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Encyclopedia > Thomas Cranmer
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Anglicanism
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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (647x800, 46 KB) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) im 57 Lebensjahr von Gerlach Flicke Öl auf Leinwand 1564 in National Portrit Gallery, London Der Erzbischof von Canterbury hält die Episteln des Paulus in der Hand. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ...

Background

Christianity
English Reformation
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Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ composed of the Apostles. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...

People

Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell
Elizabeth I
Richard Hooker
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... This article is about the Anglican theologian. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Book of Common Prayer
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Book of Homilies
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Saints in Anglicanism For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... During the Reformation in England, Thomas Cranmer and others saw the need for local congregations to be taught Reformed theology and practice. ... Look up doctrine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Like other churches in the Catholic tradition, the Anglican Communion recognises seven sacraments. ... The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ...

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Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and influenced the English language through its phrases and quotations. Cranmer was an important figure in the English Reformation. He was one of the first Anglican martyrs: he was burned in 1556 for heresy. He is commemorated by the Church of England on March 21. The Episcopal Church in the United States of America commemorates Cranmer with the other Oxford Martyrs on October 16. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the St Georges Cross, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of St Andrew in the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... The burning of Latimer and Ridley, from a book by John Foxe (1563). ...

Contents

Early years (1489–1533)

Cranmer was born in 1489 in Aslacton, now Aslockton, near Nottingham. His parents, Thomas and Agnes (Hatfield) Cranmer, were from the lesser gentry and had only enough wealth and land to support their eldest son upon their death. Due to this lack of land the scholarly Thomas and his younger brother entered the service of the church. Aslockton is a small village twelve miles (19 km) east of Nottingham, England and two miles east of Bingham. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ...


A plague forced Cranmer to leave Cambridge for Essex. Here he came to the attention of Henry VIII, who was staying nearby. The King and his councillors found Cranmer a willing advocate for Henry's desired annulment from Catherine of Aragon and he became involved with the case as a researcher. He and Foxe compiled the Collectanea Satis Copiosa (the sufficiently abundant collection) in 1530, giving legal and historical precedent of cases such as Henry's, allowing the King to build an academic case to break with Rome. Cranmer was sent as part of the embassy to Rome in 1530, and in 1532 he became ambassador to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Catherine of Aragon (Castilian: Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and...


Cranmer met his second wife Margarete, relative by marriage of the Lutheran scholar Andreas Osiander, while spending the summer of 1532 in Nuremberg. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Andreas Osiander (Andreas Hosemann) (1498 - 1552) was a German Protestant theologian. ...


Archbishop under Henry VIII (1533–1547)

An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London
An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London


By January 1533 Henry found out that Anne Boleyn, the woman he wanted to marry, was pregnant. This added urgency to the matter of the King's annulment and they were married in secret by the end of the month. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (647x800, 46 KB) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) im 57 Lebensjahr von Gerlach Flicke Öl auf Leinwand 1564 in National Portrit Gallery, London Der Erzbischof von Canterbury hält die Episteln des Paulus in der Hand. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (647x800, 46 KB) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) im 57 Lebensjahr von Gerlach Flicke Öl auf Leinwand 1564 in National Portrit Gallery, London Der Erzbischof von Canterbury hält die Episteln des Paulus in der Hand. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in St Martins Place, London, England, which opened to the public in 1856. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ...


On March 30, 1533, Cranmer was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury after the death of Warham. Cranmer was chosen as Henry believed that he would support his policies and find solutions to his problems. This appointment by Henry, in spite of the Pope's refusal to consent, shows that he had given up the hope of getting consent for an annulment from Rome. March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Walliam Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1527 (Louvre Museum) William Warham (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome...


Cranmer brought his German wife Margarete, of his second marriage[1], with him when he became Archbishop but kept her presence quiet so as not to be seen breaking the rules on clerical celibacy. Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ...


In May, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry to Catherine of Aragon void and Anne Boleyn his lawful wife. In doing this, Cranmer went directly against the Pope's command. In September, Anne gave birth to Henry's second daughter Princess Elizabeth. Cranmer was the godfather. Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Under Henry, Cranmer was able to push through the reforms that led gradually to the reform of the Church of England. This included writing the 10 Articles, which stated the reforms but also showed a politeness that Cranmer possessed because he didn't want to offend anyone. For example he didn't say that transubstantiation was incorrect, but that there was a possibility that it might be. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Ten Articles were published in 1536 by Thomas Cranmer. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In 1537, King Henry VIII ordered Cranmer to relinquish the Palace of Otford, which had long been a seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Otford Palace, remains of the North-West Tower From Anglo-Saxon times till 1537 the palace was one of the chain of houses belonging to the archbishops of Canterbury. ...


