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Encyclopedia > Thomas Aquinas
Western Philosophers
Medieval Philosophy
Depiction of St. Thomas Aquinas from The Demidoff Altarpiece by Carlo Crivelli
Name
Thomas Aquinas
Birth c. 1225 (Castle of Roccasecca, near Aquino, Italy)
Death 7 March 1274 (Fossanova Abbey, Lazio, Italy)
School/tradition Scholasticism, Founder of Thomism
Main interests Metaphysics (incl. Theology), Logic, Mind, Epistemology, Ethics, Politics
Notable ideas Five Proofs for God's Existence, Principle of double effect
Influenced by Aristotle, Albertus Magnus, Al-Kindi, Al-Ghazali, Paul the Apostle, Boethius, Eriugena, Anselm, Averroes, Maimonides, St. Augustine, Avicenna, John of Damascus
Influenced Giles of Rome, Godfrey of Fontaines, John Locke, Dante, Leibniz, Jacques Maritain, Étienne Gilson, G.E.M. Anscombe, Meister Eckhart, G.K. Chesterton, James Joyce, Anthony Kenny, Pope Pius XII

Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P. (also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino; c. 12257 March 1274) was an Italian Catholic priest in the Dominican Order, a philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis and Doctor Communis. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of the Thomistic school of philosophy and theology. Depiction of St. ... Annunciation with St Emidius (1486) 207x146,5 cm National Gallery, London Carlo Crivelli (c. ... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... View of the historical center of Roccasecca. ... Aquino is a small town in the south-central Italian province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Fossanova Abbey, earlier Fossa Nuova, is a Cistercian monastery in Italy, in the province of Rome, near the railway-station of Priverno, 64 miles south-east of Rome. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... According to St. ... The principle of double effect (PDE) or doctrine of double effect (DDE), sometimes simply called double effect for short, is a thesis in ethics, usually attributed to Thomas Aquinas. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... St. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... J. Scotus Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... Giles of Rome (Latin Ægidius Romanus) (circa 1243-1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. ... Godfrey of Fontaines was a scholastic philosopher and theologian; born near Liège, within the first half of the thirteenth century, he became a canon of his native diocese, and also of Paris and Cologne, and was elected, in 1300, to the See of Tournai, which he declined. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... Etienne Gilson (1884-1978) was a French philosopher and historian, born in Paris. ... G. E. M. Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001) (born Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe, also known as Elizabeth Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher. ... The Meister Eckhart portal of the Erfurt Church. ... For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Sir Anthony John Patrick Kenny FBA (born Liverpool, 16 March 1931) is an English philosopher whose interests lie in the philosophy of mind, ancient and scholastic philosophy, the philosophy of Wittgenstein and the philosophy of religion. ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum), more commonly known as the Dominican Order, is a Catholic religious order. ... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...


Aquinas is held in the Catholic Church to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood (Code of Canon Law, Can. 252, §3). The works for which he is best-known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa Contra Gentiles. One of the 33 Doctors of the Church, he is considered by many Catholics to be the Catholic Church's greatest theologian and philosopher. Consequently, many institutions of learning have been named after him. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... The Summa contra Gentiles (hereafter referred to as SCG) was written by St. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Institutions of learning named after Thomas Aquinas include the following: Categories: | ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Aquinas was born c. 1225 at his father Count Landulph's castle of Roccasecca in the Kingdom of Sicily, in the present-day Regione Lazio. Through his mother, Theodora Countess of Theate, Aquinas was related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors.[1] Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the original Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. The family intended for Aquinas to follow his uncle into that position. This would have been a normal career path for a younger son of southern Italian nobility.[1] View of the historical center of Roccasecca. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... The restored Abbey. ...


At the age of five, Aquinas began his early education at a monastery. When he was 16, he went to the University of Naples, where he studied for six years. Aquinas had come under the influence of the Dominicans, who wished to enlist the ablest young scholars of the age. The Dominicans and the Franciscans represented a revolutionary challenge to the well-established clerical systems of Medieval Europe.[1] The University of Naples is the third Italian university and was initiated in 1224 by Emperor Frederick II. It is known as one of the first universities to be founded by a secular ruler. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Aquinas's change of heart did not please his family. On the way to Rome, his brothers seized him and took him back to his parents at the castle of San Giovanni. He was held captive for a year so he would renounce his new aspiration. According to Aquinas's earliest biographers, two of his brothers even brought a lady of "ill-repute" to tempt him, but he drove her away. After this, it is said that two angels came down from the heavens and girded his loins, providing Aquinas with a life of chastity. Finally, Pope Innocent IV intervened and Aquinas assumed the habit of St. Dominic in his 17th year.[1] San Giovanni, the Italian form of the name of Saint John. ... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ...


