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Encyclopedia > Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War

Map of Europe in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia. The grey area represents small German states within the Holy Roman Empire.
Date 1618 – 1648
Location Europe (primarily Germany)
Result Peace of Westphalia
Combatants
Flag of Sweden Sweden

Flag of Bohemia Bohemia
Flag of Denmark Denmark-Norway[1]
Flag of the Netherlands Dutch Republic
Flag of France France
Flag of Scotland Scotland
Flag of England England
Flag of Saxony Saxony Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1900x1378, 181 KB) Summary Map of Europe in 1648 (at the end of the Thirty Years War), based on free map of europe Image:BlankMap-Europe. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohemia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Flag of Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire

Flag of Spain Spain
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Catholic League (German: ) was a confederation of Catholic German states formed in order to counteract the Protestant Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ...

Commanders
Flag of Bohemia Frederick V

Flag of England Buckingham
Flag of Sweden Leven
Flag of Sweden Gustav II Adolf 
Flag of Sweden Johan Baner
Flag of France Cardinal Richelieu
Flag of France Louis II de Bourbon
Flag of France Vicomte de Turenne
Flag of Denmark Christian IV of Denmark
Flag of Saxony Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Flag of Saxony Johann Georg I of Saxony Image File history File links Flag_of_Bohemia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Johan Banér (June 23, 1596 - May 10, 1641) was a Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years War. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Image File history File links Pavillon_royal_de_France. ... Turenne Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 – July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604 - July 18, 1639), a celebrated general in the Thirty Years War, was the eleventh son of John, duke of Saxe-Weimar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... John George I, Elector of Saxony (5 March 1585 - 8 October 1656) was Prince-Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656. ...

Flag of Holy Roman Empire Johann Tzerclaes, count of Tilly 

Flag of Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Flag of Spain Count-Duke Olivares
Flag of Spain Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Flag of Bavaria Maximilian I Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Bronze statue of Count Tilly in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Nivelles,February 1559 - Ingolstadt, April 30, 1632) was a General (Field Marshal) who commanded the Imperial and Holy Roman Empires forces in the Thirty Years War... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...   (also Waldstein; Czech: ;[1] September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634)[2] was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years War to Ferdinand II for no charge except the right to plunder... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Redirect Gaspar de Guzmán, conde de Olivares ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/16101 in Escorial near Madrid, Spain - 9 November 1641 in Brussels) (also known as Fernando and as Ferdinand von Österreich), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Cardinal, Infante of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo (1619-41), and commander during the Thirty Years War... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Strength
~495,000,
150,000 Swedes,
20,000 Danish,
75,000 Dutch,
~100,000 Germans,
150,000 French
~450,000,
300,000 Spanish,
~100-200,000 Germans

