patents, which protect an ornamental design for up to a 14 year period. Like most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art. The phonograph patent, on the other hand, was unprecedented as the first device to record and reproduce sounds.[18] Edison did not invent the first electric light bulb, but instead invented the first commercially practical incandescent light. Several designs had already been developed by earlier inventors including the patent he purchased from Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans, Moses G. Farmer,[19] Joseph Swan, James Bowman Lindsay, William E. Sawyer, Sir Humphry Davy, and Heinrich Göbel. Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high current draw, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. In 1878, Edison applied the term filament to the element of glowing wire carrying the current, although English inventor Joseph Swan had used the term prior to this. Edison took the features of these earlier designs and set his workers to the task of creating longer-lasting bulbs. By 1879, he had produced a new concept: a high resistance lamp in a very high vacuum, which would burn for hundreds of hours. While the earlier inventors had produced electric lighting in laboratory conditions, dating back to a demonstration of a glowing wire by Alessandro Volta in 1800, Edison concentrated on commercial application, and was able to sell the concept to homes and businesses by mass-producing relatively long-lasting light bulbs and creating a complete system for the generation and distribution of electricity. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Canadian Patent application Henry Woodward was an early pioneer in the development of the incandescent lamp. ... A portion of the 1874 actual patent application. ... Moses Gerrish Farmer (February 2, 1820 - May 2, 1893) was an electrical engineer and inventor. ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... James Bowman Lindsay (September 8, 1799 - June 29, 1862) was born in Carmyllie near Arbroath in Angus, Scotland and educated at St. ... Humphry Davy Sir Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 - May 29, 1829), often incorrectly spelled Humphrey, was an Cornish chemist. ... Heinrich Göbel, or later: Henry Goebel (April 20, 1818 - December 4, 1893), born in Germany, was a precision mechanic and inventor, an early pioneer who did much work on developing the light bulb. ... An electrical filament is a thread of metal, usually tungsten, which is used to convert electricity into light in incandescent light bulbs (as developed in 1878 by Joseph Wilson Swan, among others), and into heat in vacuum tube devices. ... The concept of electrical elements is used in the analysis of electrical networks. ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


The Menlo Park research lab was made possible by the sale of the quadruplex telegraph that Edison invented in 1874, which could send four simultaneous telegraph signals over the same wire. When Edison asked Western Union to make an offer, he was shocked at the unexpectedly large amount that Western Union offered; the patent rights were sold for $10,000. The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success. The Quadruplex telegraph is a type of electrical telegraph which allows a total of four separate signals to be transmitted and received on a single wire at the same time (two signals in each direction. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ...


In just over a decade Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to consume two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material." A newspaper article printed in 1887 reveals the seriousness of his claim, stating the lab contained "eight thousand kinds of chemicals, every kind of screw made, every size of needle, every kind of cord or wire, hair of humans, horses, hogs, cows, rabbits, goats, minx, camels...silk in every texture, cocoons, various kinds of hoofs, shark's teeth, deer horns, tortoise shell...cork, resin, varnish and oil, ostrich feathers, a peacock's tail, jet, amber, rubber, all ores..." and the list goes on.[20]


Over his desk, Edison displayed a placard with Sir Joshua Reynolds' famous quote: "There is no expedient to which a man will not resort to avoid the real labor of thinking."[21] This slogan was reputedly posted at several other locations throughout the facility.


With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application.


Carbon telephone transmitter

In 1877-1878, Edison invented and developed the carbon microphone used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the 1980s. After protracted patent litigation, in 1892 a federal court ruled that Edison -- and not Emile Berliner -- was the inventor of the carbon microphone. (Josephson, p146). The carbon microphone was also used in radio broadcasting and public address work through the 1920s. Carbon microphone from Western Electric telephone. ... Emile Berliner with disc record gramophone. ...


Electric light

After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on October 22, 1879;[22] and lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by November 4, 1879, filed for U.S. patent 223,898 (granted on January 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ... to platina contact wires."[23] Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways,"[23] it was not until several months after the patent was granted that Edison and his team discovered a carbonized bamboo filament could last over 1200 hours. The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence, (a general term for heat-driven light emissions which includes the simple case of black body radiation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carbonization is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Edison bought light bulb U.S. patent 181,613 of Henry Woodward that was issued August 29, 1876 and obtained an exclusive license to Woodward's Canadian patent. These patents covered a carbon filament in a rarefied gas bulb.[citation needed] Canadian Patent application Henry Woodward was an early pioneer in the development of the incandescent lamp. ...

Edison in 1878
Edison in 1878

In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said, "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles."[24] Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... The General Electric Company, or GE, NYSE: GE is a multinational technology and services company. ... This article is about the financier. ... The Vanderbilts are a prominent family in the history of the United States. ... The incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp is a source of artificial light that works by incandescence, (a general term for heat-driven light emissions which includes the simple case of black body radiation). ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ...