His superiors saw his great aptitude for theological study. In late 1244, they sent him to the Dominican school in Cologne, where Albertus Magnus was lecturing on philosophy and theology. In 1245, Aquinas accompanied Albertus to the University of Paris, where they remained for three years. During this time, Aquinas threw himself into the controversy between the university and the Friar-Preachers about the liberty of teaching. Aquinas actively resisted the university's speeches and pamphlets. When the Pope was alerted of this dispute, the Dominicans selected Aquinas to defend his order. He did so with great success. He even overcame the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.[1] Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Albertus Magnus (b. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... A fox in the habit of a friar, preaching to a congregation of chickens and geese: from a misericorde in Ripon minster, 1480s, photographed by Dr Eric Webb. ...


Aquinas then graduated as a bachelor of theology. In 1248, he returned to Cologne, where he was appointed second lecturer and magister studentium. This year marks the beginning of his literary activity and public life.[1]


For several years, Aquinas remained with Albertus Magnus. Aquinas's long association with this great philosopher-theologian was the most important influence in his development. In the end, he became a comprehensive scholar who permanently utilized Aristotle's method.[1] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...

Saint Thomas Aquinas
St. Thomas Aquinas, by Fra Angelico
Doctor of the Church
Born c. 1225, Roccasecca, near Naples, Italy
Died March 7, 1274 (aged 49), Fossanuova Abbey, Italy
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized July 18, 1323, Avignon, France
Major shrine Church of the Jacobins, Toulouse, France
Feast January 28 (new), March 7 (old)
Attributes The Summa Theologica, a model church, the Sun
Patronage All Catholic educational institutions
Saints Portal

Image File history File links Saint_Thomas_Aquinas. ... The Virgin of the Annunciation Fra Angelico (c. ... // The Teutonic Order is expelled from Transylvania. ... View of the historical center of Roccasecca. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... Sol redirects here. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ...

Career

In 1252, Aquinas went to Paris for his master's degree. This article is about the capital of France. ... A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ...


In 1256, Aquinas, along with his friend Bonaventura, began to lecture on theology in Paris and Rome and other Italian towns. From this time on, his life was one of incessant toil. Aquinas continually served in his order, frequently made long and tedious journeys, and constantly advised the reigning pontiff on affairs of state.[1] Saint Bonaventura, John of Fidanza (1221 – July 15, 1274), was a Franciscan theologian. ...


In 1259, Aquinas was present at an important meeting of his order at Valenciennes. At the solicitation of Pope Urban IV, he moved to Rome no earlier than late 1261. In 1263, he attended the London meeting of the Dominican order. In 1268, he lectured in Rome and Bologna. Throughout these years, he remained engaged in the public business of the Catholic Church.[2] Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... Urban IV, born Jacques Pantaléon (Troyes, ca. ...


From 1269 to 1271, Aquinas was again active in Paris. He lectured to the students, managed the affairs of the Catholic Church, and advised the king, Louis VIII, his kinsman, on affairs of state.[3] In 1272, the provincial chapter at Florence empowered him to begin a new studium generale at a location of his choice. Later, the chief of his order and King Charles II brought him back to the professor's chair at Naples.[4] Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Provincial has several meanings and may refer to: Provincial examinations: Bi-annual province-wide examinations for students between the grades of 10 to 12 in the province of British Columbia Anything related to a province, a formal geographical division; Anything related to the provinces, the parts of a country outside... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ...


All this time, Aquinas preached every day, and he wrote homilies, disputations, and lectures. He also worked diligently on his great literary work, the Summa Theologica. The Catholic Church offered to make him archbishop of Naples and abbot of Monte Cassino, but he refused both.[3] A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... In the scholastic system of education of the middle ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in other sciences. ... A lecture is a talk on a particular subject given in order to teach people about that subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ...


It should be noted that, as a Dominican Friar, Aquinas was supposed to participate in the mortification process. He did not; a remarkable thing considering how devoted to his faith he was known to be. At his canonization trial, it became evident he did not practice such rites. "The forty-two witnesses at the canonization trial had little to report concerning extraordinary acts of penance, sensational deeds, and mortifications...they could only repeat unanimously, again and again: Thomas had been a pure person, humble, simple, peace-loving, given to contemplation, moderate, a lover of poetry". These endearing qualities helped him in his beatification. The witnesses praised Thomas for his rational thought. Flagellants mortifying the flesh, at the time of the Black Death Mortification of the flesh literally means putting the flesh to death. The term is primarily used in religious contexts, and is practiced in a variety of ways. ...