The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European continental powers. Although it was ostensibly a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the rivalry between the Habsburg dynasty and other powers was a more central motive, as shown by the fact that Catholic France under the de facto rule of Cardinal Richelieu supported the Protestant side in order to weaken the Habsburgs, thereby furthering France's position as the pre-eminent European power. This increased the France-Habsburg rivalry which led later to direct war between France and Spain. The Siege of Plzeň or Battle of Pilsen was a siege of the fortified city of Plzeň in Bohemia carried out by the forces of the Bohemian Protestants led by Ernst von Mansfeld. ... The Battle of Záblatí, in some sources also battle of Sablat, occurred on 10 June 1619 during the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of VÄ›stonice, or Battle of Wisternitz, was fought on August 5, 1619 between a Bohemian force and an Austrian army under Dampierre. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... The Battle of Wiesloch was fought on April 27, 1622, near the German village of Wiesloch, south of Heidelberg, between a Protestant army under Count von Mansfeld and the margrave of Baden against a Catholic army under count Tilly. ... Combatants Protestants Holy Roman Empire, Catholic League Commanders Friedrich of Baden Count of Tilly, Gonzales de Córdoba Strength 14000 app. ... The Battle of Höchst was fought on June 22, 1622 between Catholics and Protestants. ... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Graf von Mansfeld, Christian of Brunswick Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba While an allied Catholic army of Spanish and Bavarian troops prepared to fully occupy the Palatinate, a second Spanish army under the command of Ambrosio Spinola besieged the town of Bergen op Zoom... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Christian of Brunswick Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly Strength 15000 app. ... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Count Ernst von Mansfeld General Albrecht von Wallenstein Strength 12,000 20,000 Casualties 4,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown With the entrance of King Christian IV of Denmark into the Thirty Years War in 1625, Protestant forces that had been dealt one defeat... The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years War on 27th August 1626 between the forces of the Protestant Christian IV of Denmark and those of the Catholic League. ... Combatants Scotland Sweden Holy Roman Empire Commanders Unknown Albrecht von Wallenstein The Battle of Stralsund was a battle of the Thirty Years War, fought starting July 5, 1628 between the Holy Roman Empire and an alliance of the Swedes, Scots, and the inhabitants of Stralsund. ... The Battle of Wolgast was fought on August 12, 1628 in Wolgast, Germany. ... During the Thirty Years War the city of Magdeburg was besieged by the Holy Roman Empires Imperial Army from November 1630 to 20 May 1631 in the Sack of Magdeburg. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... On April 15, 1632, Swedish troops (40. ... The Battle of the Alte Veste was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Combatants Sweden Saxony Holy Roman Empire Spain Commanders Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Gustav Horn Cardinal-Infante of Spain Ferdinand of Hungary Matthias Gallas Strength 16,300 infantry 9,300 cavalry 54 guns 20,000 infantry 13,000 cavalry 32 guns Casualties 13,000–15,000 dead or wounded 3,500... The Holy Roman Emperor in Vienna, with his Saxon and Catholic allies, was contesting Northern Germany with the Protestant princes, championed by the Swedes. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Jean François de La Guiche Francisco de Melo Strength 7,000 infantry 3,000 cavalry 10 guns 13,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 20 guns Casualties 3,200 dead 500 wounded 3,400 captured 500 dead or wounded The Battle of Honnecourt was a battle... Combatants  Sweden  Holy Roman Empire Commanders Lennart Torstenson Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, Ottavio Piccolomini Strength 15,000 20,000 - 25,000 46 guns Casualties 4,000 killed and wounded 15,000 killed and wounded 5,000 prisoners The Second Battle of Breitenfeld (October 23, 1642), also known as the... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc dEnghien Francisco de Melo Count of Fuentes † Strength 16,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 14 guns 15,000 infantry 5,000 cavalry 18 guns Casualties 2,000 dead 2,000 wounded[1] 7,500 dead, 7,000 captured and 6, 500 wounded[2] The... The Battle of Tuttlingen was fought in Tuttlingen on November 24, 1213. ... The Battle of Freiburg, also called the Three Day Battle, took place on August 3, August 5 and August 9, 1644 as part of the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Jüterbog was fought in November of 1644 between Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Battle of Jankov (or Jankau) was fought by the Swedish army some 50 km SSE of Prague on February 23, 1645 during the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Herbsthausen, or the Battle of Mergentheim according to Clausewitz, was fought in Herbsthausen (near Mergentheim) on May 2, 1645. ... This article is about the second Battle of Nördlingen fought in 1645 in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of Zusmarshausen was fought on May 7, 1648 between the Holy Roman Empire and an alliance of France and Sweden. ... Combatants France with Swedish contingent Spain Commanders Prince de Condé Leopold Wilhelm Strength 16,000 18 guns 18,000 38 guns Casualties Unknown 3,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Cond... The last action of the Thirty Years War. ... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The term France-Habsburg rivalry (German: ) describes the rivalry between the House of Habsburg, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire as well as Spain, and the kingdom of France, lasting from 1516 until 1756. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


The major impact of the Thirty Years' War, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. Episodes of widespread famine and disease (a starving body has little resistance to illnesses) devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. The war may have lasted for 30 years, but the conflicts that triggered it continued unresolved for a much longer time. The war ended with the Treaty of Münster, a part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 Known also as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, The Peace of Westphalia is the series... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ...


During the war, Germany's population was reduced by 30% on average; in the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. Germany’s male population was reduced by almost half. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. The Swedish armies alone destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns.[2][3][4] For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ...

Contents

Origins of the War

The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Lutherans and the Catholics in Germany. The front page of the document. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... The first Diet of Speyer was the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in the city of Speyer, Germany. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


It stated that:

  • German princes (numbering 225) could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their conscience (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio).
  • Lutherans living in an ecclesiastical state (under the control of a bishop) could continue to practice their faith.
  • Lutherans could keep the territory that they had captured from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552.
  • The ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church (bishops) that had converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories (the principle called reservatum ecclesiasticum).
  • Those occupying a state that had officially chosen either Protestantism or Catholicism could not practice a religion differing from that of the state.

Although the Peace created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not solve the underlying basis of the religious conflict. Both parties interpreted it at their convenience, the Lutherans in particular considering it only a momentary agreement[citation needed]. In addition, Calvinism spread quickly throughout Germany in the years that followed, adding a third major faith to the region, but its position was not supported in any way by the Augsburg terms, which permitted only Catholicism and Lutheranism. Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... An ecclesiastical province is a unit of religious government existing in certain Christian churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


Political and economic tensions developed among many of the nations of Europe in the early 17th century as the Age of Discovery had opened access to New World resources, and new theories such as Mercantilism, Colonialism and Imperialism took hold amongst political elites, whilst the early stirrings of nationalism began to take hold in this era. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Mercantile redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ...

  • Spain was interested in the German states because it held the territories of the Spanish Netherlands on the western border of the German states and states within Italy which connected by land through the Spanish Road. The Dutch revolted against the Spanish domination during the 1560s, leading to a protracted war of independence that led to a truce only in 1609.
  • France was threatened by two surrounding Habsburg states (Spain and the Holy Roman Empire), and was eager to exert its power against the weaker German states; this dynastic concern overtook religious ones and led to Catholic France's participation on the otherwise Protestant side of the war.
  • Sweden and Denmark were interested in gaining control over northern German states bordering the Baltic Sea.

