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Encyclopedia > Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex

Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1532–3
Born 1485
Putney, nr London, England
Died 28 July 1540 (55)
Tower of London, England
Occupation Government
Spouse Elizabeth Wykes
Parents Walter Cromwell

Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (c. 148528 July 1540) was an English statesman, king Henry VIII of England's chief minister 1532–1540. Image File history File links Porträt von Thomas Cromwell als Earl von Essex, gemalt von Holbein. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Putney is a district of south-west London in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...

Contents

Early life

Cromwell was born about 1485 in Putney, the son of Walter Cromwell (c. 14631510), variously described as a clothworker;[1] a smith;[2] and an alehouse keeper.[3] Details of Cromwell's early life are scarce. Before 1512 he was employed by the powerful Florentine merchant banker family, the Frescobaldis, in cloth dealing at Syngsson's Mart in Middelburg in the Netherlands. Documents from the archives of the Vatican City show that he was an agent for Cardinal Reginald Bainbridge and dealt with English ecclesiastical work before the Papal Rota.[4] Cromwell was fluent in Latin, Italian and French. Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Putney is a district of south-west London in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... Pub redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Frescobaldi Family is a prominent Florentine family that has been involved in the political, sociological and economic history of the Tuscany region since the Middle Ages. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 53. ... The Tribunal of the Rota Romana or Roman Rota is the normal appellate tribunal of the Holy See and the second highest ecclesiastical court in the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


When Bainbridge died in 1514 Cromwell returned to England in August of that year and he was then employed by Thomas Cardinal Wolsey where he was put in charge of important ecclesiastical business despite being a layman. By 1519 he had married a clothier's daughter, Elizabeth Wyckes (1489–1527); they had a son Gregory. After studying law, he became a Member of the English Parliament in 1523. After the dissolution of that Parliament, Cromwell wrote a letter to a friend joking about its unproductiveness: Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. ... Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell (c. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House...

I amongist other have indured a Parlyament which contenewid by the space of xvij hole wekes, wher we communyd of warre, pease, stryffe, contencyon, debatt, murmure, grudge, riches, poverte, penwrye, trowth, falshode, justyce, equyte, discayte, oppressyon, magnanymyte, actyvyte, force, attempraunce, treason, murder, felonye, consyle[ation], and also how a commune welth myght be edeffyed and contenewed within our realme. Howbeyt in conclusion we have done as our predecessors have bene wont to doo, that ys to say as well as we myght, and lefte wher we began.[5] Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...

In 1524 he was appointed at Gray's Inn. In the late 1520s he helped Wolsey dissolve thirty monasteries in order to raise funds for Wolsey's grammar school in Ipswich and the Cardinal's College, Oxford. In 1529 Henry VIII summoned a Parliament (later known as the Reformation Parliament) in order to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. In late 1530[6] or early 1531[7] Cromwell was appointed a royal counsellor for parliamentary business and by the end of 1531 he was a member of Henry VIII's trusted inner circle.[8] Cromwell became Henry VIII's chief minister in 1532 not through any formal office but by gaining the King's confidence.[9] Entrance to Grays Inn Grays Inn is one of the four Inns of Court in around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England to which barristers belong and where they are called to the bar. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... and of the Christ Church College name Christ Church Latin name Ædes Christi Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister college Trinity College, Cambridge Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR president Laura Ellis Undergraduates 426 GCR president Tim Benjamin Graduates 154 Location of Christ Church within central Oxford... The English Reformation Parliament was so-called because it was the Parliament, commencing in 1529, that passed and enabled the major pieces of legislation leading to the English Reformation. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ...

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Background

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“Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ...

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For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

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King's chief minister

Cromwell played an important part in the English Reformation. The parliamentary sessions of 1529–1531 had brought Henry VIII no nearer to annulment.[10] However the session of 1532—Cromwell's first as chief minister—heralded a change of course: key sources of papal revenue were cut off and ecclesiastical legislation was transferred to the King. In the next years' session came the fundamental law of the English Reformation: the Act in Restraint of Appeals 1533 which forbade appeals to Rome (thus allowing for a divorce in England without the need for the Pope's permission). This was drafted by Cromwell and its famous preamble declared: This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... The Statute in Restraint of Appeals (citation ) was an English parliamentary Act of 1533, considered by many historians to be the key legal foundation of the English Reformation. ...

Where by divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles, it is manifestly declared and expressed that this realm of England is an Empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same, unto whom a body politic compact of all sorts and degrees of people divided in terms and by names of Spirituality and Temporalty, be bounden and owe to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience.

