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Encyclopedia > Thomas Cardinal Wolsey
Thomas Cardinal Wolsey

Portrait
Born c. 1473
Ipswich, Suffolk, England
Died November 29, 1530
Leicester, Leicestershire, England
Occupation Government
Children Thomas Wynter Wolsey
Parents Robert Wolsey

Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, (c. March 1471-1475November 28 or November 29, 1530), born in Ipswich, Suffolk, England, was a powerful English statesman and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 513 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (599 × 700 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A photo of the contemporaneous portrait of Cardinal Wolsey at Christ Church. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Timber framed buildings in St Nicholas Street The Ancient House is decorated with a particularly fine example of pargeting Ipswich (pronounced ) is the county town of Suffolk and a non-metropolitan district in East Anglia, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A cardinal is an official of the second-highest rank of the Roman Catholic Church, inferior in rank only to the Pope. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


When Henry VIII became king in 1509, Wolsey's affairs prospered. His political star was in the ascendant, and he soon became the controlling figure in all matters of state. The highest position he attained was Lord Chancellor and Cardinal in 1515, becoming Henry VIII’s first minister, enjoying great freedom and often depicted as alter rex (second king). “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The coat of arms of a Cardinal are indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual Cardinal). ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

He was the son of Robert Wolsey of Ipswich (14381496) and his wife Joan. His father is reported by various later sources as a butcher but this is not certain. He attended Ipswich School[1] and Magdalen College School before studying theology at Magdalen College, Oxford. On March 10, 1498, he was ordained a priest in Marlborough and became a personal chaplain, first to John Cardinal Morton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and then to the governor of Calais where he met Henry VII. Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ... Ipswich School is a private day and boarding school in Ipswich, Suffolk, England, serving pupils of both sexes from two to eighteen years of age. ... Magdalen College School or MCS is a boys independent day school currently located on the edge of central Oxford, England. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... Priesthood in the Catholic Church is the second of the three orders of ordained ministry, Bishop, Priest and Deacon. ... Marlborough on a Wednesday Market morning The town-centre of Marlborough Marlborough (pronounced Maulbruh - /ˈmɔːlbɹə/ in IPA) is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road, the old main road from London to Bath. ... This article is about the 15th century English Bishop, for other uses see John Morton (disambiguation). ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


Wolsey's talents were recognized by important men such as Sir Richard Nanfan, who then recommended Wolsey to King Henry VII. It was to Wolsey’s advantage that Henry VII distrusted the nobility and deliberately sought to favour those from more humble backgrounds for positions of prominence. Henry VII appointed Wolsey Royal Chaplain. In this position, Wolsey was secretary to Bishop Fox, who recognized Wolsey's innate ability and dedication and appreciated his industry and willingness to take on tedious tasks. This brought him to the new king’s attention after the death of Henry VII in 1509. Richard Fox (c. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Character

Wolsey loved display and wealth, although it is generally accepted that, as the King's principal servant, such things were necessary to present a good image to foreign diplomats and kings. He lived in royal splendour in his palace at Hampton Court. There is a theory that his long-term ambition was to become Pope, although much evidence discredits this. The idea that he aligned English foreign policy to that of the Papacy does not explain why he was often involved in wars in continental Europe, even if they were not on behalf of the Papacy. There is also the fact that he never attempted to build up support in the Papal Curia, which was necessary to obtain the Papal Tiara. The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the Triregnum, and in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. ...


Rise to power

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Letter from Henry VIII to Cardinal Wolsey

Thomas Wolsey’s remarkable rise to power from humble origins can be attributed to his high level of intelligence and organization, his extremely industrious nature, his driving ambition for power, and the rapport he was able to achieve with the king. His rise coincided with the ascension of the new monarch Henry VIII, whose character, policies and diplomatic mindset were completely different from those of his father, Henry VII. cardinal wolsey This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


Henry VII had been a calculating and administrative financier with a very passive outlook in foreign policy, feeling that a war would only wreck the national finances. He held the nobility in low esteem, taxing much of their wealth and property and very infrequently bestowing titles. As a result of this approach, he bequeathed his son a stable economy. Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ...


By contrast with his father, Henry was actively interested in foreign policy, and had few inhibitions about involving the country in expensive wars. He sought to unite the nobility behind him in an invasion of France in the hope of gaining the French crown.


