FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald
Thomas Cochrane
10th Earl of Dundonald
The Earl of Dundonald
Born 14 December 1775
Flag of Scotland Annsfield, near Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland
Died October 31, 1860 (aged 84)
Kensington, London, England
Occupation Royal Navy Officer
Spouse Katherine Barnes

Rear Admiral Thomas Alexander Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquês do Maranhão GCB RN (14 December 177531 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831[1], was a radical politician and naval officer. He was one of the most daring and successful captains of the Napoleonic Wars, leading the French to nickname him "le loup des mers" ("the sea wolf"). After being dismissed from the Royal Navy, he served in the rebel navies of Chile, Brazil and Greece during their independence struggles before being reinstated as an Admiral in the Royal Navy. His life and exploits served as inspiration for the naval fiction of twentieth-century novelists C. S. Forester (the character of Horatio Hornblower) and Patrick O'Brian. Download high resolution version (813x1032, 252 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Mausoleum of the Dukes of Hamilton, in the grounds of the old Hamilton Palace Hamilton (Hamaltan, in Scottish Gaelic) is a town in Central Scotland. ... South Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig a Deas in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, covering the southern part of the traditional county of Lanarkshire. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] French Empire Kingdom of Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Bavaria[6] Kingdom of Saxony[7... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... Horatio Hornblower, 1st Viscount Hornblower,AKA Cpl Mitch Vallentine GCB (4 July 1776 - 12 January 1857) is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and... Patrick OBrian (December 12, 1914 – January 2, 2000; original name Richard Patrick Russ) was a novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and an Irish–Catalan...

Contents

Family

Thomas Cochrane was born at Annsfield, near Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, the son of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl of Dundonald and Ann Gilchrist. She was daughter of Captain James Gilchrist RN and Ann Roberton, (daughter of Major John Roberton 16th Laird of Earnock ). The Mausoleum of the Dukes of Hamilton, in the grounds of the old Hamilton Palace Hamilton (Hamaltan, in Scottish Gaelic) is a town in Central Scotland. ... South Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig a Deas in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, covering the southern part of the traditional county of Lanarkshire. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Known to be a man ahead of his time, Archibald Cochrane was a brilliant man when it came to inventions and science, but lacking in financial stewardship. ... Earnock was an ancient estate in an area south of Hamilton in Lanarkshire, Scotland. ...


Cochrane had six brothers, one of whom was Major William Erskine Cochrane of the 15th Dragoon Guards. He served with distinction under Sir John Moore in the Spanish wars of 1808-11. Sir John Moore (November 13, 1761 - January 16, 1809) was a British soldier and General. ...


Cochrane perpetuated lines of Scottish aristocracy and military service from both sides of his family. His uncles included Alexander Cochrane, later Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, a son of the 8th Earl of Dundonald. The family fortune had been spent, and in 1793 the family estate was sold to cover debts. Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The title Earl of Dundonald was created in 1669 in the Peerage of Scotland for the soldier Sir William Cochrane. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Early life

Through the influence of his uncle, he was listed as a member of the crew on the books of four Royal Navy ships although he probably never went aboard them. This common though unlawful practice was a tactic to have on record some of the length of service necessary before he could be made an officer, if and when he joined the navy. After a brief enlistment in the British army, which ended in fiasco, he did join the Royal Navy in 1793 upon the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ...


Service in the Royal Navy

He first served in the Baltic aboard HMS Hind, commanded by his uncle, and in 1795 was appointed acting lieutenant on HMS Thetis. The following year he was confirmed in the rank after passing the lieutenant's exam. In 1798 he transferred to HMS Barfleur. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Twelve ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Thetis, named after the sea-nymph in Greek mythology: The first Thetis was a 22-gun storeship launched in 1717. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Barfleur after the battle of Barfleur: Barfleur, launched 1892, was a Centurion-class battleship, broken up in 1910. ...


During his service on this ship he was tried by a court martial for apparently challenging Philip Beaver, the ship's first lieutenant, to a duel. Though found innocent of the serious charge he was reprimanded for impoliteness. This began a pattern of Cochrane being unable to get along with many of his superiors, subordinates, employers and colleagues in several navies and the parliament; even those with whom he had much in common, and who should have been natural allies. It led to a long enmity with John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent (9 January 1735-14 March 1823) was an admiral in the British Royal Navy. ...