George Westinghouse's company bought Philip Diehl's competing induction lamp patent rights (1882) for $25,000, forcing the holders of the Edison patent to charge a more reasonable rate for the use of the Edison patent rights and lowering the price of the electric lamp.[25] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On October 8, 1883, the U.S. patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was therefore invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. To avoid a possible court battle with Joseph Swan, whose British patent had been awarded a year before Edison's, he and Swan formed a joint company called Ediswan to manufacture and market the invention in Britain. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ...


The Mahen Theatre in Brno in what is now the Czech Republic, was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps, with the installation supervised by Edison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, Francis Jehl. [26] Several countries have a National Theatre. ... , Country  Czech Republic Region Parts 29  - Bohunice  - Bosonohy  - Bystrc  - Brno-Center  - ÄŒernovice  - Chrlice  - Ivanovice  - Jehnice  - Jundrov  - Kníničky  - Kohoutovice  - Komín  - Královo Pole  - Líšeň  - Maloměřice and ObÅ™any  - Medlánky  - Brno-North  - Nový Lískovec  - OÅ™ešín  - Å˜ečkovice and Mokrá Hora  - Slatina  - Brno-South... Francis Jehl (September 6, 1860 - February 11, 1941) was a laboratory assistant of Thomas Edison. ...

  • Edison speech on light bulb

    Video clip of Thomas Edison talking about the invention of the light bulb, late 1920s.


    Edison speech, 1920s. ... Edison speech, 1920s. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Electric power distribution

Edison patented an electric distribution system in 1880, which was essential to capitalize on the invention of the electric lamp. On December 17, 1880, Edison founded the Edison Electric Illuminating Company. The company established the first investor-owned electric utility in 1882 on Pearl Street Station, New York City. It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan. 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This company was organized on December 17, 1880, to construct generating stations in New York City. ... Pearl Street Station was the first central power plant. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pearl Street is a street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, running northeast from Battery Park to the Brooklyn Bridge. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


Earlier in the year, in January 1882 he had switched on the first steam generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19, 1883, the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey. The Holborn Viaduct is a bridge linking Holborn with Newgate Street in the City of London, passing over Farringdon Street. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Roselle is a borough located in Union County, New Jersey. ...


War of currents

Main article: War of Currents
Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as this picture from the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition shows.
Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as this picture from the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition shows.

Edison's true success, like that of his friend Henry Ford, was in his ability to maximize profits through establishment of mass-production systems and intellectual property rights. This dampened the success of less profitable work by others who were focused on inventing longer-lasting high-efficiency technology.[27][28] George Westinghouse and Edison became adversaries because of Edison's promotion of direct current for electric power distribution instead of the more easily transmitted alternating current (AC) system invented by Nikola Tesla and promoted by Westinghouse. Unlike DC, AC could be stepped up to very high voltages with transformers, sent over thinner and less expensive wires, and stepped down again at the destination for distribution to users. // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PyramidParthenon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PyramidParthenon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. ... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ...


In 1887 there were 121 Edison power stations in the United States that delivered DC electricity to customers. When the limitations of Direct Current (DC) were discussed by the public, Edison launched a propaganda campaign to convince people that Alternating Current (AC) was far too dangerous to use. The problem with DC was that the power plants could only economically deliver DC electricity to customers about one and a half miles from the generating station, so it was only suitable for central business districts. When George Westinghouse suggested using high-voltage AC instead, as it could carry electricity hundreds of miles with marginal loss of power, Edison waged a "War of Currents" to prevent AC from being adopted. Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ...


Despite Edison's contempt for capital punishment, the war against AC led Edison to become involved in the development and promotion of the electric chair as a demonstration of AC's greater lethal potential versus the "safer" DC. Edison went on to carry out a brief but intense campaign to ban the use of AC or to limit the allowable voltage for safety purposes. As part of this campaign, Edison's employees publicly electrocuted animals[29] [30] to demonstrate the dangers of AC, even though protection from electrocution by AC or DC is essentially the same. One of the more notable occasions when Edison electrocuted animals was when in 1903, his workers electrocuted Topsy the elephant at Luna Park, near Coney Island, after she had killed several men and her owners wanted her put to death.[31] His company filmed the electrocution. Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... An image from Thomas Edisons film, Electrocuting an Elephant, 1903 Topsy (born circa 1875, died January 4, 1903), was a domesticated elephant with the Forepaugh Circus at Coney Islands Luna Park. ... For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ...