It is reported in Chesterton's book that Aquinas placed his essay concerning the Eucharist at the bottom of the cross. The friars there claimed to see the image of Jesus descending upon it, and a voice was heard to say, "Thomas, thou hast written well concerning the sacrament of My Body.”On one occasion, monks claimed to have found him levitating. The twentieth century Catholic writer/convert G.K. Chesterton describes these and other stories in his work on Aquinas, The Dumb Ox, a title based on early impressions that Aquinas was not proficient in speech. Chesterton quotes Albertus Magnus' refutation of these impressions: "You call him 'a dumb ox,' but I declare before you that he will yet bellow so loud in doctrine that his voice will resound through the whole world."[5] For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... Albertus Magnus (b. ...


Aquinas had a dark complexion, large head and receding hairline, and he was of large stature. His manners showed his breeding, for people described him as refined, affable and lovable. In arguments, he maintained self-control and won over his opponents by his personality and great learning. His tastes were simple. He impressed his associates with his power of memory. When absorbed in thought, he often forgot his surroundings, but he was able to express his thoughts systematically, clearly and simply. Because of his keen grasp of his materials, Aquinas does not make the reader his companion in the search for truth; rather, he teaches authoritatively. On the other hand, he felt dissatisfied by the insufficiency of his works as compared to the divine revelations he had received.[4]


He is said to have spoken on the morning of December 6, 1273, his last words: "Such secrets have been revealed to me that all I have written now appears of little value."


Death, condemnation, and canonization

In January 1274, Pope Gregory X directed Aquinas to attend the Second Council of Lyons. Aquinas's task was to investigate and, if possible, settle the differences between the Greek and Latin churches. Far from healthy, he undertook the journey. On the way, he stopped at the castle of a niece and there became seriously ill. Aquinas desired to end his days in a monastery. However, he was unable to reach a house of the Dominicans, so he was taken to the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova. After a lingering illness of seven weeks, Aquinas died on March 7, 1274.[4] Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (Piacenza, ca. ... The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convened in Lyon in 1274. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Fossanova Abbey, earlier Fossa Nuova, is a Cistercian monastery in Italy, in the province of Rome, near the railway-station of Priverno, 64 miles south-east of Rome. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ...


In The Divine Comedy, Dante sees the glorified spirit of Aquinas in the Heaven of the Sun with the other great exemplars of religious wisdom. Dante also asserts that Aquinas died by poisoning, on the order of Charles of Anjou (Purg. xx. 69). Villani (ix. 218) cites this belief, and the Anonimo Fiorentino describes the crime and its motive. But the historian Muratori reproduces the account made by one of Aquinas's friends, and this version of the story gives no hint of foul play.[3] For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ... Ludovico Antonio Muratori (1672 - 1750) was an Italian historian, notable as a leading scholar of his age, and for his discovery of the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books. ...


In 1277, the bishop of Paris issued an edict condemning a number of teachings then current at the university, which derived from Aristotle or from Arabic philosophers such as Averroes. Among the teachings targeted were those of Thomas Aquinas. The 1277 condemnation "has often been depicted as the most dramatic and significant doctrinal censure in the history of the University of Paris, and a landmark in the history of medieval philosophy and theology." The condemnation echoed the orthodox theology of its day, based on the work of St. Augustine, which considered human reason inadequate to understand the will of God.[6] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


In 1319, the Catholic Church began preliminary investigations to Aquinas's canonization. On July 18, 1323, Pope John XXII pronounced Aquinas's sainthood at Avignon.[4] In 1567, Pope Pius V ranked the festival of St. Thomas Aquinas with those of the four great Latin fathers: Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 12 - The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Canonization of Saint Thomas Aquinas Lithuania: in Letters of Gediminas, Vilnius is named as the capital city Pharos of Alexandria Lighthouse (one of the Seven Wonders of the world... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... Pope St. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Augustine, or Augustin, may refer to: Augustine of Hippo (354-430), the Church Father and patron of the Augustinians Augustine of Canterbury (d. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Look up Gregory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Aquinas's Summa Theologica was deemed so important that at the Council of Trent, it was placed upon the altar beside the Bible and the Decretals.[7] Only Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Catholic church. In his Encyclical of August 4, 1879, Pope Leo XIII stated that Aquinas's theology was a definitive exposition of Catholic doctrine. Thus, he directed the clergy to take the teachings of Aquinas as the basis of their theological positions. Also, Leo XIII decreed that all Catholic seminaries and universities must teach Aquinas's doctrines, and where Aquinas did not speak on a topic, the teachers were "urged to teach conclusions that were reconcilable with his thinking." Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Decretals (Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon Law to those letters of the pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest...