Thomas Cochrane

In 1799 Cochrane briefly commanded the captured French battleship Genereux. The ship was almost lost in a storm, with Cochrane and his brother personally going aloft in place of a crew that were mostly ill. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (540x791, 89 KB) 10th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (540x791, 89 KB) 10th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane http://www. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1800 Cochrane was appointed to command the sloop HMS Speedy. Later that year he was almost captured by a Spanish warship concealed as a merchant ship. He escaped by flying a Danish flag and dissuading an attempt to investigate by claiming his ship was plague-ridden. Chased by an enemy frigate, and knowing it would follow him in the night by the glimmer of light from the Speedy, he placed a candle on a barrel and let it float away. The enemy frigate followed the barrel and Speedy escaped. // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The sloop HMS Speedy was commanded by Thomas Cochrane in which he achieved his most famous exploit, the capture of the Spanish xebec El Gamo, 32 guns and 319 men compared to Speedys 14 guns and 54 men, on 6 May 1801. ...


One of his most famous exploits was the capture of the Spanish frigate El Gamo, on 6 May 1801. El Gamo carried 32 guns and 319 men, compared with the 14 guns and 54 men on Speedy. Cochrane flew an American flag to get close, finally approaching so closely to Gamo that its guns could not depress to fire on the Speedy's hull. This left only the option of boarding, but whenever the Spanish were about to board Cochrane would pull away briefly, and fire on the concentrated boarding parties with his ship's guns. Cochrane then boarded the Gamo, despite still being outnumbered about five to one, and captured her. St Vincent, not wishing to enrich an officer recently reprimanded, refused to purchase the Gamo for the royal navy: as a result Cochrane and the crew of the Speedy received no prize money. For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


On 8 August 1801 he was promoted to the rank of Post-Captain. August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... rank. ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see Post Captain (novel). ...


In Malta he got into an argument at a fancy dress ball (Cochrane came dressed as a common sailor, and was mistaken for one) which led to a pistol duel.


On a subsequent cruise he was trapped by three French battleships; he was captured, but soon exchanged for a French captain. On Cochrane's return, and the resumption of war in 1802, St Vincent assigned him to command of a converted collier, HMS Arab. This ship was only suited to the most routine missions and afforded Cochrane no opportunities. --69. ... H.M.S. Arab (1896 - 1897 Programme) Laid down by J & G Thomson at Clydebank and completed by John Brown & Co. ...


In 1804 the new government of William Pitt the Younger removed St Vincent and Cochrane was appointed to command of the 32-gun frigate HMS Pallas. Once more he found himself cornered by three battleships and he again used the barrel trick to escape. 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Seven ships of Brtains Royal Navy have been called HMS Pallas. ...


In 1807 he was given command of the frigate Imperieuse. On this ship, one of his midshipmen was Frederick Marryat. Cochrane used this ship to raid the Mediterranean coast of France. In 1808 Cochrane and a Spanish guerilla force captured the fortress of Mongat, which sat astride the road between Gerona and Barcelona. As a result, a French army under General Duhesme was delayed for a month. Another raid copied code books from a signal station, leaving behind the originals so the French would believe them uncompromised. When Imperieuse ran short of water she sailed up the estuary of the Rhone to replenish. When a French army marched into Catalonia and besieged Rosas, Cochrane took part in the defence of the town by occupying and defending Fort Trinidad (Castell de la Trinitat) for a number of weeks. Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Three ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Imperiuse, a name retained from the French. ... Captain Frederick Marryat (July 10, 1792 – August 9, 1848) was an English novelist, a contemporary and acquaintance of Charles Dickens, noted today as an early pioneer of the sea story. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Girona (Catalan: Girona, Spanish: Gerona, French: Gérone) is a city located in the northwest of Catalonia, Spain on the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... General Duhesme Count Guillaume Philibert Duhesme (July 7, 1766, Bourgeuf, Burgundy - June 18, 1815 near Waterloo) was a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Rhônes course. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Roses (Spanish: Rosas) is a municipality in the comarca of the Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain. ...