Another factor in Wolsey's rise was that Henry, much as he admired his father’s efficient government, was not particularly interested in the details of governing. Under the tight personal monarchy of Henry VII, Wolsey could not have hoped to obtain so much trust and responsibility. Henry VII oversaw nearly all aspects of government, particularly financial ones in which the king took personal supervision under a method known as ‘household government’. Henry VIII, as a boy, had not expected to become king, had little political and governmental tutoring prior to ascending to the throne, and, acknowledging his own inexperience in the field of economy and domestic affairs, was much contented to have someone like Wolsey handle the fundamentals for him.


In 1509, Henry VIII appointed Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the council, providing an opportunity to raise his profile and to establish a rapport with Henry. Wolsey earned Henry's trust through his integrity and talent at getting the job done. He opted to carry out the tasks shunned by others and was always willing to overstep the boundaries of his job as almoner, dabbling in both domestic and foreign policy and making a good impression on the king’s counsellors and the king himself. 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Almoner (from the Greek eelmosyna alms via Latin Almosunartius and French, known in English since circa 1300) is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing charity. ...


Wolsey also pleased Henry because of his similar personality. Both men were extroverted and ostentatious, inclined to lavish displays of wealth and power.


The primary counsellors that Henry inherited from his father, Bishop Fox and William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, were cautious and conservative, advising the king to be a careful administrator like his father. Henry soon began re-stocking his council with individuals more sympathetic to his views and inclinations. Until 1511 Wolsey was adamantly anti-war. When the king expressed his enthusiasm for an invasion of France, however, Wolsey, despite his moral and economic reservations, was able to adapt to the king's mindset and exploit the opportunity. He pragmatically changed his own views, even giving persuasive speeches to the council in favour of war. Warham and Fox, who failed to share the king’s enthusiasm for the French war, fell from power. Wolsey was able to step into their shoes. In 1515, under mounting pressure directed by Wolsey, Warham resigned as Lord Chancellor, and Henry appointed Wolsey to replace him. Richard Fox (c. ... Walliam Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1527 (Louvre Museum) William Warham (c. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ...


Despite having won the favour of the king, Wolsey’s ascendancy would certainly have been compromised had he not taken care of those within the council who held grudges against him. Wolsey asserted himself in the council, letting all know of his intentions and overruling all objections.


Those nobles who did pose a threat to the stability of Wolsey’s position, such as the Dukes of Norfolk and Buckingham, he ignored, eventually neutralizing their resistance. In the case of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Wolsey attempted to win his favour instead, by his actions after the duke secretly married Henry’s sister Mary (the now-widowed queen of France), much to the king’s displeasure. Wolsey advised the king not to execute the newly-weds, but to embrace them. With Suffolk indebted to Wolsey, the cardinal had another powerful ally. Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (c. ...


Wolsey's rise to a position of great secular power was accompanied by increased responsibilities in the Church. He became Canon of Windsor, Berkshire in 1511, the same year in which he became a member of the Privy Council. In 1514, he was made Bishop of Lincoln, and then Archbishop of York. Pope Leo X made him a cardinal in 1515, with the Titulus S. Caecilae. As tribute to the success of his campaign in France and subsequent peace negotiations, Wolsey was further rewarded by the church: in 1523 Wolsey was made Prince-Bishop of Durham. Canons, Bruges A Canon of the Seminary, Sint Niklaas, Flanders. ... This article is about the English town. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chapel Interior at Night. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ...


Foreign Policy

A complex network of constantly changing alliances dominated Europe in the 16th century. It was a period of intense hostility and ruthless power struggle between nations. Where Henry VII had steered clear of foreign conflicts, Henry VIII sought to boost the minimal influence of England on the European scene. Despite the inexperience of the king and his Lord Chancellor, and their lack of clear objectives, they succeeded in making England a desirable ally to be sought after by the two greatest powers in Europe, France and Spain, and making England a significant power in her own right. Even the annual French pension was significantly increased.


The war against France in 1512-14 was the most significant opportunity for Wolsey to demonstrate his talents in the foreign policy arena. A convenient justification for going to war came in 1511 in the form of a plea for help from Pope Julius II, who was beginning to feel threatened by France. England formed an alliance with Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor -- a very strong coalition on paper. Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ...


The first campaign against France was not a success, partly due to the unreliability of the alliance with Ferdinand. Wolsey learned from the mistakes of the campaign, however and, in 1513, still with papal support, launched a joint attack on France, successfully capturing two French cities and causing the French to retreat. Wolsey's ability to keep a large number of troops supplied and equipped for the duration of the war was a major factor in its success. Wolsey also had a key role in negotiating the Anglo-French treaty of 1514, which secured a temporary peace between the two nations. Under this treaty, the French king, Louis XII would marry Henry’s young sister, Mary. In addition, England was able to keep the captured city of Tournai and to secure an increase in the annual pension paid by France. 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis XII (b. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ...