In 1880, Aquinas was declared patron of all Catholic educational establishments. In a monastery at Naples, near the cathedral of St. Januarius, a cell in which he supposedly lived is still shown to visitors. His remains were placed in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse in 1369. Between 1789 and 1974, they were held in Saint Sernin basilica of Toulouse. In 1974, they were returned to the Church of the Jacobins, where they have remained ever since. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Saint Januarius, or San Gennaro, bishop of Benevento, is a saint and martyr in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Jacobins can refer to the Jacobin Club, a political organization of the French Revolutionary Era ca. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... East end elevation of Saint-Sernin Basilica Crypt of Saint-Sernin Basilica View of the back side of the building and the tower Saint-Sernin basilica located in Toulouse, France, was built during the Romanesque Period between AD 1080 and 1120. ...


The Roman Catholic Church today celebrates his feast on January 28, the date of publication of the Summa. Before the revision of the Roman calendar in 1969 the feast was observed on March 7, the day of his death. The March 7 date is still used today for the traditional Latin Mass, a first class feast day in schools.


Philosophy

"Nihil est in intellectu quod non sit prius in sensu." (Nothing is in the intellect that was not first in the senses) – Aquinas's peripatetic axiom

The philosophy of Aquinas has exerted enormous influence on subsequent Christian theology, especially that of the Roman Catholic Church, extending to Western philosophy in general, where he stands as a vehicle and modifier of Aristotelianism. Philosophically, his most important and enduring work is the Summa Theologica, in which he expounds his systematic theology of the quinquae viae. The Peripatetic axiom is: Nothing is in the intellect that was not first in the senses. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... According to St. ...


Epistemology

Aquinas believed "that for the knowledge of any truth whatsoever man needs Divine help, that the intellect may be moved by God to its act." However, he believed that human beings have the natural capacity to know many things without special divine revelation, even though such revelation occurs from time to time, "especially in regard to [topics of] faith."[8] Aquinas was also an Aristotelian and an empiricist. He substantially influenced these two streams of Western thought. For information on the last book of the New Testament see the entry on the Book of Revelation. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. ...


Revelation

Aquinas believed that truth is known through reason (natural revelation) and faith (supernatural revelation). Supernatural revelation is revealed through the prophets, Holy Scripture, and the Magisterium, the sum of which is called "Tradition". Natural revelation is the truth available to all people through their human nature; certain truths all men can attain from correct human reasoning. For example, he felt this applied to rational proofs for the existence of God.


Though one may deduce the existence of God and His Attributes (One, Truth, Good, Power, Knowledge) through reason, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation (Like the Trinity). In Aquinas's view, special revelation is equivalent to the revelation of God in Jesus Christ. The major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the Catholic Church and the Scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Supernatural revelation (faith) and natural revelation (reason) are complementary rather than contradictory in nature, for they pertain to the same unity: truth.


Analogy

An important element in Aquinas's philosophy is his theory of analogy. Aquinas noted three forms of descriptive language: univocal, analogical, and equivocal.[9] Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...

  • Univocality is the use of a descriptor in the same sense when applied to two objects or groups of objects. For instance, when the word "milk" is applied both to milk produced by cows and by any other female mammal.
  • Analogy, Aquinas maintained, occurs when a descriptor changes some but not all of its meaning. For example, the word "healthy" is analogical in that it applies both to a healthy person or animal (those that enjoy of good health) and to some food or drink (if it is good for the health). Analogy is necessary when talking about God, for some of the aspects of the divine nature are hidden (Deus absconditus) and others revealed (Deus revelatus) to finite human minds. In Aquinas's mind, we can know about God through his creation (general revelation), but only in an analogous manner. We can speak of God's goodness only by understanding that goodness as applied to humans is similar to, but not identical with, the goodness of God.[10]
  • Equivocation is the complete change in meaning of the descriptor and is an informal fallacy. For example, when the word "bank" is applied to river banks and financial banks. Modern philosophers talk of ambiguity.

A glass of cows milk. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... In Philosophical logic, an informal fallacy is a pattern of reasoning which is false due to the falsity of one or more of its premises. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Ethics

Aquinas's ethics are based on the concept of "first principles of action."[11] In his Summa Theologica, he wrote: Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ...