In 1809 he was chosen to command flotilla of fire ships attack on Rochefort, as part of the Battle of the Basque Roads. Some damage was done, but Cochrane felt that a great opportunity was lost, for which he blamed the fleet commander Admiral Gambier. As a result of the public expression of this opinion he spent some time without a naval command. Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is not about the fireboats that fight fire Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts Drakes fire ship attack on the Spanish Armada. ... Rochefort is the name of several communes in France, of a municipality in Belgium and a commune in Switzerland: Rochefort in the Charente-Maritime département of France Rochefort in the Côte-dOr département of France Rochefort in the Savoie département of France Rochefort, Belgium Rochefort... The Battle of the Basque Roads was a naval battle of the Peninsular War during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Admiral John James Gambier (13 October 1756 New Providence, Bahamas- 19 April 1833 Iver,England) Governor of Newfoundland 1802 - 1804 In 1807, he took part in the Battle of Copenhagen (1807). ...


Political career

In 1805 Cochrane ran for the British House of Commons on a ticket of parliamentary reform (a movement which would bring about the reform acts) for the rotten borough of Honiton. This was exactly the kind of borough Cochrane wished to abolish; there was no secret voting and votes were mostly sold to the highest bidder. The going rate for votes at that time was five guineas. Cochrane offered nothing, lost the election, and afterwards made a gift of ten guineas to each person who had voted for him. In 1806 he again ran for Parliament in Honiton. He was elected, probably because the electors expected a repeat of his previous generosity. Cochrane paid nothing. In 1807 there was obviously no hope of being elected again in Honiton. Cochrane was elected by Westminster, London. He would hold this seat until 1815. 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, Reform Act is a generic term used for legislation concerning electoral matters. ... The term rotten borough refers to a parliamentary borough or constituency in the Kingdom of England (pre-1707), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), the Kingdom of Ireland (1536-1801) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1801 until their final abolition in 1867) which due... Tiverton and Honiton is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Westminster was a former parliamentary constituency in the Parliaments of England to 1707, Great Britain 1707-1800 and the United Kingdom from 1801. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


Cochrane campaigned for parliamentary reform, allied with such Radicals as William Cobbett and Henry Hunt. His outspoken criticism of the conduct of the war and the corruption in the Navy made him powerful enemies in the government, and his criticism of Admiral Gambier's conduct at the Battle of the Basque Roads (so severe that Gambier demanded a court-martial to clear his name) made him enemies in the Admiralty. The Radicals were a parliamentary political grouping in the United Kingdom in the early to mid 19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party. ... William Cobbett, portrait in oils possibly by George Cooke around 1831. ... Henry Orator Hunt (1773- February 15, 1835), sometimes known as Orator Hunt, was a British radical speaker and agitator. ... Admiral John James Gambier (13 October 1756 New Providence, Bahamas- 19 April 1833 Iver,England) Governor of Newfoundland 1802 - 1804 In 1807, he took part in the Battle of Copenhagen (1807). ... The Battle of the Basque Roads was a naval battle of the Peninsular War during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


In 1810 Sir Francis Burdett, a Member of Parliament and political ally, had barricaded himself into his home at Piccadilly, London, resisting arrest by the House of Commons. Cochrane went to assist Burdett's defence of the house. His approach to this, however, was essentially similar to the approach he had taken in defending forts against enemy attack and would have led to numerous deaths amongst the arresting officers and at least partial destruction of Burdett's house, along with much of Piccadilly. On realising what Cochrane planned, Burdett and his allies took steps to end the siege. 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Francis Burdett Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet (25 January 1770–23 January 1844) was an English reformist politician, the son of Francis Burdett by his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of Sir Robert Burdett, Bart. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Piccadilly is a major London street, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Cochrane was popular but unable to get along with his colleagues in the House of Commons, let alone the government. He rarely achieved a great deal for his causes. An exception was his 1812 confrontation of the admiralty's prize court. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