The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and portions of neighbouring lands, was a fragmented collection of independent states with the Holy Roman Emperor as head of a confederation of princes. One of these, the Austrian House of Habsburg (including also Bohemia and Hungary), was a major European power, ruling over some eight million subjects. The Empire also contained several regional powers, such as Bavaria, Electoral Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Palatinate, Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier and Württemberg (containing from 500,000 to one million inhabitants). A vast number of minor independent duchies, free cities, abbeys, bishoprics, and petty lords (whose authority sometimes extended to no more than a single village) rounded out the Empire. Apart from Austria and perhaps Bavaria, none of those entities was capable of national-level politics; alliances between family-related states were common, due partly to the frequent practice of splitting a lord's inheritance among the various sons. This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... The Spanish road was an important land and trade route connecting the Hapsburgs possessions in the Low Countries through the Germanies via Thuringia across the Hartz mountains in the Thuringerwald, through the lower Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), in the ancient territory of Franconia through the Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz), in... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Saxony. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Capital Kassel, Marburg Government Monarchy Landgrave  - 1264 – 1308 Henry I the Child  - 1509 – 1567 Philip I the Magnanimous Historical era Middle Ages, Reformation  - Established 1264  - Disestablished 1567 The Landgraviate of Hesse (German: ) was a Landgraviate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1264 to 1567 when it was divided between the... The Archbishopric of Trier was one of the important ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ...

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. He urged the Council of Trent to approve Communion in Both kinds for German and Bohemian Catholics.

Religious tensions remained strong throughout the second half of the 16th century. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel as some converted bishops refused to give up their bishoprics, and as certain Catholic rulers in Spain and Eastern Europe sought to restore the power of Catholicism in the region. This was evident from the Cologne War (1582–83 onwards), a conflict initiated when the prince-archbishop of the city converted to Calvinism. Being an imperial elector, this could have produced a Protestant majority in the College that elected the Holy Roman Emperor – a position that had always been held by a Catholic. In the Cologne War, Spanish troops expelled the prince-archbishop and replaced him with Ernst of Bavaria, a Catholic. After this success, the Catholics regained pace, and the principle of cuius regio eius religio began to be exerted more strictly in Bavaria, Würzburg and other states. This forced Lutheran residents to choose between conversion or exile. Lutherans also witnessed the defection of the lords of Palatinate (1560), Nassau (1578), Hesse-Kassel (1603) and Brandenburg (1613) to the new Calvinist faith. Thus at the beginning of the 17th century the Rhine lands and those south to the Danube were largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in certain other areas, such as west-central Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands. However, minorities of each creed existed almost everywhere. In some lordships and cities the number of Calvinists, Catholics, and Lutherans were approximately equal. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Zem&#283; koruny &#269;eské, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Würzburg Residenz. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ...


Much to the consternation of their Spanish ruling cousins,[citation needed] the Habsburg emperors who followed Charles V (especially Ferdinand I and Maximilian II, but also Rudolf II, and his successor Matthias) were supportive of their subjects' religious choices. These rulers avoided religious wars within the empire by allowing the different Christian faiths to spread without coercion. This angered those who sought religious uniformity. Meanwhile, Sweden and Denmark, both Lutheran kingdoms, sought to assist the Protestant cause in the Empire, and also wanted to gain political and economic influence there as well. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617. ...

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia. His firm Catholicism was the proximate cause of the war.
Frederick V, Elector Palatine as King of Bohemia, painted by Gerrit von Honthorst in 1634, two years after the subject's death.

Religious tensions broke into violence in the German free city of Donauwörth in 1606. There, the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents of the Swabian town from holding a procession, which provoked a riot. This prompted foreign intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (1573–1651) on behalf of the Catholics. After the violence ceased, Calvinists in Germany (who remained a minority) felt the most threatened. They banded together and formed the League of Evangelical Union in 1608, under the leadership of the Palatine elector Frederick IV (1583–1610), (whose son, Frederick V, married Elizabeth Stuart, the daughter of James I of England). Incidentally, the Prince-Elector had control of the Rhenish Palatinate, a state along the Rhine that Spain sought to acquire. The establishment of the League prompted the Catholics into banding together to form the Catholic League in 1609, under the leadership of the Duke Maximilian. Download high resolution version (348x641, 43 KB)Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II with his court midget [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (348x641, 43 KB)Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II with his court midget [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Zem&#283; koruny &#269;eské, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1424, 232 KB) Description Painting depicting Frederick V, Elector Palatine (1596 - 1632) as King of Bohemia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1424, 232 KB) Description Painting depicting Frederick V, Elector Palatine (1596 - 1632) as King of Bohemia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gerard van Honthorst (1590 - 1656), also known as Gerrit van Honthorst and Gherardo della Notte, was a Dutch painter of Utrecht. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Known as Nordschwabens freundliche Mitte (North Swabias Friendly Center), Donauwörth is a city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland). ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Germany, showing modern borders. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union was a coalition of Protestant German states that formed in the 1600s. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire &#8212; German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) &#8212; were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There are many different people who may be referred to as Frederick V or Friedrich V. They are listed here in chronological order: Friedrich V, Burggraf of Hohenzollern-Nürnberg (before 1333 - 1398) Friedrich V, Count of Leiningen (died 1327) Friedrich V of Castell, (fl. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... The Catholic League (German: ) was a confederation of Catholic German states formed in order to counteract the Protestant Union. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ...