Virtue denotes a certain perfection of a power. Now a thing's perfection is considered chiefly in regard to its end. But the end of power is act. Wherefore power is said to be perfect, according as it is determinate to its act.[12]

Aquinas defined the four cardinal virtues as prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude. The cardinal virtues are natural and revealed in nature, and they are binding on everyone. There are, however, three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. These are supernatural and are distinct from other virtues in their object, namely, God: In the Christian church, there are four cardinal virtues. ... Prudence, by Luca Giordano Allegory of Prudence, by Simon Vouet Look up Prudence, prudence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Four Cardinal Virtues of the Catholic Church doing bad to. ... The three Theological Virtues listed in the Bible are: Faith (πίστις) Hope (ἐλπίς) Love (or alternatively: Charity) (ἀγάπη) They occur in the Bible at 1 Corinthians 13:13: And now abideth faith, hope, and love, even these three: but the chiefest of these is love. (Geneva Bible, 1560). ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapē), is the greatest of the three theological virtues...

Now the object of the theological virtues is God Himself, Who is the last end of all, as surpassing the knowledge of our reason. On the other hand, the object of the intellectual and moral virtues is something comprehensible to human reason. Wherefore the theological virtues are specifically distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues.[13]

Furthermore, Aquinas distinguished four kinds of law: eternal, natural, human, and divine. Eternal law is the decree of God that governs all creation. Natural law is the human "participation" in the eternal law and is discovered by reason.[14] Natural law, of course, is based on "first principles": Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...

. . . this is the first precept of the law, that good is to be done and promoted, and evil is to be avoided. All other precepts of the natural law are based on this . . .[15]

The desire to live and to procreate are counted by Aquinas among those basic (natural) human values on which all human values are based.


Human law is positive law: the natural law applied by governments to societies. Divine law is the specially revealed law in the scriptures. Positive law is a legal term having more than one meaning. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Aquinas also greatly influenced Catholic understandings of mortal and venial sins. According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ...


Aquinas denied that human beings have any duty of charity to animals because they are not persons. Otherwise, it would be unlawful to use them for food. But this does not give us license to be cruel to them, for "cruel habits might carry over into our treatment of human beings."[16]

Thomas Aquinas 17th century sculpture
Thomas Aquinas 17th century sculpture

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Theology

Aquinas viewed theology, or the sacred doctrine, as a science, the raw material data of which consists of written scripture and the tradition of the Catholic church. These sources of data were produced by the self-revelation of God to individuals and groups of people throughout history. Faith and reason, while distinct but related, are the two primary tools for processing the data of theology. Aquinas believed both were necessary - or, rather, that the confluence of both was necessary - for one to obtain true knowledge of God. Aquinas blended Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine by suggesting that rational thinking and the study of nature, like revelation, were valid ways to understand God. According to Aquinas, God reveals himself through nature, so to study nature is to study God. The ultimate goals of theology, in Aquinas’ mind, are to use reason to grasp the truth about God and to experience salvation through that truth. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... SACRED SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...


Nature of God

Aquinas believed that the existence of God is neither self-evident nor beyond proof. In the Summa Theologica, he considered in great detail five rational proofs for the existence of God. These are widely known as the quinquae viae, or the "Five Ways." Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... According to St. ...


Concerning the nature of God, Aquinas felt the best approach, commonly called the via negativa, is to consider what God is not. This led him to propose five positive statements about the divine qualities:[17] Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ...

  1. God is simple, without composition of parts, such as body and soul, or matter and form.
  2. God is perfect, lacking nothing. That is, God is distinguished from other beings on account of God's complete actuality.
  3. God is infinite. That is, God is not finite in the ways that created beings are physically, intellectually, and emotionally limited. This infinity is to be distinguished from infinity of size and infinity of number.
  4. God is immutable, incapable of change on the levels of God's essence and character.
  5. God is one, without diversification within God's self. The unity of God is such that God's essence is the same as God's existence. In Aquinas's words, "in itself the proposition 'God exists' is necessarily true, for in it subject and predicate are the same."

In this approach, he is following, among others, the Jewish philosopher Maimonides.[18] Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


Nature of the Trinity

Aquinas argued that God, while perfectly united, also is perfectly described by Three Interrelated Persons. These three persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) are constituted by their relations within the essence of God. The Father generates the Son (or the Word) by the relation of self-awareness. This eternal generation then produces an eternal Spirit "who enjoys the divine nature as the Love of God, the Love of the Father for the Word." This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


This Trinity exists independently from the world. It transcends the created world, but the Trinity also decided to communicate God's self and God's goodness to human beings. This takes place through the Incarnation of the Word in the person of Jesus Christ and through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (indeed, the very essence of the Trinity itself) within those who have experienced salvation by God.[19] Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


Nature of Jesus Christ

In the Summa Theologica, Aquinas begins his discussion of Jesus Christ by recounting the biblical story of Adam and Eve and by describing the negative effects of original sin. The purpose of Christ's Incarnation was to restore human nature by removing "the contamination of sin", which humans cannot do by themselves. "Divine Wisdom judged it fitting that God should become man, so that thus one and the same person would be able both to restore man and to offer satisfaction."[20] Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Original Sin redirects here. ...