In 1538, he condemned the views of John Lambert when he denied transubstantiation. Lambert was burned at the stake, but Cranmer later came to adopt his views. John Lambert was a protestant martyr burnt to death on November 22 at Smithfield, London. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Cranmer also opposed Henry VIII's 6 Articles, which reaffirmed clerical celibacy. The Six Articles of 1539 was an Act of Parliament which reaffirmed Henry VIIIs general Catholicism. ...


At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries Cranmer was given various former church properties, such as the former Cluniac Nunnery at Arthington. dissolution see Dissolution. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... The Priory (or rather Nunnery) of Arthington, in the Yorkshire village of Arthington was established by Peter de Arthington; nothing remains of the Priory today. ...


Cranmer greatly admired Henry and on his death declared he would not shave his beard again as a sign of mourning. Mourning is in the simplest sense synonymous with grief over the death of someone. ...


Archbishop under Edward VI (1547–1553)

A Portrait of Thomas Cranmer by Unknown Artist - Lambeth Palace, London
A Portrait of Thomas Cranmer by Unknown Artist - Lambeth Palace, London

On Henry's death in 1547, Cranmer became an indispensable advisor to his son and successor, Edward VI, who, as a child, had been brought up with Protestant views. Thomas Cranmer, archbisop of canterbury. ... Thomas Cranmer, archbisop of canterbury. ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


During Edward's reign, Cranmer set about the completion of his great liturgical work begun during Henry's reign. He produced an English language liturgy with a Protestant character. The Book of Common Prayer (BCP), as it came to be known, was heavily influenced by continental theologians, such as Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer (both of whom he invited and hosted in England), and by Hermann of Wied (Archbishop of Cologne, whose Consultatio was the source of a good number of elements of the new book). Cranmer was responsible for the first two editions of the BCP. The first edition in 1549 was comparatively conservative in appearance, though full of Cranmer's inimitable prose. The second edition in 1552 was more radically Protestant, greatly toning down the sacrificial element in the eucharist, removing prayers for the dead, and removing many ceremonies, including the admixture of water with the wine at Communion, the exorcism, the putting on of the chrysom robe and the triple immersion in baptism. The current official BCP of the Church of England was produced in 1662.[1] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Pietro Martire Vermigli, known as Peter Martyr (1500-1562), was a theologian of the Reformation period. ... Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (or Butzer, Latin Martinus Buccer, Martinus Bucerus ) (November 11, 1491 – February 28, 1551) was a German Protestant reformer. ... Hermann of Wied (January 14, 1477 - August 15, 1552), elector and archbishop of Cologne, was the fourth son of Frederick, count of Wied (d. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Cranmer also encouraged the destruction of images, in imitation of the followers of John Calvin and Zwingli, describing these latter activities as 'jolly musters'. John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ...


Concerned about the need for good Reformed preaching and the lack of literate clergy he compiled and wrote the first Book of Homilies,[2] as well as the 42 Articles that summarise Anglican doctrine. These, in general, led the Church of England in a more Protestant direction. Cranmer also published Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ in July 1550, which propagated the new doctrine about the Eucharist. He testified at his trial (September 1555) that he had written this book seven years earlier in 1548. The 39 Articles were another of his works, and were based on the 42 Articles. Adopted during the reign of Elizabeth I, they are still recognised as part of the Anglican heritage to which clergy in some of the national churches in the Anglican Communion vow to swear allegiance. During the Reformation in England, Thomas Cranmer and others saw the need for local congregations to be taught Reformed theology and practice. ... The Forty-Two Articles are a summary of Anglican doctrine as written by Thomas Cranmer in 1552 and passed into law in 1553 by Edward I. These were later adapted by a convocation of clergy under Elizabeth I to form the Thirty-Nine Articles in 1563. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ was a book published by Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer in July 1550. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...


Final years (1553–1556)

Cranmer’s martyrdom, from John Foxe’s book (1563)
Cranmer’s martyrdom, from John Foxe’s book (1563)

Edward VI died in 1553, to be succeeded by his half-sister, Mary I. Mary was the daughter of Henry’s first wife (Catherine of Aragon), a Spanish princess, and was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith. In line with her Catholic beliefs, she began, so far as she felt able, the process of restoring the old religion. Inevitably, this had a profound effect on Cranmer and the institutions of church and state with which he was inextricably associated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1440x1048, 452 KB) Summary http://dlib. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1440x1048, 452 KB) Summary http://dlib. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Catherine of Aragon (Castilian: Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was the first wife of Henry VIII of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

Stained glass window depicting martyrdom of Cranmer, Ridley. and Latimer - Christ Church (Episcopal), Little Rock, Arkansas
Stained glass window depicting martyrdom of Cranmer, Ridley. and Latimer - Christ Church (Episcopal), Little Rock, Arkansas