AC replaced DC in most instances of generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the efficiency of power distribution. Though widespread use of DC ultimately lost favor for distribution, it exists today primarily in long-distance high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. Low voltage DC distribution continued to be used in high density downtown areas for many years and was replaced by AC low voltage network distribution in many central business districts. DC had the advantage that large battery banks could maintain continuous power through brief interruptions of the electric supply from generators and the transmission system. Utilities such as Commonwealth Edison in Chicago had rotary converters, also known as motor-generator sets , which could change DC to AC and AC to various frequencies in the early to mid 20th century. Utilities supplied rectifiers to convert the low voltage AC to DC for such DC loads as elevators, fans and pumps. There were still 1,600 DC customers in downtown New York City as of 2005, and service was only finally discontinued on November 14, 2007.[32] The New York City Subway system is still run by DC power to this day. HVDC or high-voltage, direct current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating current systems as a means for the bulk transmission of electrical power. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Commonwealth Edison (usually called Com Ed by Chicagoans) is an electric company in Illinois owned by Exelon Corporation. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Radio station motor-generator, converting from low to the high voltage power supply. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ...


Fluoroscopy

Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available fluoroscope, the machine that takes radiographs (colloquially known as "X-rays"). Until Edison discovered that calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium platinocyanide screens originally used by Wilhelm Röntgen, the technology was only capable of producing very faint images. The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, despite the fact that Edison himself abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously maiming his assistant, Clarence Dally. Dally had made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and in the process been exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation. He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In 1903, a shaken Edison said "Don't talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them."[33] A modern fluoroscope. ... Wilhelm Röntgen Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (March 27, 1845 – February 10, 1923) was a German physicist, of the University of Würzburg, who, on November 8, 1895, produced wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are now known as x-rays or Röntgen Rays. ... Clarence Madison Dally (1865-1904) was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiodermatitis and its complications. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Work relations

Frank J. Sprague, a competent mathematician and former naval officer, was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in 1883. One of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was to expand Edison's mathematical methods. Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis,[34] for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by a sophisticated analysis of Ohm's Law, Joule's Law and economics[citation needed]). A key to Edison's success was an holistic rather than reductionist approach to invention, making extensive use of trial and error. Since Sprague joined Edison in 1883 and Edison's output of patents peaked in 1880,[35] it could be interpreted that the shift towards a reductionist analytical approach may not have been a positive move for Edison[citation needed]). Sprague's important analytical contributions, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution, form a counter argument to this. In 1884, Sprague decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company. However, Sprague, who later developed many electrical innovations, always credited Edison for their work together[citation needed]). Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ... USN redirects here. ... Edward Hibbard Johnson (born 1846 ? ) was an inventor and business associate of American inventor Thomas Alva Edison. ... This article is about the law related to electricity. ... Joules law (also known as Joule effect) is a physical law expressing the relationship between the heat generated by the current flowing through a conductor. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... Reductionism in philosophy describes a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ... The Edisonian approach to innovation is characterized by trial and error discovery rather than a systematic theoretical approach. ... Trial and error is a method for obtaining knowledge, both propositional knowledge and know-how. ... Frank Julian Sprague (1857-1934) American inventor, Father of Electric Traction Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934) was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. ...


Another of Edison's assistants was Nikola Tesla, who claimed that Edison promised him $50,000 if he succeeded in making improvements to his DC generation plants. Tesla claimed that several months later, when he had finished the work and asked to be paid, Edison said, "When you become a full-fledged American you will appreciate an American joke."[36] Tesla immediately resigned. This anecdote is somewhat doubtful[citation needed]) since at Tesla's salary of $18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company. Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week.[37] Although Tesla accepted an Edison Medal later in life and professed a high opinion of Edison as an inventor and engineer, he remained bitter[citation needed]). The day after Edison died, the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labour. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense." When Edison was a very old man and close to death, he said, in looking back, that the biggest mistake he had made was that he never respected Tesla or his work.[38] Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. ... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


There were 28 men recognized as Edison Pioneers. There were only only twenty-eight men who were honored with membership to the group called the Edison Pioneers. ...


Media inventions

The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph (or gramophone in British English) in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.[22] In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.[39] Stock Ticker working replica Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, the Ticker tape timer, stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (August 3, 1860–September 28, 1935) was an Anglo-Scottish inventor who is credited with the invention of the motion picture camera under the employ of Thomas Edison. ... Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ...


On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. In April 1896, Thomas Armat's Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas J. Armat (1866 - September 30, 1948) was an American mechanic and inventor, a pioneer of cinema best known through the co-invention of the Edison Vitascope. ... in 1895 Charles Francis Jenkins and Thomas Armat publicly demonstrated an image projection device at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia that they called the Phantoscope. ...


Officially the kinetoscope entered in Europe when the rich American Businessman Irving T. Bush (1869-1948) bought from the Continental Commerce Company of Franck Z. Maguire and Joseph D. Bachus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894 on the first kinetoscopes in London. At the same time the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last three months of 1894 The Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe (i.e. the Netherlands and Italy). In Germany and in Austria-Hungary the kinetoscope was introduced by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, founded by the Ludwig Stollwerck [40] of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne. The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the Fairs in early 1895. The Edison's Kinétoscope Français, a Belgian company, was founded in Brussels on January 15, 1895 with the rights to sell the kinetoscopes in Monaco, France and the French colonies. The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists. On May 14, 1895 the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was founded in Brussels. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. He had contacts with Leon Gaumont and the American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. In 1898 he also became shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France.[41] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Léon Gaumont, born May 10, 1864 - died August 10, 1946, was a French inventor and industrialist who was a pioneer of the motion picture industry. ... The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1928. ...