Meanwhile, a turnover of rulers on the continent of Europe threatened to diminish England’s influence. Peace with France in 1514 had been a true achievement for Wolsey and the king. With Henry’s sister Mary married to the French King, Louis XII, a lasting alliance seemed assured. Only a year later, however, Louis died. He was replaced by the young, ambitious Francis I, who had no intention of continuing an alliance with England and who became a significant rival to Henry VIII, stirring up tensions. A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of... Louis XII (b. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ...


Mary had secured a promise from Henry that if Louis died, she could marry whomever she pleased. On Louis' death, she married the Duke of Suffolk, preventing another marriage alliance. With great anxiety, Wolsey proposed an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire against France. Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk (c. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


The death of King Ferdinand of Spain, England’s closest ally and Henry's father-in-law, was a further blow. He was replaced by Charles V, who immediately proposed peace with France. On the death of Emperor Maximilian in 1519, Charles was elected in his stead. Thus, English power was substantially limited on the continent. Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ...


Wolsey, however, managed to assert English influence through another means. In 1517, Pope Leo X sought peace in Europe to form a crusade against Turkey. In 1518, Wolsey was made Papal Legate in England, enabling him to pander to the pope’s desires for peace by organizing the Treaty of London. The Treaty of London (1518) showed Wolsey as the arbiter of Europe, organizing a massive peace summit involving twenty nations. This put England at the forefront of European diplomacy and drew her out of isolation, making her a desirable ally. This is well illustrated by the Anglo-French treaty signed two days afterwards. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Ironically, it was partly this peace treaty which caused the desired conflict between France and Spain. In 1519, when Charles ascended to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis, king of France, was infuriated. He had invested enormous sums in bribing the electorate to select him as emperor, and thus, he used the Treaty of London as a justification for the Habsburg-Valois conflict. Wolsey appeared to act as mediator between the two powers, both of whom were vying for England’s support. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ...


Another of his diplomatic triumphs was the Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520). He assiduously organized every detail of this grandiose meeting between the French king, Francis, and Henry VIII, accompanied by some 5000 followers. Though it seemed to open the door for peaceful negotiations with France, if that was the direction the king wished to go, it was also a chance for a lavish display of English wealth and power before the rest of Europe. With both France and Spain vying for England’s allegiance, Wolsey could choose the ally which best suited his policies. Wolsey chose Charles mainly because England's economy would suffer from the loss of the lucrative cloth trade industry between England and the Netherlands. The Field of Cloth of Gold , or in French Le Camp du Drap dOr, is the name given to a place in Balinghem, between Guînes and Ardres, in France, near Calais. ...


Henry VIII had closer links with Charles than with Francis, being married to Charles’ aunt. Since the king had yet to produce a male heir, a marriage between Henry’s daughter, Mary, and Charles would ensure the security and influence of England after Henry’s death. This was also in keeping with his duty to the pope, who was strictly anti-French; the alliance had complete papal support. Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... </gallery> |- Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, [[Mary Tudor |}, Queen of France]]. Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or...


The Treaty of London (1518) is often regarded as Wolsey’s finest moment, but its half-hearted aspirations for peace were abandoned within a year. Wolsey ensured the failure of the treaty by allying with Charles in 1520 in the conflict against France, ignoring the Anglo-French treaty of 1520. Wolsey's relationship with Rome was also ambivalent. Despite his loyalties to the papacy, Wolsey was strictly Henry’s servant. Though the Treaty of London was an elaboration on the pope’s ambitions for European peace, it was seen in Rome as a vain attempt by England to assert her influence over Europe and steal some of the pope’s thunder. Furthermore, Wolsey’s peace initiatives prevented a crusade in Turkey, which was the catalyst for the pope’s desire for European peace. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Lorenzo Cardinal Campeggio, who represented the pope at the Treaty of London, was kept waiting for many months in Calais before being allowed to cross the Channel and join the festivities in London. Wolsey was asserting his independence of Rome. Campeggio was still around in 1529, and even more powerful. His resentment was instrumental in the refusal of the annulment, Wolsey's most significant failure. Lorenza Campeggio (1471/2-1539) was born in Milan in 1471-2, the eldest of the five sons. ...


During the 1522-1523 wars, Henry’s overambition resulted in an invasion that was not as well organized as the 1513-1514 invasion had been. All England’s hopes rested on possibility of a disgraced French noble, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, leading a revolt that would distract the French from the English invasion in August 1523. Charles III de Bourbon, engraved portrait by Thomas de Leu Charles III of Bourbon-Montpensier, Eighth Duke of Bourbon (February 17, 1490 – May 6, 1527 in Rome) was Count of Montpensier and Dauphin of Auvergne. ...