Cochrane made his last speech in parliament (in favour of parliamentary reform) in 1818. In 1830 he was invited to stand for parliament by the reform-minded government of Lord Brougham. After initially expressing interest Cochrane declined, partly because Lord Brougham's brother decided to run for the seat, and partly because he thought it would look bad to be publicly supporting a government from which he sought pardon of a fraud conviction (see The Great Stock Exchange Fraud below). 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In 1831 his father died and Cochrane became the 10th Earl Dundonald. As such he was eligible to sit in the House of Lords, but no longer to run for the House of Commons. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Marriage

In 1812 Cochrane married Katherine "Kitty" Barnes, a beautiful half-Spanish, half-English girl more than twenty years his junior. This was an elopement and a civil ceremony, due to the opposition of his wealthy uncle Basil Cochrane, who disinherited his nephew as a result. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


Cochrane and Kitty would remarry in the Anglican Church in 1818, and in the Church of Scotland in 1825. The confusion of multiple ceremonies led to suspicions that Cochrane's first son Thomas Barnes Cochrane, 11th Earl of Dundonald was illegitimate, and delayed his accession to the Earldom of Dundonald on his father's death. The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The title Earl of Dundonald was created in 1669 in the Peerage of Scotland for the soldier Sir William Cochrane. ...


Kitty often accompanied her husband on his campaigns in South America.


The Great Stock Exchange Fraud

Cochrane was tried and convicted as a conspirator in the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, although he maintained his innocence throughout his life. The summing up of the presiding judge Lord Ellenborough was biased against Cochrane. Most historians agree that the weight of circumstantial evidence against Cochrane indicated that at the least he had been the pawn of his uncle Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone, a conspirator. In 1830, Charles Grenville wrote how much he admired Cochrane, despite his guilt. By Victorian times, however, he was widely believed to have been innocent. The Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814 was a hoax or fraud centered on false information about the then-ongoing Napoleonic Wars. ... Edward Law, 1st Baron Ellenborough (November 16, 1750 - December 13, 1818), English judge, was born at Great Salkeld, in Cumberland, of which place his father, Edmund Law (1703-1787), afterwards bishop of Carlisle, was at the time rector. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


He was sentenced to the pillory (a more severe form of the stocks) and a year's imprisonment. He was excused from doing pillory for fear that his supporters might riot. He was also expelled from Parliament and the Navy. As an additional humiliation he was stripped of his knighthood and a Degradation Ceremony performed. He was, however, immediately re-elected for Westminster. There was considerable public anger at his trial and sentence, especially the degrading pillory. The fine of one thousand pounds that was also imposed on him was paid by popular subscription. It has been suggested that Pranger be merged into this article or section. ... Spes or Hope; engraving by Sebald Beham, German c1540 The stocks are a device used since medieval times for public humiliation, corporal punishment, and torture. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into military degradation. ...


For the rest of his life, Cochrane would campaign to have his conviction reversed and his honours restored. He would receive a royal pardon in 1832, and be restored to the navy list and gazetted rear admiral. Not until 1847, however, would his knighthood be restored, by the personal intervention of Queen Victoria. And only in 1860 would his banner return to Westminster Abbey, just in time for his funeral. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Service with other navies

Service in Chilean Navy

A painting of the fall of Valdivia in the Chilean naval and maritime museum
A painting of the fall of Valdivia in the Chilean naval and maritime museum

He left the UK in official disgrace, responding to a request from San Martín to command the Chilean Navy in its war of independence against Spain. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2666 KB) Oleo que representa la Toma de Valdivia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2666 KB) Oleo que representa la Toma de Valdivia. ... Combatants Spanish coastal defenses Chilean Navy Commanders Colonel Manuel Montoya Admiral Thomas Alexander Cochrane Strength 1. ... José Francisco de San Martín Matorras, also known as José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ... Chilean Navy Jack The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile. ... Motto: Por la Razón o la Fuerza (Spanish: By reason or by force) Anthem: Himno Nacional Capital Santiago1 Largest city Santiago Official languages Spanish Government Democratic republic  - President Michelle Bachelet Independence From Spain   - First Nat. ...