When Cromwell used the label "Empire" for England he did so in a special sense. Previous English monarchs had claimed to be Emperors in that they ruled more than one kingdom, but in this Act it meant something different. Here the Kingdom of England is declared an Empire by itself, free from "the authority of any foreign potentates". This meant that England was now an independent sovereign nation-state no longer under the jurisdiction of the Pope.[11] A potentate (from the Latin potens, powerful) is an informal term for a person with potent, usually supreme, power. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Cromwell was the most prominent of those who suggested to Henry VIII that the king make himself head of the English Church, and saw the Act of Supremacy 1534 through Parliament. In 1535 Henry VIII appointed Cromwell as his last Vicegerent in Spirituals. This gave him the power as supreme judge in ecclesiastical cases and the office provided a single unifying institution over the two provinces of the English Church (Canterbury and York). As Henry VIII's vicar-general, he presided over the Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began with his visitation of the monasteries and abbeys, announced in 1535 and begun in the winter of 1536. As a reward, he was created Earl of Essex on 18 April 1540. He is also the architect of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which united England and Wales. // The Act of Supremacy November 1534 (26 Hen. ... The official administrative deputy of a ruler or head of state. ... The Province of Canterbury consists of the following dioceses of the Church of England: Their archbishop is the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Province of York consists of the following dioceses of the Church of England: Their archbishop is the Archbishop of York. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Earl of Essex is a title that has been held by several families and individuals, of which the best-known and most closely associated with the title was Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (1566 - 1601). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Cromwell also became patron to a group of English intellectual humanists whom Cromwell used to promote the English Reformation through the medium of print. These included Thomas Gibson, William Marshall, Richard Morrison, John Rastell, Thomas Starkey, Richard Taverner and John Uvedale. Cromwell commissioned Marshall to translate and print Marsilius of Padua's Defensor pacis, for which he paid him £20.[12] See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... For other persons named Thomas Gibson, see Thomas Gibson (disambiguation). ... Richard Morrison is the name of several persons: Richard Morrison (ambassador) (16th century), Edward VIs ambassador to Charles V Richard Morrison (journalist), columnist for The Times newspaper Richard James Morrison (1795-1874), English astrologer Richard Dale Morrison, American criminal Category: ... John Rastell (or Rastall) (circa 1475 – 1536), was an English printer and author. ... Thomas Starkey (c. ... Richard Taverner (c. ... Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; c. ... The tract Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) laid the foundations of modern doctrines of sovereignty. ...


When Erasmus was trying to retrieve the arrears of his pension from the living in Aldington, Kent, the incumbent refused on grounds that it was his predecessor who had promised to pay his pension. Cromwell sent Erasmus twenty angels and Thomas Bedyll, a friend of Cromwell's, informed Erasmus that Cromwell "favours you exceptionally and everywhere shows himself to be an ardent friend of your name".[13] “Erasmus” redirects here. ... Aldington is the name of two places in England: Aldington, Kent - a village SE of Ashford Aldington, Worcestershire - a village east of Evesham Aldington is also the name of two people: Richard Aldington writer and poet Baron Aldington This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII: angel An Angel is a gold coin, first used in France (where is was also known as an Angelot and an Ange) in 1340, and introduced into England by Edward IV in 1465 as a new issue of the noble and so at first called the angel-noble...


Downfall

Cromwell had supported Henry VIII in disposing of Anne Boleyn and replacing her with Jane Seymour. His downfall was the haste with which he encouraged the king to re-marry following Jane's premature death. The marriage to Anne of Cleves, a political alliance which Cromwell had urged on Henry VIII, was a disaster, and this was all the opportunity that Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to press for his arrest. Whilst at a Council meeting on 10 June 1540, Cromwell was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Cromwell was subject to an Act of Attainder and was kept alive by Henry VIII so he could be divorced from Anne. Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk by Hans Holbein. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


He was then privately executed at the Tower on 28 July 1540. It is said that Henry VIII intentionally chose an inexperienced executioner -- the teenager made three attempts at chopping Cromwell's head before he succeeded. After execution his head was boiled and then set upon a spike on London Bridge—facing away from the City of London. Edward Hall, a contemporary chronicler, records that Cromwell made a speech on the scaffold and then "so paciently suffered the stroke of the axe, by a ragged Boocherly miser whiche very ungoodly perfourmed the Office". Hall said of Cromwell's downfall: is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... Edward Hall (c. ...

Many lamented but more rejoiced, and specially such as either had been religious men, or favoured religious persons; for they banqueted and triumphed together that night, many wishing that that day had been seven year before; and some fearing lest he should escape, although he were imprisoned, could not be merry. Others who knew nothing but truth by him both lamented him and heartily prayed for him. But this is true that of certain of the clergy he was detestably hated, & specially of such as had borne swynge, and by his means was put from it; for in dead he was a man that in all his doings seemed not to favour any kind of Popery, nor could not abide the snoffyng pride of some prelates, which undoubtedly, whatsoever else was the cause of his death, did shorten his life and procured the end that he was brought unto.[14]

Miscellaneous

The inscription on the paper lying on the table in the original portrait describes Cromwell as "Master of the Jewell House", an official position that he occupied for just one year from 12 April 1532, thus neatly dating the portrait (illustration, upper right). The Master of the Jewel Office was a position in the British Royal Household. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ...


Thomas Cromwell's daughter-in-law was Elizabeth Seymour—sister of Queen Jane Seymour. Elizabeth was married to Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell. Elizabeth Seymour (?1513 - 1563) was one of the many children and the second daughter of Sir John Seymour, her sisters being Jane, Margery (who died in 1520) and Dorothy. ... For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell (c. ...