By 1617 it was apparent that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir, with his lands going to his nearest male relative, his cousin Ferdinand of Styria. Ferdinand became King of Bohemia and Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1619 when Matthias died. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. This made him highly unpopular in primarily Hussite Bohemia. The rejection of Ferdinand, who had been elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617, triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618 when his representatives were defenestrated in Prague. The War can be divided into four major phases: Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Štajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ...

Phases

The Bohemian Revolt

Period: 16181625 For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Without descendants Emperor Matthias sought to assure an orderly transition during his lifetime by having his dynastic heir (the fiercely Catholic, Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) elected to the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary. Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared they would be losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his letter of majesty. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the League of Evangelical Union). However, other Protestants supported the position taken by the Catholics and so in 1617 Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the Crown Prince, and automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia. The king-elect then sent two Catholic councilors (Wilhelm Slavata von Chlum und Koschumberg and Jaroslav Borsita von Martinitz) as his representatives to Hradčany castle in Prague in May 1618. Ferdinand had wanted them to administer the government in his absence. According to legend, the Bohemian Hussites suddenly seized them, subjected them to a mock trial, and threw them out of the palace window, which was some 50 feet off the ground. Remarkably, they survived unharmed. The Catholic version of the story claims that angels appeared and carried them to safety, while the Protestant version says that they landed in a pile of manure, which saved their lives[citation needed]. Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias (February 24, 1557 - March 20, 1619) of the House of Habsburg reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1612-1619, as King of Hungary from 1608-1619 (as Matthias II), and as King of Bohemia from 1611-1617. ... “Styria” redirects here. ... Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union was a coalition of Protestant German states that formed in the 1600s. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Vilem Slavata of Chlum (1572 &#8211; 1652), writer of an important History about the Thirty Years War. ... Jaroslav BoÅ™ita z Martinic (IPA: ; Jaroslav Borsita von Martinic/Martinitz in German) was a Czech nobleman and a representative of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor who was involved, along with Wilhelm Grav Slavata, in the 1618 Defenestration of Prague (also known as The Second Defenestration of Prague). ... Hradčany from the Petřín Tower Hradčany (   listen[?]), the Castle District, is the Prague district surrounding the Prague Castle. ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


This event, known as the Second Defenestration of Prague, is what started the Bohemian Revolt. Soon afterward the Bohemian conflict spread through all of Greater Bohemia, which was effectively Bohemia, Silesia, Lusatia and Moravia. Moravia was already embroiled in a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The religious conflict eventually spread across the whole continent of Europe, involving France, Sweden, and a number of other countries. The Defenestrations of Prague can refer to either of two incidents in the history of Bohemia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Lusatia (German: , Upper Sorbian: , Lower Sorbian: , Polish: , Czech: ) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Had the Bohemian rebellion remained a local conflict, the war could have been over in fewer than thirty months. However, the death of Emperor Matthias emboldened the rebellious Protestant leaders, who had been on the verge of a settlement. The weaknesses of both Ferdinand (now officially on the throne after the death of Emperor Matthias) and of the Bohemians themselves led to the spread of the war to western Germany. Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for assistance. Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


The Bohemians, desperate for allies against the Emperor, applied to be admitted into the Protestant Union, which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The Bohemians hinted that Frederick would become King of Bohemia if he allowed them to join the Union and come under its protection. However, similar offers were made by other members of the Bohemian Estates to the Duke of Savoy, the Elector of Saxony, and the Prince of Transylvania. The Austrians, who seemed to have intercepted every letter leaving Prague, made these duplicities public[citation needed]. This unraveled much of the support for the Bohemians, particularly in the court of Saxony. The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union or Union of Auhausen was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed in 1608 to defend the rights, lands and person of each member. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles Emmanuel I (b. ... John George I (5 March 1585 - 8 October 1656), elector of Saxony, second son of the elector Christian I. He succeeded to the electorate in June 1611 on the death of his elder brother, Christian II. The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the... Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania (1580-1629) Gabriel (Gabor) Bethlen (Hungarian: Bethlen Gábor, Slovak: Gabriel Betlen) (1580-1629), prince of Transylvania (1613-1629) and leader of a anti-Habsburg insurrection in the Habsburg Royal Hungary on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ...


The rebellion initially favoured the Bohemians. They were joined in the revolt by much of Upper Austria, whose nobility was then chiefly Lutheran and Calvinist. Lower Austria revolted soon after and in 1619, Count Thurn led an army to the walls of Vienna itself. In the east, the Protestant Prince of Transylvania led a spirited campaign into Hungary with the support of the Ottoman Sultan. The Emperor, who had been preoccupied with the Uzkok War, hurried to reform an army to stop the Bohemians and their allies from entirely overwhelming his country. Count Bucquoy, the commander of the Imperial army, defeated the forces of the Protestant Union led by Count Mansfeld at the Battle of Sablat, on 10 June 1619. This cut off Count Thurn's communications with Prague, and he was forced to abandon his siege of Vienna. The Battle of Sablat also cost the Protestants an important ally—Savoy, long an opponent of Habsburg expansion. Savoy had already sent considerable sums of money to the Protestants and even sent troops to garrison fortresses in the Rhineland. The capture of Mansfeld's field chancery revealed the Savoyards' plot and they were forced to bow out of the war. Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... The Uzkok War was fought between the Austrians and Spanish on one side and the Venetians, Dutch and English on the other. ... Karel Bonaventura Buquoy (1571 - 1621) was a military commander of French ancestry who fought for the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years War. ... The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union or Union of Auhausen was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed in 1608 to defend the rights, lands and person of each member. ... The Battle of Sablat, also called the battle of Záblatí in Czech, occurred on 10 June 1619 during the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years War. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...