In 1908, Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929. The Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. ... The Acoustical Society of America is an international scientific society dedicated to increasing and diffusing the knowledge of acoustics and its practical applications. ...


Later years

Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, Primary Battery section, 1915
Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, Primary Battery section, 1915
Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, Harvey Firestone- the fathers of modernity. Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929.
Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, Harvey Firestone- the fathers of modernity. Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929.

In the 1880s, Thomas Edison bought property in Fort Myers, Florida, and built Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat, The Mangoes. Edison even contributed technology to the automobile. They were friends until Edison's death. Motto: Nickname: City of Palms Map Political Statistics Founded March 24, 1886 Incorporated Lee County Mayor Jim Humphrey Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 104. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Myers is the home of county seat[3] and commercial center of Lee County, Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ...


Edison purchased a home known as "Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey. Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township located in Essex County, New Jersey. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ...


In 1901, he visited the Sudbury area as a mining prospector, and is credited with the original discovery of the Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to actually mine the ore body were not successful, however, and he abandoned his mining claim in 1903.[42] A street in Falconbridge, as well as the Edison Building, which served as the head office of Falconbridge Mines, are named for him. Greater Sudbury (2001 census population 155,219) is a city in Northern Ontario. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Falconbridge is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. ... The Edison Building is a historic building in Greater Sudbury, Ontario. ... Falconbridge Limited TSX: FAL NYSE: FAL is a Toronto, Ontario-based natural resources company with operations in 18 countries, involved in the exploration, mining, processing, and marketing of metal and mineral products, including nickel, copper, cobalt, and platinum. ...


In 1902, agents of Thomas Edison bribed a theater owner in London for a copy of A Trip to the Moon by Georges Méliès. Edison then made hundreds of copies and showed them in New York City. Méliès received no compensation. He was counting on taking the film to US and recapture the huge cost of it by showing it throughout the US when he realized it has already been showing in the US by Edison. This bankrupted Méliès.[43] Other exhibitors similarly routinely copied and exhibited each others films.[44] To better protect the copyrights on his films, Edison deposited prints of them on long strips of photographic paper with the U.S. copyright office]]. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era.[45] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A Trip to the Moon (French: ) is a 1902 French black and white silent science fiction film. ... Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Edison's favourite movie was The Birth of a Nation. He thought that talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. "There isn't any good acting on the screen. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf."[46] For the 1982 film of the same name, see Birth of a Nation (1982 film). ...


Edison became the owner of his Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles. Milan is a village located in Erie and Huron counties in Ohio. ...


Edison was said to have been influenced by a fad diet that was popular in the day to that in his last few years "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours."[22] He is reported to have believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about Edison that "Correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies." She also said that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, have breakfast at eight, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he continued to have all three.[47]


Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death in 1931, the Lackawanna Railroad implemented electric trains in suburban service from Hoboken to Gladstone, Montclair and Dover in New Jersey. Transmission was by means of an overhead catenary system, with the entire project under the guidance of Thomas Edison. To the surprise of many, Thomas Edison was at the throttle of the very first MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, driving the train all the way to Dover. As another tribute to his lasting legacy, the same fleet of cars Edison deployed on the Lackawanna in 1931 served commuters until their retirement in 1984. A special plaque commemorating the joint achievement of both the railway and Edison, can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, presently operated by New Jersey Transit.[48] Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ... Peapack-Gladstone is a borough located in Somerset County, New Jersey. ... Montclair is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Dover is a Town in Morris County, New Jersey, 39 miles (63 km) west by north of New York City on the Rockaway River. ...


Death

Thomas Edison died on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina.[49] is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township located in Essex County, New Jersey. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ...

Seminole Lodge, Edison's winter home in Fort Myers, Florida
Seminole Lodge, Edison's winter home in Fort Myers, Florida

Mina died in 1947. Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the Henry Ford Museum. Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster death mask was also made.[50] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1006 KB)I stubbleboy took this photograph on 8-18-06. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1006 KB)I stubbleboy took this photograph on 8-18-06. ... Fort Myers is the home of county seat[3] and commercial center of Lee County, Florida. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... For an episode of the television series Rome, see Death Mask (Rome). ...