The revolt failed. Charles V, who had promised to come to England’s aid, stayed out due to a lack of funds. The situation was further exacerbated by bad weather, which proved crucial to the English defeat. This costly disaster resulted in Parliament having to raise additional taxes to cover the expenses. Parliament continued to interfere with Wolsey’s overseas ambitions. After the disastrous campaigns of 1522-1523, there was little enthusiasm for war. England’s losses in Europe were outweighing her gains, and distrust and criticism of Wolsey increased. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...


Though the English gain of the wars of 1522-23 was minimal, their contribution certainly aided Charles in his defeat of the French, particularly in 1525 at the Battle of Pavia. However, in 1525, when Charles won a decisive battle at Pavia and captured the French king, a realistic opportunity arose for Henry to seize power of the French crown. Parliament, however, refused to raise taxes. This led to Wolsey devising the Amicable Grant, which was met with even more hostility, and ultimately led to his downfall. With no money, there was no invasion of France. “Battle of Pavia” redirects here. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Charles became tired of his fruitless alliance with England and the “Great Enterprise” crumbled. After his success at Pavia, Charles had no further need for England as an ally and quickly discarded her. By 1525, England was just as isolated as she had been in 1515 and had achieved very little. 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1525, after Charles had abandoned England as an ally, Wolsey felt forced to negotiate with France. His feeble attempt to make the best of a bad situation failed to attract the French, who by-passed Wolsey to make peace with Charles. Wolsey’s lack of a clear objective in his foreign policy is evident in his pointless and fruitless switching of allegiances between France and Charles.


He also underestimated the devastating effects of making an enemy of the Holy Roman Empire. Although there was no actual war between England and Charles V, the wool trade suffered heavily. England’s principal customers were either from the provinces of Charles’ empire or those surrounded by his territory. When Charles ceased trade with England, there was a huge reduction in income from the wool trade, and tax revenue declined, affecting the entire nation. This article is about the medieval empire. ...


The closeness with Rome can be seen in the formulation of the League of Cognac in 1526. Though England was not a part of it, the League was organized in part by Wolsey with papal support. Wolsey’s plan was that the League of Cognac, composed of an alliance between France and some Italian states, would challenge Charles’ League of Cambrai and rescue Pope Clement VII, who had been held captive by Charles since the sack of Rome. This initiative was not merely a gesture of allegiance to Rome, but fostered Henry’s desire for an annulment from Catherine of Aragon, a desire that was beginning to dominate foreign policy. The League of Cognac of 1526 pitted France, England, Pope Clement VII, Venice, Florence, and elements of Milan against the Emperor Charles V. Categories: Stub ... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed on December 10, 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The final blow came in 1529, when the French made peace with Charles, shattering Wolsey’s ambitions for the League of Cognac. Meanwhile, the French continued to honour the "Auld Alliance" with Scotland, continuing to stir up hostility much closer to England. With peace between France and Charles, there was no one to free the pope from Charles’ supremacy, and he would be unable to grant Henry an annulment from Charles’ aunt, Catherine. Since 1527, Wolsey’s foreign policy had been dominated by his attempts to secure an annulment for his master, and, by 1529, he had failed. Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... The League of Cognac of 1526 pitted France, England, Pope Clement VII, Venice, Florence, and elements of Milan against the Emperor Charles V. Categories: Stub ... The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ...


Wolsey was not a diplomat at heart. In his attempts to please some, he had offended many others.


Wolsey's fall

Despite his many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey held Henry VIII's confidence until Henry decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ...


Henry's marriage to Catherine had produced no sons who survived childhood, leading to the possibility of a power struggle after his death. (The Wars of the Roses were still within living memory.) His daughter, Mary, was considered unable to hold the country together and continue the Tudor dynasty, since England had not until then had a reigning queen, except arguably for Empress Matilda who fought and lost a civil war to try to keep the throne. Henry VIII became convinced that Catherine's inability to have a male heir was due to his marrying the widow of Arthur, Prince of Wales. Arthur was his elder brother, causing Henry to think the marriage was incestuous. Henry further believed that the dispensation for his marriage to Catherine from the Pope was invalid because it was based on the presumption that Catherine was still a virgin on her first husband's death. Henry claimed this was not true, and thus, the papal permission and the ensuing marriage were invalid. The fact that he had fallen in love with the beautiful Anne Boleyn was more likely the reason for his desire to get an annulment. Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Arthur Tudor (19 September/20 September 1486- 2 April 1502) was the first son and, therefore, heir of King Henry VII of England and Wales, and Elizabeth of York. ...