In spite of Sablat, Count Thurn's army continued to exist as an effective force, and Mansfeld managed to reform his army further north in Bohemia. The Estates of Upper and Lower Austria, still in revolt, signed an alliance with the Bohemians in early August. On August 17 1619 Ferdinand was officially deposed as King of Bohemia and was replaced by the Palatine Elector Frederick V. In Hungary, even though the Bohemians had reneged on their offer of their crown, the Transylvanians continued to make surprising progress. They succeeded in driving the Emperor's armies from that country by 1620. Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ...

Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Bavarian and Imperial armies.
Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Bavarian and Imperial armies.

The Spanish sent an army from Brussels under Ambrosio Spinola and the dashing Nelson Antonio Fernandez III to support the Emperor. In addition, the Spanish ambassador to Vienna, Don Iñigo Vélez de Oñate, persuaded Protestant Saxony to intervene against Bohemia in exchange for control over Lusatia. The Saxons invaded, and the Spanish army in the west prevented the Protestant Union's forces from assisting. Onate conspired to transfer the electoral title from the Palatinate to the Duke of Bavaria in exchange for his support and that of the Catholic League. Under the command of General Tilly, the Catholic League's army (which included René Descartes in its ranks) pacified Upper Austria, while the Emperor's forces pacified Lower Austria. The two armies united and moved north into Bohemia. Ferdinand II decisively defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, on 8 November 1620. In addition to becoming Catholic, Bohemia would remain in Habsburg hands for nearly three hundred years. Catholic General Tilly of Thirty Years War fame, from the Swedish Wikipedia. ... Catholic General Tilly of Thirty Years War fame, from the Swedish Wikipedia. ... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly (February, 1559 – April 30, 1632) was a general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War, upon whom Ferdinand II depended (since Wallenstein was a threat). ... Ambrosio Spinola Doria, marqués de los Balbases (1569 - September 25, 1650), Spanish general, was born in Genoa in 1569. ... Íñigo Vélez de Guevara Íñigo Vélez de Guevara, seventh Count of Oñate and Count of Villamediana (1566 - Madrid October 31, 1644) was a Spanish political figure. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly (February, 1559 - April 30, 1632) was a general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War, who Ferdinand II depended upon (since Wallenstein was a threat). ... Descartes redirects here. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This defeat led to the dissolution of the League of Evangelical Union and the loss of Frederick V's holdings. Frederick was outlawed from the Holy Roman Empire and his territories, the Rhenish Palatinate, were given to Catholic nobles. His title of elector of the Palatinate was given to his distant cousin Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Frederick, now landless, made himself a prominent exile abroad and tried to curry support for his cause in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden. The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union was a coalition of Protestant German states that formed in the 1600s. ...


This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. As the rebellion collapsed, the widespread confiscations of property and suppression of the Bohemian nobility ensured that the country would return to the Catholic side after more than two centuries of Hussite and other religious dissent. The Spanish, seeking to outflank the Dutch in preparation for renewal of the Eighty Years' War, took Frederick's lands, the Rhine Palatinate. The first phase of the war in eastern Germany ended December 31, 1621, when the Prince of Transylvania and the Emperor signed the Peace of Nikolsburg, which gave Transylvania a number of territories in Royal Hungary. The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of the reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415), who was influenced by John Wyclif and became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Peace of Nikolsburg or Peace of Mikulov was signed on December 31, 1621 in Nikolsburg, Moravia (now Mikulov in the Czech Republic). ... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ...


Some historians regard the period from 1621–1625 as a distinct portion of the Thirty Years' War, calling it the "Palatinate phase." With the catastrophic defeat of the Protestant army at White Mountain and the departure of the Prince of Transylvania, greater Bohemia was pacified. However, the war in the Palatinate continued. This phase of the war consisted of much smaller battles, mostly sieges conducted by the Spanish army. Mannheim and Heidelberg fell in 1622, and Frankenthal was taken in 1623, leaving the Palatinate in the hands of the Spanish. Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... Political status Country: Germany Federal state: Rhineland-Palatinate Region: Rhine Neckar Area District: Independent municipality Facts Population: 47,564 (December 2003) Area: 43. ...