Views on politics, religion and metaphysics

Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a "freethinker."[22] Edison was heavily influenced by Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.[22] Edison defended Paine's "scientific deism," saying, "He has been called an atheist, but atheist he was not. Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity."[22] In an October 2, 1910 interview in the New York Times Magazine, Edison stated: The word freethinker has different meanings: A freethinker is a proponent of the philosophical practice known as Freethinking, thus being a practitioner of Freethought. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me -- the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love -- He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us -- nature did it all -- not the gods of the religions.[51]

Edison was accused of atheism for these remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he defended himself in a private letter. "You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made."[22]


Tributes

Places named for Edison

Several places have been named after Edison, most notably the town of Edison, New Jersey. Thomas Edison State College, a nationally-known college for adult learners, is in Trenton, New Jersey. Two community colleges are named for him: Edison College in Fort Myers, Florida, and Edison Community College in Piqua, Ohio.[52] There are numerous high schools named after Edison; see Edison High School. Map of Edison Township in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1651 Incorporated March 17, 1870 (as Raritan Township) Government  - Type Faulkner Act Mayor-Council  - Mayor Jun Choi Area  - Township  30. ... Thomas Edison State College provides flexible, high-quality, collegiate learning opportunities for self-directed adults. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... College in Fort Myers, Florida. ... Piqua is a town in Miami County, Ohio, United States. ... Several schools have the same name: Edison High School, Fresno, California Edison High School, Huntington Beach Edison High School, Edison, New Jersey Schools with similar names: Thomas A Edison High School, Alexandria, Virginia Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School, Jamaica, New York Burlington-Edison High School, Burlington, Washington...


The City Hotel, in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was re-named The Hotel Edison, and retains that name today. Map of Northumberland County, Pennsylvania highlighting Sunbury Sunbury is a city in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Three bridges around the United States have been named in his honor (see Edison Bridge). The Edison Bridge is a bridge on U.S. Route 9 in the U.S. state of New Jersey spanning the Raritan River near its mouth in Raritan Bay. ...


Museums and memorials

The Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum is in the town of Edison. The 13.5 acre (5.5 ha) Glenmont property where the remains of Edison and his wife, Mina, buried is maintained by the National Park Service as the Edison National Historic Site. ΝμΜķŅĻŅ The Edison Memorial Tower The Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum is a memorial located in Edison, New Jersey to inventor and businessman Thomas Edison. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... For more than forty years, the laboratory created by Thomas Alva Edison in West Orange, New Jersey, had enormous impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide. ...


In Beaumont, Texas, there is an Edison Museum, though Edison never visited there. Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Counties Settled 1835 Incorporation 1838 Gentilic Beaumonter Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Becky Ames  - City Manager Kyle Hayes  - Mayor Pro - Tem Nancy Beaulieu Area  - City 222. ...

Port Huron's Blue Water Bridge and Thomas Edison Monument

The Port Huron Museum, in Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young newsbutcher. The depot has been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum. The town has many Edison historical landmarks, including the graves of Edison's parents, and a monument along the Saint Clair River. Edison's influence can be seen throughout this city of 32,000. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Port Huron Museum is a series of five musuems located in Port Huron, Michigan. ... A statue of Thomas Edison with the Blue Water Bridge in the background. ... The Thomas Edison Depot Museum is located underneath the Bluewater International Bridge connecting Port Huron, MI to Sarnia, Canada. ...


In Detroit, the Edison Memorial Fountain in Grand Circus Park was created to honor his achievements. The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, 1929. Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Companies bearing Edison's name

The Thomson-Houston Electric Company was formed in 1883 from the merger of the Elihu Thomsons American Electric Company and the interests of Edwin Houston. ... GE redirects here. ... Commonwealth Edison (usually called Com Ed by Chicagoans) is an electric company in Illinois owned by Exelon Corporation. ... This article is about the Exelon Corporation. ... Consolidated Edison, Inc. ... Edison International (NYSE: EIX) is a public utility holding company based in Rosemead, California. ... Southern California Edison, the largest subsidiary of Edison International (NYSE: EIX), is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California. ... Detroit Edison (DTE Energy) is a utility company serving most of Southeast Michigan. ... DTE Energy Co. ... Wisconsin Energy Corporation (NYSE: WEC) is a company based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin that provides electricity and natural gas throughout Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. ... Wisconsin Energy is a Fortune 600 company based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and founded in 1982. ... FirstEnergy provides power, natural gas and services to parts of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. ... Edison S.p. ... NSTAR is a private utility company that provides retail electricity and natural gas to customers in eastern and central Massachusetts. ... WEEI is a sports radio station in Boston, Massachusetts that broadcasts on 850 kHz from a transmitter in Needham, Massachusetts. ...

Awards named in honor of Edison

The Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. Four years later the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The first medal was presented in 1909 to Elihu Thomson and, in a twist of fate, was awarded to Nikola Tesla in 1917. It is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts." The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 - March 13, 1937) was an engineer who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, Britain and France. ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ...


In the Netherlands, the major music awards are named the Edison Award after him. The Edison Award is the oldest and most prestigious Dutch music prize, presented since 1960. ...


Honors and awards given to Edison

In 1887, Edison won the Matteucci Medal. The Matteucci Medal was established to award physicists for their fundamental contributions. ...