Catherine insisted that she had been a virgin when she married King Henry. Because Queen Catherine was opposed to the annulment and a return to her previous status as Dowager Princess of Wales, the annulment request became a matter for international diplomacy, with Catherine's nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, threatening the Pope if his aunt's marriage to Henry was annulled. Pope Clement VII was presented with a problem. He could either anger Charles or else anger Henry. So, he delayed announcing a decision as much as possible. This delay angered the king and Anne Boleyn, who took out their anger on Wolsey. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ...


Wolsey's fall was sudden and complete. He was stripped of his government office and property, including his magnificently expanded residence of York Place, which Henry chose to replace the Palace of Westminster as his own main London residence. However, Wolsey was permitted to remain Archbishop of York. He travelled to Yorkshire for the first time in his career, and at Cawood in North Yorkshire, he was accused of treason and ordered to London by the Earl of Northumberland. In great distress, he set out for the capital with his personal chaplain Edmund Bonner. Wolsey fell ill and died on the way, at Leicester on November 29 around the age of 55. "If I had served my God", the cardinal said remorsefully, "as diligently as I did my king, He would not have given me over in my grey hairs." The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cawood (Other names: Carwood, Thorpe Lane) is a large village in North Yorkshire. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ... Edmund Boner (1500?- 5th September, 1569), Bishop of London, was an English bishop. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In keeping with his practice of erecting magnificent buildings, Wolsey had designed a grand tomb for himself, but he lost it, just as he had lost Hampton Court. Wolsey was buried in Leicester Abbey (now Abbey Park) without a monument. Henry VIII considered using the impressive black sarcophagus for himself, but Lord Nelson now lies in it, in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral. The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... Leicester Abbey, the Abbey of Saint Mary de Pratis (St Mary of the Meadows), standing about a mile (2 km) north of the city of Leicester in the riverside meadows of the navigable Soar, was built under the patronage of Robert le Bossu, Earl of Leicester. ... Abbey Park is a public park in Leicester, England, through which the River Soar flows. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ... St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London in London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. ...


Domestic achievements

For his fourteen years of chancellorship, Cardinal Wolsey had more power than any other man in English history, excepting monarchs. As long as he was in the king’s favour, Wolsey had the freedom to reform England as he saw fit, and had his hand in nearly every aspect of its ruling. For much of the time, Henry VIII had complete confidence in him, and, as the king’s interests inclined more towards foreign policy, was willing to give Wolsey a free hand in reforming the management of domestic affairs, for which Wolsey had grand plans. Superficially his reforms involved carrying out the king’s wishes and enforcing his principle of fair justice for all, no doubt influenced by the Christian ethos he was bound to, as a man of the church. Nevertheless, there were always impediments to the complete realization of his reforms, whether it was through his own shortcomings or by the action of those who resented Wolsey’s influence over the king. Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ...


A good example of Wolsey’s combining of obligations to the king and the sense of moral duty is Wolsey’s devising, with the treasurer of the Chamber, John Heron, of the ‘Subsidy’. This revolutionary form of tax was based upon accurate valuations of the taxpayer’s wealth, where one shilling was taken per pound from the income of the taxpayer. This tax, the foundation of today’s income tax, replaced the fixed tax of 15ths and 10ths. The fixed tax meant that those who earned very little money had to pay almost as much in tax as the wealthy. With an income tax the poorer members of society paid much less. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income...


This more efficient form of taxation enabled Wolsey to raise enough money for the king’s foreign expeditions, bringing in over £300,000. Wolsey was also able to raise considerable amounts of capital through other means, such as through ‘benevolences’, enforced donations from the nobility, which, in 1522, raised £200,000.


As a legal administrator Wolsey had a sense of natural justice and was concerned with opening up justice for all and thwarting attempts to pervert justice. He reinvented the equity court, where the verdict was decided by the judge on the principle of "fairness". As an alternative to the Common Law courts, Wolsey reestablished the position of the prerogative courts of the Star Chamber and the Court of Chancery, which he was able to monopolize. The system in both courts concentrated on simple, inexpensive cases, and promised impartial justice. Wolsey also established the Court of Requests for the poor, where no fees were required. Wolsey’s legal reforms were popular, and overflow courts were required to attend to all the cases. Many powerful individuals who had felt themselves invincible under the law were convicted. For example, in 1515, the Earl of Northumberland was sent to Fleet Prison and in 1516 Lord Abergavenny was accused of illegal retaining. The Star Chamber (Latin Camera stellata) was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that sat between 1487 and 1641, when the court itself was abolished. ... One of the courts of equity in England and Wales. ... The Court of Requests comprised a minor court of the kings council in England, under the presidency of the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. ... The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ... Pray remember ye poor debtors: inmates of the Fleet Prison beg passers by for alms. ...