The remnants of the Protestant armies, led by Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick, fled to Holland. Although their arrival did help to lift the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom, the Dutch could not provide permanent shelter for them. They were paid off and sent to occupy neighboring East Friesland. Mansfeld remained in Holland, but Christian wandered off to "assist" his kin in the Lower Saxon Circle, attracting the attentions of Tilly. With the news that Mansfeld would not be supporting him, Christian's army began a steady retreat toward the safety of the Dutch border. On August 6, 1623, Tilly's more disciplined army caught up with them 10 miles short of the Dutch border. The battle that ensued was known as the Battle of Stadtlohn. In this battle Tilly decisively defeated Christian, wiping out over four-fifths of his army, which had been some 15,000 strong. After this catastrophe, Frederick V, already in exile in The Hague, and under growing pressure from his father-in-law James I to end his involvement in the war, was forced to abandon any hope of launching further campaigns. The Protestant rebellion had been crushed. Brief Summary Younger brother of the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. ... Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Christian of Brunswick Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly Strength 15000 app. ...

King Christian IV of Denmark. General of the Lutheran army.
King Christian IV of Denmark. General of the Lutheran army.

Image File history File links Christian IV of Denmark from sv:Wikipedia From the Swedish Wikipedia: sv:Bild:Kristian IV av Danmark, målning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616. ... Image File history File links Christian IV of Denmark from sv:Wikipedia From the Swedish Wikipedia: sv:Bild:Kristian IV av Danmark, målning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616. ... The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ...

Danish intervention

Period: 16251629 Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ...


Peace in the Empire was short-lived, however, as conflict resumed at the initiation of Denmark. Danish involvement began when Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran who was also the Duke of Holstein, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighboring Lower Saxony by leading an army against the Holy Roman Empire. Denmark had feared that its sovereignty as a Protestant nation was threatened by the recent Catholic successes. Christian IV had also profited greatly from his policies in northern Germany. For instance, in 1621 Hamburg had been forced to accept Danish sovereignty and Christian's second son was made bishop of Bremen. Christian IV had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. This stability and wealth was paid for by tolls on the Oresund and also by extensive war reparations from Sweden. Denmark's cause was aided by France which, together with England, had agreed to help subsidize the war. Christian had himself appointed war leader of the Lower Saxon Circle and raised a mercenary army of 20,000 men. The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Denmark (red) / south Sweden (yellow), connected with the Oresund Bridge. ...

Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein.
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein.

To fight him, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his countrymen. Wallenstein pledged his army, which numbered between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers, to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories. Christian, who knew nothing of Wallenstein's forces when he invaded, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Wallenstein and Tilly. Christian's poor luck was with him again when all of the allies he thought he had were forced aside: England was weak and internally divided, France was in the midst of a civil war, Sweden was at war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and neither Brandenburg nor Saxony were interested in changes to the tenuous peace in eastern Germany. Wallenstein defeated Mansfeld's army at the Battle of Dessau Bridge (1626) and General Tilly defeated the Danes at the Battle of Lutter (1626). Mansfeld died some months later of illness, in Dalmatia, exhausted and ashamed that this one battle had cost him half his army. Image File history File links Albrecht_Wallenstein. ... Image File history File links Albrecht_Wallenstein. ...   (also Waldstein; Czech: ;[1] September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634)[2] was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years War to Ferdinand II for no charge except the right to plunder...   (also Waldstein; Czech: ;[1] September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634)[2] was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years War to Ferdinand II for no charge except the right to plunder... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Count Ernst von Mansfeld General Albrecht von Wallenstein Strength 12,000 20,000 Casualties 4,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown With the entrance of King Christian IV of Denmark into the Thirty Years War in 1625, Protestant forces that had been dealt one defeat... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years War on 27th August 1626 between the forces of the Protestant Christian IV of Denmark and those of the Catholic League. ...


Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and ultimately Jutland itself. However, he was unable to take the Danish capital on the island of Zealand. Wallenstein lacked a fleet, and neither the Hanseatic ports nor the Poles would allow an Imperial fleet to be built on the Baltic coast. He then laid siege to Stralsund, the only belligerent Baltic port with the facilities to build a large fleet. However, the cost of continuing the war was exorbitant compared to what could possibly be gained from conquering the rest of Denmark, and so Wallenstein decided to make peace. The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...


Negotiations were concluded with the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which stated that Christian IV could keep his control over Denmark if he would abandon his support for the Protestant German states. Thus, in the following two years more land was subjugated by the Catholic powers. The Treaty of Lübeck was signed on May 22, 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland, and King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ...


At this point, the Catholic League persuaded Ferdinand II to take back the Lutheran holdings that were, according to the Peace of Augsburg, rightfully the possession of the Catholic Church. Enumerated in the Edict of Restitution (1629), these possessions included two Archbishoprics, sixteen bishoprics, and hundreds of monasteries. The same year, Mansfeld and Gabriel Bethlen, the first officers of the Protestant cause, died. Only the port of Stralsund continued to hold out against Wallenstein and the Emperor. This article needs cleanup. ...


Swedish intervention

A model of a section of a pike and shot formation from the Thirty Years' War on display at the Army Museum in Stockholm.
A model of a section of a pike and shot formation from the Thirty Years' War on display at the Army Museum in Stockholm.

Period: 16301635 from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... A 16th century pamphlet showing a mixed pike and shot formation. ... The Swedish Army Museum (Swedish: ) is a museum of military history located in the district of Östermalm in Stockholm. ... Gustavuss victory at Breitenfeld from [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Gustavuss victory at Breitenfeld from [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ...