Aquinas argued against several specific contemporary and historical theologians who held differing views about Christ. In response to Photinus, Aquinas stated that Jesus was truly divine and not simply a human being. Against Nestorius, who suggested that God merely inhabited the body of Christ, Aquinas argued that the fullness of God was an integral part of Christ's existence. However, countering Apollinaris' views, Aquinas held that Christ had a truly human (rational) soul, as well. This produced a duality of natures in Christ, contrary to the teachings of Arius. Aquinas argued against Eutyches that this duality persisted after the Incarnation. Aquinas stated that these two natures existed simultaneously yet distinguishably in one real human body, unlike the teachings of Manichaeus and Valentinus.[21] Photinus (died 376) was a fourth-century Christian heretic who rose to become bishop of Sirmium in Pannonia, a residence of the Emperor Constantius II. His heresy was of an Arian stripe. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Apollinaris was an early church leader and writer who lived in the 2nd Century. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Eutyches (c. ... Mani (in Persian: مانی) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... Valentinus can refer to: Pope Valentinus Saint Valentine Basil Valentinus, a 15th century monk from Erfurt who may have described Bismuth Valentinius, a Gnostic also known as Valentinus Roman emperors - Valentinian I (364 - 375) and Valentinian II (371 - 392) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other...


In short, "Christ had a real body of the same nature of ours, a true rational soul, and, together with these, perfect Deity." Thus, there is both unity (in his one hypostasis) and diversity (in his two natures, human and Divine) in Christ.[22] See: Hypostasis (linguistics) Hypostasis (religion) Hypostasis (organization) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Goal of human life

In Aquinas's thought, the goal of human existence is union and eternal fellowship with God. Specifically, this goal is achieved through the beatific vision, an event in which a person experiences perfect, unending happiness by comprehending the very essence of God. This vision, which occurs after death, is a gift from God given to those who have experienced salvation and redemption through Christ while living on earth. In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the eternal, direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ...


This ultimate goal carries implications for one's present life on earth. Aquinas stated that an individual's will must be ordered toward right things, such as charity, peace, and holiness. He sees this as the way to happiness. Aquinas orders his treatment of the moral life around the idea of happiness. The relationship between will and goal is antecedent in nature "because rectitude of the will consists in being duly ordered to the last end [that is, the beatific vision]." Those who truly seek to understand and see God will necessarily love what God loves. Such love requires morality and bears fruit in everyday human choices.[23] Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Modern influence

Many modern ethicists both within and outside the Catholic Church (notably Philippa Foot and Alasdair MacIntyre) have recently commented on the possible use of Aquinas's virtue ethics as a way of avoiding utilitarianism or Kantian deontology. Through the work of twentieth century philosophers such as Elizabeth Anscombe (especially in her book Intention), Aquinas's principle of double effect specifically and his theory of intentional activity generally have been influential. Philippa Ruth Foot (1920-), born in Bosanquet, is a British philosopher, most notable for her works in ethics. ... Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born January 12, 1929 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (March 18, 1919 – January 5, 2001) (known as Elizabeth Anscombe, published as G. E. M. Anscombe) was a British analytic philosopher, a theologian and a pupil of Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... The principle of double effect (PDE) or doctrine of double effect (DDE), sometimes simply called double effect for short, is a thesis in ethics, usually attributed to Thomas Aquinas. ...


It is remarkable that Aquinas's aesthetic theories, especially the concept of claritas, deeply influenced the literary practice of modernist writer James Joyce, who used to extol Aquinas as being second only to Aristotle among Western philosophers. The influence of Aquinas's aesthetics also can be found in the works of the Italian semiotician Umberto Eco, who wrote an essay on aesthetic ideas in Aquinas (published in 1956 and republished in 1988 in a revised edition). This article is about the writer and poet. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ...


Other views

Sacraments

For Aquinas' writing justifying the sacraments, see Aquinas and the Sacraments. A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... // The following atricle is a condensation of the writings of St. ...