Accompanied by Lady Cochrane and his two children, he reached Valparaiso on November 28, 1818. Cochrane was named Vice-Admiral and reorganized the Chilean navy, and took command of the frigate O'Higgins and raided the coasts of Chile and Peru as he had France and Spain. He introduced British naval customs into the Chilean navy. He organized and led the capture of Valdivia, Spain's most important base in Chile. In 1820, forces under his command, cut out and captured the Esmeralda, the most powerful Spanish ship in South America. He failed in his attempt to incorporate the Chiloé Island for Chile. Later, he was ordered by Bernardo O'Higgins to lead the Chilean fleet to free Peru from the Spanish, while Jose de San Martin would lead the Freedom Army. This would result in Peruvian independence, a development O'Higgins considered indispensable to achieve security of Chile's borders. Valparaiso is the name of at least three cities and a village: Valparaíso, Chile Valparaiso, Florida Valparaiso, Indiana Valparaiso, Nebraska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... OHiggins was a Chilean frigate famous for her actions under Captain Lord Cochrane. ... Combatants Spanish troops Chilean troops Commanders Colonel Manuel Montoya Admiral Thomas Alexander Cochrane Strength 1. ... Esmeralda (BE-43) Esmeralda (BE-43) is a steel-hulled four-masted barquentine tall ship of the Chilean Armada. ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Isla Grande de Chiloé Big Island of Chiloé, is a South American island off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... José de San Martín (25 February 1778 - 17 August 1850) was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South Americas successful struggle for independence from Spain. ...


Cochrane made plans to free Napoleon from his exile on Saint Helena and to make him ruler of a unified South American state. Before he could carry out his plan, Napoleon had died in 1821. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The Chilean Navy has named five ships in his honour. The first "Almirante Cochrane" (Admiral Cochrane) was a famous battleship which fought in the 19th century Pacific War between Chile, Peru and Bolivia and captured the Peruvian ironclad "Huascar". It was sold for scrap in 1933. The second ship was a dreadnought, but in World War I, the ship was converted to an aircraft carrier, HMS "Eagle", which was sunk in World War II. The third ship was an American Fletcher class destroyer which arrived Chile in 1968 and was decommissioned in 1982. This ship participated in the Beagle Channel conflict in 1978. The fourth ship was a County Class Destroyer HMS Antrim (D18) which arrived Chile in 1984. Between 1985 & 1986 the destroyer was converted to a DLH (Destroyer Leader Helicopter). In 1993 it was re-equipped with the SAM Barak, which replaced the Seacat missiles. This destroyer was decommissioned in September 2006. The fifth & current ship to bear the name is a Type 23 Frigate, formerly HMS "Norfolk" which was delivered to the Chilean Navy in November 2006. Look up dreadnought in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... About fifteen ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Eagle, after the eagle. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USS McFaul (DDG-74) In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Sea lions on La Isla de Los Lobos in the Beagle Channel Glacier on the north shore of the Beagle Channel Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in extreme southern South America. ... HMS Devonshire The County class destroyers were large vessels built by the Royal Navy around the Sea Slug anti-aircraft missile system. ... HMS Antrim (D18) was a County-class destroyer of the Royal Navy launched on 19 October 1967. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Sea Cat is a surface to air missile system intended for use aboard small warships. ... Six ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Norfolk, from an 80-gun third-rate to todays powerful and sleek Type 23 frigate. ...


Service in Brazilian Navy

Brazil was fighting its own war of independence against Portugal. The southern provinces were under rebel control, but Portugal still controlled the north, in which Maranhão was the most important city. Motto Ordem e Progresso(Portuguese) Order and Progress Anthem Brazilian National Anthem Capital Brasília Largest city São Paulo Official languages Portuguese Government Presidential Federal republic  -  President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva  -  Vice President José Alencar Gomes da Silva Independence from Portugal   -  Declared September 7, 1822   -  Recognised August... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ...


Cochrane took command of the Brazilian navy and its flagship the Pedro Primeiro. By bluff he convinced the Portuguese army in Bahia to evacuate to Maranhão, captured much of the escaping convoy, then sailed ahead of the convoy to Maranham and bluffed Maranhão into surrendering as well. Finally, he sent a subordinate Captain Grenfell to Pará, who used the same bluff to extract Para's surrender. Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ...