Wolsey also used his courts to tackle national controversies, such as the pressing issue of enclosures. The countryside had been thrown into discord over the entrepreneurial actions of landlords in enclosing areas of land and converting from arable farming to pastoral farming, requiring fewer workers. Enclosures were seen as directly linked to rural unemployment and depopulation, vagrancy, food shortages and, accordingly, inflation. For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ...


The Tudors valued stability, and this mass urban migration represented a serious crisis. Wolsey conducted national enquires in 1517, 1518 and 1527 into the presence of enclosures. In the course of his administration he used the court of Chancery to prosecute 264 landowners, including peers, bishops, knights, religious heads, and Oxford colleges.


Wolsey used the Star Chamber to enforce his 1518 policy of “Just Price”, which attempted to regulate the price of meat in London and other major cities. Those who were found to be charging excessive amounts were prosecuted by the Chamber. After the bad harvest of 1527, Wolsey took the initiative of buying up surplus grain and selling it off cheaply to the needy. This act of generosity greatly eased disorder and became common practice after a disappointing harvest.


This Christian philosophy of communal righteousness was a product of Wolsey’s position as papal legate for the church in England. He took his job seriously and made marginal efforts to improve the reputation of the church. For example, throughout the anti-clerical mood of the parliament of 1515, he defended the church to the end, and refused to permit the re-signing of the law which diminished the “Benefit of the Clergy”, in the wake of the murder of Richard Hunne by his clergymen jailers. Wolsey was forced to kneel before the king and assure him that the “Benefit” would be no threat to his authority. Richard Hunne ( - 1514) was a London tailor of a Protestant inclination charged with heresy. ...


Moreover, Wolsey was aware of the ongoing corruption in the Catholic Church and he took certain steps to reform it. In 1524 and 1527 Wolsey used his powers as papal legate to dissolve 30 decayed monasteries where corruption had run rife, including abbeys in Oxford and Ipswich. He used the income to found a grammar school in Ipswich and Cardinal’s College in Oxford, thus giving something back to the communities which had nurtured him. The college in Oxford was originally named Cardinal College, but was renamed King's College after his fall. Today it is known as Christ Church. In 1528, he began to limit the benefit of clergy, and, in the same year, stood up to Henry by disapproving of his choice of a woman of dubious virtue for the position of Abbess of Wilton. Wolsey had honest concern for the reputation of the Church, but did not pursue his reforms to their completion. A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 MCR or GCR President {{{MCR President}}} Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ...


A common trend throughout Wolsey’s ventures was the inability to realize his reforms and make a lasting impact, perhaps because of the enormous personal responsibility he carried. Wolsey’s principal preoccupation throughout his fourteen years as Lord Chancellor was maintaining power. This meant both reducing the influence of others over the king and refusing to impart lesser responsibilities to others. This philosophy led him to become overwhelmed with the day-to-day problems of running a country.


Wolsey’s position in power relied solely on maintaining good relations with Henry. He grew increasingly suspicious of the minions, particularly after infiltrating one of his own men into the group, and attempted many times to dispel them from court, giving them jobs which took them to Europe and far from the king. After the failure of the Amicable Grant, the minions began to undermine him once again. Consequently Wolsey devised a grand plan of administrative reforms, incorporating the infamous Eltham Ordinances of 1526. This reduced the members of the Privy from 12 to 6, removing troublemakers such as William Compton. As soon as Wolsey’s influence had been secured he dropped the plan of reforms. Look up Minion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Eltham Ordinances were a set of reforms to the administration of Henry VIII of Englands court, enacted by Cardinal Wolsey in January 1526. ... William Compton can refer to several people: William Compton, 1st Earl of Northampton (d. ...


This pattern was repeated with many of Wolsey’s other initiatives, particularly his quest to abolish enclosure. Despite spending a significant time and effort in investigating the state of the countryside and prosecuting numerous offenders, Wolsey freely surrendered his policy during the parliament of 1523, in order to ensure that Parliament would pass his proposed taxes for Henry’s war in France. Enclosures continued to be a problem for many years to follow.


One of Wolsey’s greatest impediments was his lack of popularity amongst the nobles at court and in parliament. Their hatred partly stemmed from Wolsey’s excessive demands for money in the form of the Subsidy or through Benevolences, or through the Act of Resumption (1515), where many nobles were forced to give back lands which the king had given to them as a gift, and partly from personal resentment of his rise to power. Many simply disliked his monopolization of the court and his concealing of information from the council. By 1525, there was unanimous hostility and rejection to the forced benevolence of the Amicable Grant.