Various topics

For Aquinas' discussion of the death penalty, usury, existentialism, and forced baptism of the children of Jews and other heretics, see Thought of Thomas Aquinas.


Biographies

Many biographies of Aquinas have been written over the centuries, one of the most notable by G. K. Chesterton. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ...


See also

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Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1953), vol. XI, p. 422.
  2. ^ Schaff, pp. 422-423.
  3. ^ a b c "Aquinas, Thomas", Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), pg. 250.
  4. ^ a b c d Schaff, p. 423.
  5. ^ Fr. Placid Conway, O.P., Saint Thomas Aquinas (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1911), chapter 2.
  6. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, article "Condemnation of 1277". [1]
  7. ^ Will Durant, (Simon and Schuster, 1950), p. 978.
  8. ^ Summa Theologica, First Part of the Second Part, Question 109. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  9. ^ R. C. Sproul, Renewing Your Mind (Baker Books: Grand Rapids, MI, 1998), p. 33.
  10. ^ Geisler, Norman L. (ed). Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Baker Academic: Grand Rapids, MI, 1999. p. 726.
  11. ^ Geisler, p. 727.
  12. ^ Summa, Q55a1.
  13. ^ Summa, Q62a2.
  14. ^ Louis Pojman, Ethics (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995).
  15. ^ Summa, Q94a2.
  16. ^ Peter Singer. "Animals" in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy.
  17. ^ Peter Kreeft, Summa of the Summa (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1990), pp. 74-77, 86-87, 97-99, 105, 111-112.
  18. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Aquinas, Thomas
  19. ^ Aidan Nichols, Discovering Aquinas (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002), pp. 173-174.
  20. ^ Thomas Aquinas, Aquinas's Shorter Summa (Manchester, NH: Sophia Institute Press, 2002), pp. 228-229.
  21. ^ Aquinas 2002, pp. 231-239.
  22. ^ Aquinas 2002, pp. 241, 245-249. Emphasis is the author's.
  23. ^ Kreeft, p. 383.

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References

  • "Bibliography of Additional Readings" (1990). In Mortimer J. Adler (Ed.), Great Books of the Western World, 2nd ed., v. 2, pp. 987-988. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • F.C. Copleston, Aquinas. Penguin, 1955.
  • Craig Paterson & Matthew S. Pugh (eds.), Analytical Thomism: Traditions in Dialogue. Ashgate, 2006. Introduction to Thomism
  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Thomas Aquinas", a publication now in the public domain.

Frederick Charles Copleston, (April 10, 1907, Taunton, Somerset, England – February 3, 1994, London, England) was a Jesuit priest and writer on philosophy. ... The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Boland, Vivian (2007). St Thomas Aquinas: Continuum Library of Educational Thought. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8400-X. 

External links

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About Aquinas

Persondata
NAME Thomas Aquinas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Saint Thomas Aquinas (reverent form); Thomas of Aquin (alternate name); Aquino (alternate name); Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis (title)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Philosopher and theologian
DATE OF BIRTH 1225
PLACE OF BIRTH Castle of Roccasecca, near Aquino, Italy
DATE OF DEATH 7 March 1274
PLACE OF DEATH Fossanova Abbey, Lazio, Italy