He was ranked thirty-fifth on Michael H. Hart's 1978 book The 100, a list of the most influential figures in history]]. Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue in 1997, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years," noting that the light bulb he promoted "lit up the world." In the 2005 television series The Greatest American, he was voted by viewers as the fifteenth-greatest. Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... The Greatest American was a four part television series hosted by Matt Lauer in which millions of Americans nominated and elected whom they thought was the greatest person in U.S. history. ...


In 1983, the United States Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97 - 198), designated February 11, Edison's birthday, as National Inventor's Day. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Other items named after Edison

The United States Navy named the USS Edison (DD-439), a Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. In 1962, the Navy commissioned USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610), a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine. Decommissioned on 1 December 1983, Thomas A. Edison was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on April 30, 1986. She went through the Navy’s Nuclear Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at Bremerton, Washington, beginning on October 1, 1996. When she finished the program on December 1, 1997, she ceased to exist as a complete ship and was listed as scrapped. USN redirects here. ... USS Edison (DD-439), a Gleaves-class destroyer, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Thomas Alva Edison, an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USS (SSBN-610), an Ethan Allen-class ballistic-missile submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the inventor, Thomas Edison. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The Naval Vessel Register (NVR), official inventory of ships and service craft in custody or titled by the United States Navy, traces its origin back to the 1880s. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) is the process the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. ... Bremerton is a city located in Kitsap County, Washington. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In popular culture

Thomas Edison has appeared in popular culture as a character in novels, films, comics and video games. ...

See also

Below is a list of Edison patents. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... USS Edison (DD-439), a Gleaves-class destroyer, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Thomas Alva Edison, an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... John Irvin Beggs (September 17, 1847 - 1925) was an American financier associated closely with Milwaukee, the electric utility boom under Thomas Edison, and regional rail and light rail (trolley) systems. ... Animated Hero Classics is an educational Animated television series of programs co-produced by Nest Family Entertainment and Warner Bros. ...

Biographies

  • "A Streak of Luck," by Robert Conot, Seaview Books, New York, 1979, ISBN 0-87223-521-1
  • "Edison: The man who made the future," by Ronald W. Clark, ISBN 0-354-04093-6
  • "Edison" by Matthew Josephson. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959, ISBN 0-07-033046-8
  • "Edison: Inventing the Century" by Neil Baldwin, University of Chicago Press, 2001, ISBN 0-226-03571-9
  • "Edison and the Electric Chair" Mark Essig, ISBN 0-7509-3680-0
  • "Working at Inventing: Thomas A. Edison and the Menlo Park Experience," edited by William S. Pretzer, Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan, 1989, ISBN 0-933728-33-6 (cloth) ISBN 0-933728-34-4 (paper)
  • Ernst Angel: Edison. Sein Leben und Erfinden. Berlin: Ernst Angel Verlag, 1926.
  • Mark Essig: Edison & the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death. New York: Walker & Company, 2003. ISBN 0-8027-1406-4
  • Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 0-375-50739-6
  • "The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World", by Randall E. Stross. Crown (March 13, 2007), ISBN 1-400-04762-5
  • "The Search for Thomas Edison's Boyhood Home" by Glen J. Adams. 2004, ISBN 978-1-4116-1361-4