Wolsey had never attempted to achieve a rapport with the nobility. When mass riots broke out in East Anglia, under the supervision of the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, sworn enemies of Wolsey, Henry was quick to denounce the grant, and began to lose faith in his chief minister. Wolsey ultimately failed the primary objective of his domestic policy, which was to deliver what the king wanted. Despite his talent for administration and organization, there were many instances where Wolsey simply overreached himself. Most people in Tudor England knew no better than Wolsey, failing to see that enclosure was not the cause of inflation. During the relatively peaceful period which Tudor England had been enjoying since the War of the Roses, the population of the nation had increased. With increased demand and no additional supply, the price of food increased. Landowners were forced to enclose land and convert to pastoral farming, which brought in more profit. Wolsey’s quest against enclosure was fruitless in terms of restoring the stability of the economy.


The same can be said for Wolsey’s legal reforms. By making justice accessible to all and encouraging more people bring their cases to court, the system was ultimately abused. The courts became overloaded with incoherent, tenuous cases, which would have been far too expensive to have rambled on in the Common Law courts. Wolsey ultimately became disillusioned with delivering justice for all, and, in 1528, ordered all minor cases out of the Star Chamber. The result of this venture was further resentment from the nobles and gentry, who had suffered at the impartial hand of Wolsey, and also the lawyers, who regarded Wolsey as stealing their business. The influence of the commons was insignificant in comparison with those who detested Wolsey.


Wolsey simultaneously attempted to exert his influence over the church in England. As Cardinal and, from 1524, having lifetime legateship, Wolsey was continually vying for control over the church. His principal rival was Wareham, the Archbishop of Canterbury. It was more difficult for Wolsey to follow through his plans for church reform; he made few attempts to reform the church from within. Despite making promises to reform the bishoprics of England and Ireland, and, in 1519, encouraging monasteries to embark on a programme of reform, he did nothing to bring about these changes. Moreover, he refused to promote others to instigate the reforms for fear of losing his personal influence.


Many historians see Wolsey’s handling of the church as his greatest failure. Wolsey epitomized all that was corrupt and heretical about the church prior to reformation. Wolsey is often seen as a hypocrite, condemning the debauchery of corrupt clergymen, yet himself partaking in the crimes of pluralism, absenteeism (he was archbishop of York, yet never visited the city until 1529), simony (even when appointed, bishops and abbots could not take up their posts unless they had been “confirmed” by Wolsey, at a price), ostentatious display of wealth, sexual relations, nepotism, and the ordination of minors (the latter three illustrated through the premature rise to power of his own illegitimate son). Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ...


Wolsey effectively used his position in the church for his own ends, awarding bishoprics to those he sought to keep loyal to the crown, as illustrated by the appointment of Cardinal Campeggio to the see of Salisbury in 1524, as a means of securing Campeggio’s role as papal curia for England. This is an example of Wolsey extorting the money from these bishoprics, which were bequeathed to foreigners, without their knowing it. Wolsey's depravity made it easier for reformists to condemn the Church and win the public over to the Lutheran ideology. Being Papal Legate for England, Wolsey had a duty to uphold the moral values which the pope promoted, but he was seen as a poor figurehead for their faith. Lorenzo Cardinal Campeggio (1471 or 1472 - 1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician. ... Arms of the Bishop of Salisbury The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Wolsey’s greatest fault in supervising the church,reflected through his administration of the state, was his belief in absolute supremacy. As papal legate he considered himself to be the uncontested head of the church in England, and he sought to consolidate this power by reducing the number of bishops and populating the remaining bishoprics with bishops under his influence. His dictatorial attitude caused cataclysmic problems once he was removed from power, leaving the church without the leader it had been so dependent upon. The reformists would meet with very little opposition from the weakened body of the Catholic Church.


Wolsey was criticized, particularly by his successor Thomas More, for failing to stamp out the threat of Lutheran heresy during the 1520s. Despite threatening heretics with reproof and forcing them to recant, Wolsey refused to resort to prison sentences and execution. Lutheran ideology spread around the country, paving the way for reformation. Wolsey certainly did not wish the church to be destroyed; yet his misplaced belief in his own power and supremacy made this more likely. For the numerous educational institutions, see Thomas More College. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The most common criticism of Wolsey’s domestic policy is that, considering he possessed more power than any other figure in British history, he actually achieved very little. Wolsey was the last of a generation of medieval administrators. His reformation of the legal system and introduction of the subsidy were revolutionary initiatives show that he was forward-thinking; both were adopted by later administrations.