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The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... The English historical school of economics, although not nearly as famous as its German counterpart, sought a return of inductive methods in economics, following the triumph of the deductive approach of David Ricardo in the early 19th century. ... The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... --Duk 06:58, 18 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of human-made institutions in shaping economic behavior. ... The Stockholm School, or Stockholmsskolan, is a school of economic thought. ... Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought favoring free-market economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago in the middle of the 20th century. ... Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Microfinance is a term for the practice of providing financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance to poor people. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... It has been suggested that Economic schools of thought be merged into this article or section. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... J. Scotus Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Born in Spain on 883CE/269, ابن مسره or Ibn Massarah was a famous Islamic Philosopher who lived in a severely rigid era that made him to present his ideas secretly just to a few student. ... ابوالحسن عامرى Al-Amiri, an Iranian philosopher, who spent most of his life in Eastern provinces of Iran & died in Neyshaboor 992/381, was the most prominent muslim philosopher following the tradition of Al-Kindi in Islamic Philosophy. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... The Brethren of Purity (اخوان الصفا; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) were an obscure and mysterious organization of neo-Platonic Arabic philosophers in Basra, Iraq (then seat of the Abbasid Caliphate) sometime during the 900s CE. They are remembered primarily because of a work they produced- the Encyclopedia of the Brethren... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Roscellinus (~1050 - ~1122), often called the founder of Nominalism (see Scholasticism), was born at Compigne (Compendium). ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Bernard of Chartres (Bernardus Carnotensis) (d. ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Gilbert de la Porrée, frequently known as Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictavieiisis (1070 - September 4, 1154), scholastic logician and theologian, was born at Poitiers. ... Hugh of St Victor (c. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... Richard of St. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis) (c. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... (1200–1265) was a Persian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician from Abhar. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini ( died 1283 CE), was a Persian physician from Qazvin. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Ramon Llull. ... Godfrey of Fontaines was a scholastic philosopher and theologian; born near Liège, within the first half of the thirteenth century, he became a canon of his native diocese, and also of Paris and Cologne, and was elected, in 1300, to the See of Tournai, which he declined. ... Henry of Ghent (c. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... Giles of Rome (Latin Ægidius Romanus) (circa 1243-1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme: Miniature of Nicole Oresmes Traité de l’espere, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France, fonds français 565, fol. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... Basilius Bessarion Basilius Bessarion (in Greek Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων) (January 2, 1403 – November 18, 1472), mistakenly known also as Johannes Bessarion due to an erroneous interpretation of Gregory Mamme, a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Basil (ca. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... St. ... Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church ( 315 - 386). ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or , Latin: ) (c. ... Saint Peter Chrysologus (Latin for golden word) (406–450) was the Archbishop of Ravenna from 433 to his death. ... Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... Petrus Damiani (Saint Peter Damian, also Pietro Damiani or Pier Damiani -- c. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... Saint Alphonsus Liguori (27 September 1696 – 1 August 1787) founded the Roman Catholic order, the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer popularly known as the Redemptorists. ... Saint Francis de Sales (in French, St François de Sales) (21 August 1567 - 28 December 1622) was bishop of Geneva and Roman Catholic saint. ... Saint Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Switzerland. ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the... This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... For others known as Saint Anthony, see Saint Anthony (disambiguation). ... Saint Lawrence of Brindisi (July 22, 1559 – July 22, 1619), born Julio Cesare Rossi, was a Roman Catholic monk, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, Capuchin. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Saint Catherine of Siena, O.P. (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Tertiary (a lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order, and a scholastic philosopher and theologian. ... For other women with similar names, see Saint Teresa Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy... Catholic Church redirects here. ... See also: History of the Papacy The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... Religions Christianity Scriptures Bible Languages Vernacular: Lebanese Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic Liturgical: Syriac Maronites (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maron in the early 5th century. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is one of the Byzantine Rite sui juris churches of the Catholic Communion. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... The Chaldean Catholic Church or the Chaldean Church of Babylon (Arabic: ‎, ) is an Eastern particular church of the Roman Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... The Anglican Use is an adaptation or usage of the liturgy of the Catholic Roman Rite that is used by some formerly Anglican ecclesial communities that submitted to the authority of the Roman Pontiff. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Confirmation, known also as Chrismation (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1289), is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Roman Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance (commonly called Confession, Reconciliation or Penance) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may be freed from sins committed after receiving Baptism. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... (Gospel of Matthew 19:6) Matrimony, The Seven Sacraments, Rogier van der Weyden, ca. ... View of the historical center of Roccasecca. ... Aquino is a small town in the south-central Italian province of Frosinone, in the Lazio region. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Fossanova Abbey, earlier Fossa Nuova, is a Cistercian monastery in Italy, in the province of Rome, near the railway-station of Priverno, 64 miles south-east of Rome. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thomas Aquinas, Saint. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (1081 words)
Thomas came of the ruling family of Aquino, was educated as a child at Monte Cassino, and later studied at Naples.
In art St. Thomas is usually associated with a sacramental cup (representing his devotion to the sacrament) or a dove (representing the inspiration of the Holy Spirit) or depicted with a sun on his breast.
According to the position of Thomas, which is known as moderate realism, the form or the universal may be said to exist in three ways: in God, in things, and in the mind (see universals).
Thomas Aquinas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2913 words)
According to his earliest biographers, the family even brought a prostitute to tempt him, but he drove her away (allegedly by reaching into the fire and chasing her out of the room with a firebrand, then slamming the door and using the firebrand to mark a cross on the door).
It is remarkable that Thomas' aesthetic theories, especially the concept of claritas deeply influenced the literary practice of modernist writer James Joyce, who used to extol Thomas as the greatest Western philosopher.
The influence of Thomas' aesthetics can be also found in the works of the Italian semiotician Umberto Eco, who wrote an essay on aesthetic ideas in Thomas Aquinas (published in 1956 and republished in 1988 in a revised edition).
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