References

  1. ^ Baldwin, Neal (1995). Edison: Inventing the Century. Hyperion, 3-5. ISBN 0-7868-6041-3. 
  2. ^ Edison Family Album. US National Park Service. Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  3. ^ "Edison" by Matthew Josephson. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959, ISBN 0-07-033046-8
  4. ^ "Edison: Inventing the Century" by Neil Baldwin, University of Chicago Press, 2001, ISBN 0-226-03571-9
  5. ^ Josephson, p 18
  6. ^ Baldwin, page 37
  7. ^ Baldwin, pages 40-41
  8. ^ [1]U. S. Patent 90,646
  9. ^ [2] Rutgers University, The Edison Papers. Retrieved March 20, 2007
  10. ^ "Older Son To Sue To Void Edison Will; William, Second Child Of The Inventor's First Marriage, Sees Leaning To Younger Sons. Charges Undue Influence Attacks Power Of Executors, Holding Father Was Failing When Codicil Was Made. Older Son To Sue To Void Edison Will W.L. Edison An Inventor. Charles Confers With Counsel.", New York Times, October 31, 1931. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "The will of Thomas A. Edison, filed in Newark last Thursday, which leaves the bulk of the inventor's $12 million estate to the sons of his second wife, was attacked as unfair yesterday by William L. Edison, second son of the first wife, who announced at the same time that he would sue to break it." 
  11. ^ [3] IEEE Virtual Museum. retrieved Jan 15, 2007
  12. ^ "Madeleine Edison a Bride. Inventor's Daughter Married to J. E. Sloan by Mgr. Brann.", New York Times, June 18, 1914, Thursday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  13. ^ "Mrs. John Eyre Sloane Has a Son at the Harbor Sanitarium Here.", New York Times, January 10, 1931, Saturday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  14. ^ "Charles Edison, 78, Ex-Governor Of Jersey and U.S. Aide, Is Dead", New York Times, August 1, 1969. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  15. ^ "Theodore M. Edison; An Illustrious Father Guided Inventor, 94", New York Times, November 26, 1992. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Theodore M. Edison, an inventor, environmentalist and philanthropist who was the last surviving child of the inventor Thomas Alva Edison, died on Tuesday at his home in West Orange. He was 94 years old. He died of Parkinson's disease, said a cousin, Kim Arnn. After Thomas Alva Edison died in 1931, Theodore Edison took charge of his father's experimental laboratories in West Orange. His father's more than 1,000 inventions included the microphone, the phonograph and the incandescent electric lamp." 
  16. ^ "Edison's Widow Very III", New York Times, August 21, 1947, Thursday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  17. ^ "Rites for Mrs. Edison", New York Times, August 26, 1947, Tuesday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  18. ^ Evans, Harold, "They Made America." Little, Brown and Company, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-316-27766-5. page152.
  19. ^ Moses G. Farmer, Eliot's Inventor. Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  20. ^ Shulman, Seth (1999). Owning the Future. Houghton Mifflin Company, 158-160. 
  21. ^ [4] ""Real Labor," Time (magazine), Dec. 8, 1930. (retrieved Jan 10, 2008)
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Israel, Paul (2000). Edison: A Life of Invention. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471362700. 
  23. ^ a b U.S. Patent 0,223,898 
  24. ^ "Keynote Address - Second International ALN1 Conference (PDF)
  25. ^ "Diehl's Lamp Hit Edison Monopoly," Elizabeth Daily Journal, Friday Evening, October 25, 1929
  26. ^ About the Memory of a Theatre. National Theatre Brno. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.. Retrieved September 18, 2007
  27. ^ Urban Legends Reference Pages: Livermore Lightbulb
  28. ^ The Henry Ford
  29. ^ IMDB entry on Electrocuting an Elephant (1903). Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  30. ^ Wired Magazine: "Jan. 4, 1903: Edison Fries an Elephant to Prove His Point". Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  31. ^ Tony Long (2008-01-04). Jan. 4, 1903: Edison Fries an Elephant to Prove His Point. AlterNet. Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  32. ^ Lee, Jennifer. "Off Goes the Power Current Started by Thomas Edison", The New York Times, The New York Times Company, November 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  33. ^ [5] Edison, Clarence Dally, and the Hidden Perils of the X-Rays
  34. ^ The Thomas A. Edison Papers
  35. ^ Edison's Patents - The Edison Papers
  36. ^ Tesla - Master of Lightning:Coming to America. Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  37. ^ Jonnes, p110
  38. ^ "Tesla Says Edison was an Empiricist. Electrical Technician Declares Persistent Trials Attested Inventor's Vigor. 'His Method Inefficient' A Little Theory Would Have Saved Him 90% of Labor, Ex-Aide Asserts. Praises His Great Genius.", New York Times, October 19, 1931. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Nikola Tesla, one of the world's outstanding electrical technicians, who came to America in 1884 to work with Thomas A. Edison, specifically in the designing of motors and generators, recounted yesterday some of ..." 
  39. ^ History of Edison Motion Pictures. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  40. ^ http://www.victorian-cinema.net/stollwerck.htm - Martin Loiperdinger. Film & Schokolade. Stollwercks Geschäfte mit lebenden Bildern . KINtop Schriften Stroemfeld Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, Basel 1999 ISBN 3-87877-764-7 (Buch) ISBN 3-87877-760-4 (Buch und Videocassette
  41. ^ http://www.imdb.com/company/co0111244/ Guido Convents, Van Kinetoscoop tot Cafe-Cine de Eerste Jaren van de Film in Belgie, 1894-1908, pp.33-69. Universitaire Pers Leuven. Leuven: 2000. Guido Convents, "'Edison's Kinetscope in Belgium, or, Scientists, Admirers, Businessmen, Industrialists and Crooks", pp.249-258. in C. Dupré la Tour, A. Gaudreault, R. Pearson (Ed.) Cinema at the Turn of the Century. Québec, 1999.
  42. ^ Thomas Edison. Heritage Museums. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. http://www.sudburymuseums.ca/index.cfm?app=w_vmuseum&lang=en&currID=2031&parID=2029
  43. ^ [6] Rémi Fournier Lanzoni, French Cinema: From Its Beginnings to the Present (2002)
  44. ^ [7] Siegmund Lubin (1851-1923), Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. Retrieved August 20, 2007
  45. ^ [8] "History of Edison Motion Pictures: Early Edison Motion Picture Production (1892–1895)." Memory.loc.gov, Library of Congress. Retrieved August 20, 2007
  46. ^ Reader's Digest, March 1930, pg. 1042-1044,"Living With a Genius", condensed from The American Magazine February 1930
  47. ^ Reader's Digest, March 1930, pg. 1042-1044,"Living With a Genius", condensed from The American Magazine February 1930
  48. ^ Holland, Kevin J. (2001). Classic American Railroad Terminals. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0760308322. 
  49. ^ "Thomas Edison Dies in Coma at 84; Family With Him as the End Comes; Inventor Succumbs at 3:24 A.M. After Fight for Life Since He Was Stricken on August 1. World-Wide Tribute Is Paid to Him as a Benefactor of Mankind", New York Times, October 18, 1931. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "West Orange, New Jersey, Sunday, October 18, 1931. Thomas Alva Edison died at 3:24 o'clock this morning at his home, Glenmont, in the Llewellyn Park section of this city. The great inventor, the fruits of whose genius so magically transformed the everyday world, was 84 years and 8 months old." 
  50. ^ [9] "Is Thomas Edison's last breath preserved in a test tube in the Henry Ford Museum?" The Straight Dope, 11-Sep-1987. Retrieved August 20, 2007
  51. ^ ""No Immortality of the Soul" says Thomas A. Edison. In Fact, He Doesn't Believe There Is a Soul -- Human Beings Only an Aggregate of Cells and the Brain Only a Wonderful Machine, Says Wizard of Electricity.", New York Times, October 2, 1910, Sunday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Thomas A. Edison in the following interview for the first time speaks to the public on the vital subjects of the human soul and immortality. It will be bound to be a most fascinating, an amazing statement, from one of the most notable and interesting men of the age. ... Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me -- the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love -- He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us -- nature did it all -- not the gods of the religions." 
  52. ^ Edison Community College (Ohio)