As a result of rebellions and attempted palace coups, Cochrane found himself governor of the province of Maranhão. Dissatisfied with his situation, Cochrane boarded a frigate and sailed it to England.


During his government, the emperor Pedro I of Brazil created him Marquess of Maranhão (Marquês do Maranhão). Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ...


Service in Greek Navy

An Ottoman army raised in Egypt had been suppressing the Greek rebellion. Cochrane's efforts were generally of limited success, due to the poor level of discipline of the Greek army and seamen. One of his subordinates, Captain Hastings, attacked the Gulf of Lepanto. This indirectly led to intervention by Britain, France and Russia, the destruction of the Turko-Egyptian fleet at Navarino and the end of the war under mediation of the Great Powers. This was probably the only campaign in Cochrane's naval career in which the results of his efforts were disappointingly slight. The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... This article is about the country known as Turkey. For other uses of Turkey, see Turkey (disambiguation). ... There are also Pylos in Ilia including Pylos Ilias and Pyrgos Trifylias which are both archaeological sites Pylos (Greek Πύλος) is the name of a bay and a town on the west coast of the Peloponnese, in the district of Messenia in southern Greece. ...


Return to Royal Navy

Despite his restoration to the navy list, Cochrane's return to Royal Navy service was delayed by his refusal to take a command until his knighthood had been restored. Cochrane served as commander-in-chief of the East Indian station, and as commander-in-chief of the North American and West Indies station from 1847 to 1851. During the Crimean War he was considered for a command in the Baltic, but it was decided that there was too much risk he would lose his fleet in a risky attack. In 1854 he was appointed to the honorary rank of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom is a now honorary office generally held by a senior (possibly retired) Royal Navy admiral. ...


In his final years he wrote his autobiography in collaboration with G.B. Earp. Cochrane died on October 31, 1860, in Kensington. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. His grave is in the central part of the nave. October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Innovation in military technology

Convoys were guided by ships following the lamps of those ahead. In 1805 Cochrane entered a royal navy competition for a superior convoy lamp. Believing that the judges were likely to be biased against him, he asked a friend to enter for him. When Cochrane won he revealed his identity. However, the royal navy never purchased any of the lamps. 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1806 Cochrane had a galley made to his specifications, which he carried on board Pallas and used to attack the French coast. 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1812 Cochrane proposed attacking the French coast using a combination of bombardment ships, explosion ships and "stink vessels" (gas warfare). The Bombardment ships consisted of a strengthened old hulk filled with powder and shot and made to list one side which was then anchored at night to face the enemy behind the harbor wall. This allowed saturation bombardment of the harbor closely followed by landings of troops. He put the plans forward again before and during the Crimean War. The authorities decided not to pursue his plans, partly because they would cause terrible destruction and might later be used against Britain. The plans would be kept secret until 1895. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought...


Cochrane was an early advocate of steamships. He attempted to bring a steamship from England to Chile, but its construction took too long and it arrived as the war was ending. The same thing happened to steamships he had hoped to bring to the Greek war of independence. In the 1830s he experimented with steam power, developing a rotary engine and a propeller. In 1851 Cochrane received a patent on powering steamships with bitumen. Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Fictional references

Influence on naval fiction

His career inspired a number of writers of nautical fiction. The first was Captain Marryat who had served under him as a midshipman. In the 20th century, the fictional careers of Horatio Hornblower in the novels by C. S. Forester and of Jack Aubrey in the Aubrey–Maturin series of novels by Patrick O'Brian were in part modelled on his exploits. Captain Frederick Marryat (July 10, 1792 – August 9, 1848) was an English novelist, a contemporary and acquaintance of Charles Dickens, noted today as an early pioneer of the sea story. ... Horatio Hornblower, 1st Viscount Hornblower,AKA Cpl Mitch Vallentine GCB (4 July 1776 - 12 January 1857) is a fictional character, an officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, originally the protagonist of a series of novels by C. S. Forester, and later the subject of films and... The cover of the 1974 paperback edition of one of Foresters non-fiction titles: Hunting The Bismarck Cecil Scott Forester was the pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith (August 27, 1899 – April 2, 1966), an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. ... The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a... The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a physician... Patrick OBrian (December 12, 1914 – January 2, 2000; original name Richard Patrick Russ) was a novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and an Irish–Catalan...