Some within Ferdinand II's court distrusted Wallenstein, believing that he sought to join forces with the German Princes and thus gain influence over the Emperor. Ferdinand II dismissed Wallenstein in 1630. He was to later recall him after the Swedes, led by King Gustaf II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus), had invaded the Empire with success. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ...


Gustavus Adolphus, like Christian IV before him, came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic aggression against their homeland, and to obtain economic influence in the German states around the Baltic Sea. In addition, Gustavus was concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire. Like Christian IV, Gustavus Adolphus was subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back and regained much of the occupied Protestant lands. Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement...


After dismissing Wallenstein in 1630, Ferdinand II became dependent on the Catholic League. France and Bavaria signed the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau (1631), but this was rendered irrelevant by Swedish attacks against Bavaria. At the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631), Gustavus Adolphus's forces defeated the Catholic League led by General Tilly. A year later they met again in another Protestant victory, this time accompanied by the death of Tilly. The upper hand had now switched from the league to the union, led by Sweden. In 1630, Sweden had paid at least 2,368,022 daler for its army at 42,000 men. In 1632, it paid only one-fifth of that (476,439 daler) for an army more than three times as large (149,000 men). This was possible due to economic aid from France, and the recruitment of prisoners (mainly from Breitenfeld) into the Swedish army. Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... The Treaty of Fontainebleau (German: ) was signed on May 30, 1631 between Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and the Kingdom of France. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... The daler or the Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... The daler or the Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7...


With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. Wallenstein marched up to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus's supply chain. Gustavus Adolphus knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared, but found no other option. Wallenstein and Gustavus Adolphus clashed in the Battle of Lützen (1632), where the Swedes prevailed, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed. In 1634 the Protestant forces, lacking his leadership, were defeated at the First Battle of Nördlingen. The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Combatants Sweden Saxony Holy Roman Empire Spain Commanders Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Gustav Horn Cardinal-Infante of Spain Ferdinand of Hungary Matthias Gallas Strength 16,300 infantry 9,300 cavalry 54 guns 20,000 infantry 13,000 cavalry 32 guns Casualties 13,000–15,000 dead or wounded 3,500...


Ferdinand II's suspicion of Wallenstein resumed in 1633, when Wallenstein attempted to arbitrate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant sides. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. One of Wallenstein's soldiers, Captain Devereux, killed him when he attempted to contact the Swedes in the town hall of Eger (Cheb) on February 25, 1634. Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Cheb (German: ( )) is a city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with 33,256 inhabitants. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement...


After that, the two sides met for negotiations, producing the Peace of Prague (1635), which entailed the following: The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant states of the Empire. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ...

  • A delay in the enforcement of the Edict of Restitution for 40 years and allowing Protestant rulers to retain secularized bishoprics held by them in 1627. This protected the Lutheran rulers of northeastern Germany, but not those of the south and west (whose lands had been occupied by the Imperial or League armies prior to 1627)
  • Union of the army of the Emperor and the armies of the German states into a single army of the Holy Roman Empire (although Johann Georg of Saxony and Maximillian of Bavaria kept, as a practical matter, independent command of their forces, now nominally components of the "Imperial" army).
  • The forbidding of German princes from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers.
  • The granting of amnesty to any ruler who had taken up arms against the Emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630.

This treaty failed to satisfy France, however, because of the renewed strength it granted the Habsburgs. France then entered the conflict, beginning the final period of the Thirty Years' War.


French intervention

The Battle of Lens, 1648.
The Battle of Lens, 1648.

Period: 16361648 The Battle of Lens. ... The Battle of Lens. ... Combatants France with Swedish contingent Spain Commanders Prince de Condé Leopold Wilhelm Strength 16,000 18 guns 18,000 38 guns Casualties Unknown 3,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Cond... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


France, though a largely Catholic country, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, and now entered the war on the Protestant side. Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of King Louis XIII of France, felt that the Habsburgs were still too powerful, since they held a number of territories on France's eastern border, including portions of the Netherlands. Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with the Protestants.
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with the Protestants.

France therefore allied itself with the Dutch and the Swedes. Spain, in retaliation, invaded French territory. The Imperial general Johann von Werth and Spanish commander Cardinal Ferdinand Habsburg ravaged the French provinces of Champagne and Burgundy and even threatened Paris in 1636 before being repulsed by Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. Bernhard's victory in the Battle of Compiègne pushed the Habsburg armies back towards the borders of France. Widespread fighting ensued, with neither side gaining an advantage. In 1642, Cardinal Richelieu died. A year later, Louis XIII died, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV on the throne. His chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, began to work for peace. ... ... Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... Count Johann von Werth (c. ... Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604 - July 18, 1639), a celebrated general in the Thirty Years War, was the eleventh son of John, duke of Saxe-Weimar. ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 &#8211; March 9, 1661) served as the France from 1642, until his death. ...