Hyperion is a general-interest book publishing division of The Walt Disney Company, established in 1991. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... West Orange may refer to: Places West Orange, New Jersey, a township in Essex County, New Jersey West Orange, Texas, a city in Orange County, Texas Schools West Orange High School (New Jersey), a public school in West Orange, New Jersey West Orange High School, Winter Garden, a public school... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... West Orange may refer to: Places West Orange, New Jersey, a township in Essex County, New Jersey West Orange, Texas, a city in Orange County, Texas Schools West Orange High School (New Jersey), a public school in West Orange, New Jersey West Orange High School, Winter Garden, a public school... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... TIME redirects here. ... Paul Israel (born in Sydney, New South Wales) was an Australian rugby league player for the South Sydney Rabbitohs in the New South Wales Rugby League competition in Australia, his position of choice was at Lock-forward. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Thomas Edison
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Biography links
  • "Edison, His Life And Inventions" by Frank Lewis Dyer at Worldwideschool.org
  • "Thomas Edison," by Gerry Beales.
  • "Thomas Alva Edison" by John Patrick Michael Murphy.
  • A short Thomas Edison biography
  • Edison, His Life and Inventions by Frank Lewis Dyer and Thomas Commerford Martin', available at Project Gutenberg.
  • The New Student's Reference Work/Edison, Thomas Alva
  • The Diary of Thomas Edison – complete text, with explanatory footnotes.
Historic sites
  • Edison Birthplace Museum
  • Thomas Edison House
  • Thomas Edison Winter Estate
  • Edison National Historic Site
  • Menlo Park
  • "Menlo Park Reminiscences, Volume 1," by Francis Jehl, originally published by Edison Institute, Dearborn, Michigan, 1937. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 1990. ISBN 0-486-26357-6
  • Edison Depot Museum
  • Edison exhibit and Menlo Park Laboratory at Henry Ford Museum
  • Edison Museum
Archives
  • Rutgers: Edison Papers
  • Rutgers: Edison Patents
  • Edisonian Museum Antique Electrics
  • Thomas A. Edison in his laboratory in New Jersey, 1901
  • "Edison's Miracle of Light" American Experience, PBS.
  • William J. Hammer collection — c. 1874–1935, 1955–1957. Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Persondata
NAME Edison, Thomas Alva
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American inventor and businessman
DATE OF BIRTH 1847-02-11
PLACE OF BIRTH Milan, Ohio, United States
DATE OF DEATH 1931-10-18
PLACE OF DEATH West Orange, New Jersey, United States

USD redirects here. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Milan is a village located in Erie and Huron counties in Ohio. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of West Orange Township in Essex County West Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Alva Edison - MSN Encarta (577 words)
Thomas A. Edison in his laboratory in New Jersey, 1901 Born: February 11, 1847 Died: October 18, 1931.
Edison acquired his knowledge of electricity and telegraphy (use of a telegraph system to communicate at a distance) as a teenager.
Edison created a central mechanism by which all the receiving tickers could be put in unison with the main sending apparatus.
Thomas Edison - Conservapedia (1298 words)
Thomas Alva Edison was born on Feb 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio.
Edison's mother did not accept the teacher's evaluation of her son, and after he had spent 3 months in the school, chose to remove him from public school and educate him at home.
Thomas was used to taking the initiative to learn on his own, and had a very inquisitive nature, a strong desire to learn, an excellent memory, and the ability to understand complex concepts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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