The Lord Protector of England, Oliver Cromwell (15991658), was descended from Thomas Cromwell's lil sista Catherine Cromwell. Oliver was Thomas' second great grandnephew. For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


In New York's Frick Collection two paintings by Holbein hang on the same room, one depicting Thomas Cromwell, the other one Thomas More, whose execution he had procured. [1] For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ...


Fictional portrayals

Cromwell has been portrayed in at least fourteen feature films and television miniseries [2]. His most famous appearance was in Robert Bolt's play (and later film) A Man for All Seasons, where he was played on Broadway by Thomas Gomez and Leo McKern in the film adaptation of it. He is the primary antagonist of the story and is portrayed as being both ruthlessly ambitious and jealous of Thomas More's influence with the King. Cromwell is also a supporting character in William Shakespeare's Henry VIII. He is subject of Thomas Lord Cromwell, a 1602 play of unknown authorship attributed to the initials W.S. (as such once thought to be a Shakespeare work). He has also been portrayed in the film Anne of the Thousand Days by John Colicos, in The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970) by Wolfe Morris, in Carry On Henry (1970) by Kenneth Williams, in Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972) by Donald Pleasance, and James Frain in the ongoing series The Tudors (2007). He also appears as a main character in the first two Matthew Shardlake historical crime fiction novels by C. J. Sansom, Dissolution and Dark Fire. A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... This article is about the play. ... Gomez publicity photo Thomas Gomez (July 10, 1905 – June 18, 1971) was an American actor. ... Image:Number Two. ... A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolts play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Thomas Lord Cromwell is an Elizabethan play, published in 1602. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to William Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... Anne of the Thousand Days is an Academy Award-winning 1969 costume drama made by Hal Wallis Productions and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... John Colicos (December 10, 1928 - March 6, 2000) was a Canadian born actor. ... The Six Wives of Henry VIII may refer to: Wives of Henry VIII, the actual marriages of Henry VIII The Six Wives of Henry VIII (TV series), the BBC TV series The Six Wives of Henry VIII (film), 1973 film of the above series The Six Wives of Henry VIII... Carry On Henry is the 21st of the Carry On series. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry VIII and His Six Wives (1972) is the only feature-length film to deal with all six of King Henry VIIIs wives (other television movies have divided the story up into two or six parts. ... Donald Pleasence (October 5, 1919 - February 2, 1995) was a British actor. ... James Frain (born March 14, 1968) is a British stage and screen actor. ... The Tudors is an Emmy Award-nominated television series that examines the early reign of Henry VIII, with Jonathan Rhys Meyers in the lead role. ... C. J. Sansom is an English writer of crime novels. ... Dissolution is a crime novel by British author C. J. Sansom. ... Dark Fire is a crime novel by British author C. J. Sansom. ...


Notes

  1. ^ John Guy, Tudor England (Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 154. ISBN 0192852132
  2. ^ G. R. Elton, England under the Tudors: Third Edition (London: Routledge, 1991), p. 127.
  3. ^ Arthur Kinney, Tudor England: An Encyclopedia (Garland Science, 2000), p. 172.
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Stanford E. Lehmberg, The Reformation Parliament, 1529 – 1536 (Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 1–2.
  6. ^ Elton, p. 129.
  7. ^ Lehmberg, p. 132.
  8. ^ Elton, p. 129 and Lehmberg, p. 132.
  9. ^ Elton, p. 129.
  10. ^ G. R. Elton, 'King or Minister? The Man behind the Henrician Reformation' in Studies in Tudor and Stuart Politics and Government: Volume I (Cambridge University Press, 1974), p. 183.
  11. ^ Elton, England under the Tudors, p. 161.
  12. ^ G. R. Elton, 'An early Tudor Poor Law' in Studies in Tudor and Stuart Politics and Government: Volume II (Cambridge University Press, 1974), pp. 152-3.
  13. ^ G. R. Elton, Reform and Renewal: Thomas Cromwell and the Common Weal (Cambridge University Press, 1973), p. 31.
  14. ^ Sir Henry Ellis (ed.), Hall's Chronicle (London, 1809), p. 838.

References

  • G. R. Elton, England under the Tudors: Third Edition, (London: Routledge, 1991) ISBN 0-416-70690-8.
  • Sir Henry Ellis (ed.), Hall's Chronicle (London, 1809).
  • G. R. Elton, Reform and Renewal: Thomas Cromwell and the Common Weal (Cambridge University Press, 1973).
  • G. R. Elton, Studies in Tudor and Stuart Politics and Government: Volume I (Cambridge University Press, 1974).
  • G. R. Elton, Studies in Tudor and Stuart Politics and Government: Volume II (Cambridge University Press, 1974).
  • John Guy, Tudor England (Oxford University Press, 1990).
  • Arthur Kinney, Tudor England: An Encyclopedia (Garland Science, 2000).
  • Stanford E. Lehmberg, The Reformation Parliament, 1529–1536 (Cambridge University Press, 1970).

Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton (August 17, 1921 – December 3, 1994) was a pre-eminent British historian of the Tudor period. ... John Guy (born 1949 in Warragul, Australia) is a leading British historian and biographer. ...

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