Appearance in fiction

In the alternate history series The Domination by S.M. Stirling,[2] Lord Cochrane leads the occupation of Cape Colony. The Domination is a dystopian alternate history series by S. M. Stirling. ... Stephen Michael Stirling is a Canadian-American science fiction and fantasy author. ...


The novel Sharpe's Devil[3] by Bernard Cornwell features an episode from Cochrane's time in Chile. Sharpes Devil is a historical novel by Bernard Cornwell. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ...


References

  1. ^ The eldest son of an Earl bears the courtesy title of Viscount or Lord. (see Earl for details)
  2. ^ The Domination (Omnibus edition of first 3 works) ISBN 0-671-57794-8
  3. ^ Sharpe's Devil: Chile 1820 (Sharpe's Adventures) ISBN 0-06-093229-5
  • Earnock and its Early Proprietors, nd Hamilton Advertiser, n.d. July 1874
  • Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, Earl of, 1775-1860. The Autobiography of a Seaman. Introduction by Richard Woodman.
    New York: Lyons Press, 2000. ISBN 1-86176-156-2
  • Grimble, Ian. The Sea Wolf: The Life of Admiral Cochrane. Rev. ed. Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2000. Original edition 1978,
    London: Blond & Briggs. ISBN 1-84158-035-X
  • Harvey, Robert. Cochrane: The Life and Exploits of a Fighting Captain. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000. ISBN 0-7867-0923-5
  • Thomas, Donald. Cochrane: Britannia's Sea Wolf. 2nd Edition 2001, Cassell Military Paperbacks, London, 383pp, ISBN 0-304-35659-X.
  • Vale, Brian. The Audacious Admiral Cochrane: The True Life of A Naval Legend.
    London: Conway Maritime Press, 2004, ISBN 0-85177-986-7.

A courtesy title is a form of address in the British peerage system used for wives, children, and other close relatives of a peer. ... For other uses, see Earl (disambiguation). ...

See also

Honorary Titles
Preceded by
Sir William Hall Gage
Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom
1854–1860
Succeeded by
Sir Graham Eden Hamond, Bt
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Archibald Cochrane
Earl of Dundonald
1831–1860
Succeeded by
Thomas Barnes Cochrane

John Dundas Cochrane, nicknamed the voyageur p̩destre in France, was a Scottish traveller and explorer. ... Cochrane is a surname of Scottish derivation. ... Sir William Hall Gage (October 2, 1777 РJanuary 4, 1864) was Second Sea Lord and Admiral of the Fleet in the British Navy. ... The Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom is a now honorary office generally held by a senior (possibly retired) Royal Navy admiral. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... Known to be a man ahead of his time, Archibald Cochrane was a brilliant man when it came to inventions and science, but lacking in financial stewardship. ... The title Earl of Dundonald was created in 1669 in the Peerage of Scotland for the soldier Sir William Cochrane. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (872 words)
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a politician and naval adventurer.
Thomas Cochrane was born at Annsfield, near Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, the son of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl of Dundonald (later 9th Earl of Dundonald) and nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane.
Cochrane pursued a very active political career, serving as Member of Parliament for Honiton in England from 1806 to 1807 and for Westminster, London, from 1807 to 1815, and campaigning for parliamentary reform in Britain, being allied with such Radicals as William Cobbett and Henry Hunt.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (673 words)
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775–31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a politician and naval adventurer.
Thomas Cochrane was the son of Archibald Cochrane, Lord Cochrane (later 9th Earl of Dundonald) and nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane.
Cochrane pursued a very active political career, serving as Member of Parliament for Honiton from 1806 to 1807 and for Westminster from 1807 to 1815, and campaigning for parliamentary reform in Britain, being allied with such Radicals as William Cobbett and Henry Hunt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m