He was first charged and convicted of treason for his part in supporting Lady Jane Grey as Queen, but Mary spared his life. Mary had resolved to have Cranmer tried for heresy. He remained in prison until she brought these charges in February 1556. But because the negotiations for reunion with Rome were not yet complete, Cranmer remained archbishop during this time. In November 1554 Cardinal Pole, the Papal legate, came to receive England back into the Catholic fold. Pole was appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1556. Meanwhile, Cranmer, weakened by more than two years in prison, made several recantations affirming his belief in transubstantiation and papal supremacy. He said later that he did this in order to avoid execution. Despite this, which should have absolved him under Mary’s own Heresy Act, Cranmer was sentenced to death by burning. Download high resolution version (346x852, 70 KB)Stained glass window depecting Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer being burned at the stake. ... Download high resolution version (346x852, 70 KB)Stained glass window depecting Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer being burned at the stake. ... The Episcopal Church or the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America is the American Church of the Anglican Communion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 – February 12, 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days in July 1553. ... Reginald Pole, cardinal Reginald Pole (1500 – November 17, 1558) was an English prelate, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Referring to the doctrine of Papal Supremacy the Catechism of the Catholic Church notes in paragraph 882, “the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he...


According to John Foxe, on March 21, 1556, Cranmer was brought in procession to St. Mary’s Church in Oxford where he was to make a public statement affirming his recantation. Instead, Cranmer withdrew his recantation and denounced Catholic doctrine and the Pope from the pulpit, reportedly stating, "And as for the Pope, I refuse him, as Christ's enemy and Antichrist, with all his false doctrine."[2] After this Cranmer was taken to be burned at the stake. John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (81st in leap years). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christian eschatology the Antichrist or Anti-christ (literally: anti, opposite; christ, messiah) has come to mean a person, image of a person, or other entity that is the embodiment of evil. ...

Then was an iron chain tied about Cranmer and fire set unto him. When the wood was kindled and the fire began to burn near him, he stretched forth his right hand, which had signed his recantation, into the flames, and there held it so the people might see it burnt to a coal before his body was touched. In short, he was so patient and constant in the midst of his tortures, that he seemed to move no more than the stake to which he was bound; his eyes were lifted up to heaven, and often he said, so long as his voice would suffer him, "this unworthy right hand!" and often using the words of Stephen, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit", till the fury of the flames putting him to silence, he gave up the ghost.[3]

This is confirmed by an account by a Catholic observer known only as J.A.[4]


Bishops Ridley and Latimer had earlier been burned at this place on October 16, 1555. These three martyrdoms in Oxford are commemorated with the Victorian Martyrs' Memorial. Nicholas Ridley (died October 16, 1555) was an English clergyman. ... Hugh Latimer (d. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Martyrs Memorial, Oxford The Martyrs Memorial is an imposing stone monument positioned at the intersection of St Giles, Magdalen Street and Beaumont Street in Oxford, England just outside Balliol College. ...


Recognition

Cranmer is commemorated as a martyr by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on March 21. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Fictional Portrayals

Cranmer has appeared as a character in several plays and movies that depict the Tudor period. He is a supporting character in William Shakespeare's Henry VIII and Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons; in the film version of the latter, he was played by Cyril Luckham. He was also portrayed by Bernard Hepton in the famed TV miniseries, The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1970). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... A Man for All Seasons is a play by Robert Bolt, first performed in London on July 1, 1960. ... A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolts play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. ... Cyril Luckham (July 25, 1907 - February 8, 1989) was a British actor of stage and screen. ... Bernard Hepton (born October 19, 1925 in Bradford, England) is a British actor. ... The Six Wives of Henry VIII was a series of six plays produced by the BBC in 1971. ...


See also

St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The burning of Latimer and Ridley, from a book by John Foxe (1563). ...

References

  1. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Henry VIII
  2. ^ Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, by Strype (1854)
  3. ^ The Book of Act and Monuments, Book of Martyrs, by John Foxe (1563).
  4. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (Chapter 13) (1996) ISBN 0-300-07448-4

William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...

Further Reading

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Religious Posts
Preceded by
William Warham
Archbishop of Canterbury
1533–1556
Succeeded by
Reginald Pole

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Cranmer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1147 words)
Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the protestant Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI.
Cranmer brought his German wife Margarete with him when he became Archbishop but kept her presence quiet so as not to be seen breaking the rules on clerical celibacy.
Cranmer withdrew his recantation and denounced Catholic doctrine and the Pope from the pulpit, reportedly stating, "And as for the Pope, I refuse him, as Christ's enemy and Antichrist, with all his false doctrine." After this Cranmer was taken to be burned at the stake:
Thomas Cranmer (662 words)
Thomas Cranmer was born in 1489 at Nottingham.
Cranmer served as Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI.
Thomas Cranmer carefully danced around the politics of his position, and was able to push through the reforms that led gradually to the creation of the Church of England.
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