Wolsey's family

He had children with his mistress, Joan Larke (born circa 1490) of Yarmouth, Norfolk. These were a son, Thomas Wynter Wolsey (born circa 1528) and a daughter, Dorothy (born circa 1530), both of whom lived to adulthood. Thomas married and had children. It is not known what happened to Dorothy. Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ...


Fictional portrayals

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Robert Oxton Bolt (August 15, 1924 – February 12, 1995) was an English playwright and screenwriter. ... A Man for All Seasons is a play by Robert Bolt, first performed in London on July 1, 1960. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolts play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning British theatre and film actor. ... A Man for All Seasons is a 1988 film about Sir Thomas More, directed by and starring Charlton Heston. ... Anthony Quayle Sir John Anthony Quayle (7 September 1913 – 20 October 1989) was an English actor and director. ... Anne of the Thousand Days is an Academy Award-winning 1969 costume drama made by Hal Wallis Productions and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Not to be confused with The Six Wives of Henry VIII (documentary), a more recent Channel 4 documentary series on the subject by David Starkey. ... Terry Scott Terry Scott (May 4, 1927 - July 26, 1994) was an actor and comedian who appeared in seven Carry On films. ... Carry On Henry is the 21st of the Carry On series. ... The Tudors is a ten-part series commissioned by Showtime detailing the early reign of Henry VIII[1]. The part of Henry will be played by British actor Jonathan Rhys-Meyers (Mission Impossible III, Bend It Like Beckham, Gormenghast). ... Sam Neill (born Nigel John Dermot Neill), DCNZM, OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a New Zealand-Australian film and television actor, and owner of the Two Paddocks winery in Central Otago. ...

External links

  • Wolsey Gate — All that is left today of Wolsey's planned college in Ipswich, Thomsas Wolsey .com

Biographies

  • Naked to Mine Enemies: The Life of Cardinal Wolsey (2 volumes, ©1958) by Charles W. Ferguson
  • The King's Cardinal: The Rise and fall of Thomas Wolsey, by Peter Gwyn, pub 1990
  • The Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey, by George Cavandish (gentleman usher to Thomas Wolsey)
  • In the Lion's Court: Power, Ambition, and Sudden Death in the Reign of Henry VIII, by Derek Wilson, New York, St. Martin's Press, 2001
  • Wolsey, by A. F. Pollard, pub 1929

References

  1. ^ Thomas Wolsey (1470/71–1530), royal minister, archbishop of York, and cardinal by Sybil M. Jack in Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ...

Offices

Religious titles
Preceded by
William Smyth
Bishop of Lincoln
1514
Succeeded by
William Atwater
Preceded by
Christopher Bainbridge
Archbishop of York
1514–1530
Succeeded by
Edward Lee
Preceded by
Thomas Ruthall
Bishop of Durham
1523–1529
Succeeded by
Cuthbert Tunstall
Preceded by
Richard Foxe
Bishop of Winchester
1529–1530
Succeeded by
Stephen Gardiner
Political offices
Preceded by
William Warham
Lord Chancellor
1515–1529
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas More
Persondata
NAME Wolsey, Thomas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Thomas Cardinal Wolsey
SHORT DESCRIPTION Statesman and Cardinal
DATE OF BIRTH 1473
PLACE OF BIRTH Ipswich, Suffolk, England
DATE OF DEATH 1530
PLACE OF DEATH Leicester, Leicestershire, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Cardinal Wolsey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7188 words)
Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, PC (circa March 1471-1475 – November 28 or November 29, 1530), born Thomas Wulcy in Ipswich, Suffolk, England, was an English statesman and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Wolsey, aware of the diplomatic complexities and facing a physical threat to his own life should he grant the annulment himself, the case being that the Pope was reluctant to grant the annulment, was slow in arranging the request.
Wolsey knew the risks of climbing the political ladder, and when the king expressed his enthusiasm about an invasion of France, and despite moral and economic reservations, Wolsey was able to adapt to the king's mindset and exploit the war as much to his own benefit as possible.
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (1473? - 1530) (3209 words)
Thomas Wolsey was born in Ipswich, Suffolk, possibly in 1473.
Wolsey arranged the breaking of Princess Mary's betrothal to the French Dauphin, and in the spring of 1521 Charles proposed to marry her, to the great happiness of the Queen.
Wolsey suggested that he be sent to France to convince King Francis to use his influence to persuade the Pope to extend Wolsey's authority, in order that Wolsey could judge on the case.
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