In 1645, the Swedish marshal Lennart Torstensson defeated the Imperial army at the Battle of Jankau near Prague, and Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé defeated the Bavarian army in the Second Battle of Nördlingen. The last talented commander of the Catholics, Baron Franz von Mercy, died in the battle. // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Count Lennart Torstenson (August 17, 1603 - April 7, 1651) was a Swedish soldier and the son of Torsten Lennartson, commandant of Älvsborg Fortress. ... The Battle of Jankau was fought by the Swedish army SSE of Prague in Bohemia (part of present-day Czech Republic) on February 23, 1645 during the Thirty Years War. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... This article is about the second Battle of Nördlingen fought in 1645 in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War. ... Franz Freiherr von Mercy (or Merci), lord of Mandre and Collenburg (d. ...


On March 14, 1647 Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. In 1648 the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne and Conde) defeated the Imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen and Lens. These results left only the Imperial territories of Austria safely in Habsburg hands. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... During the Thirty Years War, French and Swedish forces invaded Bavaria and forced the elector Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria to conclude the Truce of Ulm on March 14, 1647 and to renounce his alliance with the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. By the Autumn he broke the truce and... Carl Gustaf Wrangel Carl Gustaf Wrangel (December 23, 1613 - July 5, 1676) was a Swedish soldier. ... The Battle of Zusmarshausen was fought on May 7, 1648 between the Holy Roman Empire and an alliance of France and Sweden. ... Combatants France with Swedish contingent Spain Commanders Prince de Condé Leopold Wilhelm Strength 16,000 18 guns 18,000 38 guns Casualties Unknown 3,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Cond...


The Peace of Westphalia

Main article: Peace of Westphalia

French General Louis II de Bourbon, 4th Prince de Condé, Duc d'Enghien, The Great Condé defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in 1643, which led to negotiations. At them were Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch, the Swiss, the Swedes, the Portuguese and representatives of the Pope. The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 was the result. Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc dEnghien Francisco de Melo Count of Fuentes † Strength 16,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 14 guns 15,000 infantry 5,000 cavalry 18 guns Casualties 2,000 dead 2,000 wounded[1] 7,500 dead, 7,000 captured and 6, 500 wounded[2] The... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ...


Casualties and disease

Moncourt (chapelle), last vestige of a village.
Moncourt (chapelle), last vestige of a village.

The devastation caused by the war has long been a subject of controversy among historians. Estimates of civilian casualties of up to thirty percent of the population of Germany are now treated with caution. The mortality rate was perhaps closer to 15 to 20 percent, with deaths due to armed conflict, famine and disease.[citation needed] Much of the destruction of civilian lives and property was caused by the cruelty and greed of mercenary soldiers. It is certain that the war caused serious dislocation to both the economy and population of central Europe, but may have done no more than seriously exacerbate changes that had begun earlier. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1072 KB) The chapel of Moncourt, next to Clérey-la-Côte (France) from GODARD Florian Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1072 KB) The chapel of Moncourt, next to Clérey-la-Côte (France) from GODARD Florian Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


Pestilence of several kinds raged among combatants and civilians in Germany and surrounding lands from 1618 to 1648. Many features of the war spread disease. These included troop movements, the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, and the shifting locations of battle fronts. In addition, the displacement of civilian populations and the overcrowding of refugees into cities led to both disease and famine. Information about numerous epidemics is generally found in local chronicles, such as parish registers and tax records, that are often incomplete and may be exaggerated. The chronicles do show that epidemic disease was not a condition exclusive to war time, but was present in many parts of Germany for several decades prior to 1618. In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during...


However, when the Danish and imperial armies met in Saxony and Thuringia during 1625 and 1626, disease and infection in local communities increased. Local chronicles repeatedly referred to "head disease," "Hungarian disease," and a "spotted" disease identified as typhus. After the Mantuan War, between France and the Habsburgs in Italy, the northern half of the Italian peninsula was in the throes of a bubonic plague epidemic (see Italian Plague of 1629–1631). During the unsuccessful siege of Nuremberg, in 1632, civilians and soldiers in both the Swedish and imperial armies succumbed to typhus and scurvy. Two years later, as the imperial army pursued the defeated Swedes into southwest Germany, deaths from epidemics were high along the Rhine River. Bubonic plague continued to be a factor in the war. Beginning in 1634, Dresden, Munich, and smaller German communities such as Oberammergau recorded large number of plague casualties. In the last decades of the war, both typhus and dysentery had become endemic in Germany. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... The Italian Plague of 1629-1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague from 1629 through 1631 in northern Italy. ... The Siege of Nuremberg took place in 1632 during the Thirty Years War. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Oberammergau from the summit of Kofel Oberammergau is a village in Bavaria in Germany, most famous for its production of a passion play depicting the life and death of Jesus. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ...


Political consequences

One result of the war was the enshrinement of Germany divided among many territories -- all of which, despite their membership in the Empire, had de facto sovereignty. This significantly hampered the power of the Holy Roman Empire and decentralized German power. It has been speculated that this weakness was a long-term underlying cause of later militant German Romantic nationalism. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Thirty Years' War rearranged the previous structure of power. The conflict made Spain's military and political decline visible. While Spain was preoccupied with fighting in France, Portugal — which had been under personal union with Spain for 60 years (since 1580) — acclaimed John IV of Braganza as king in 1640, and the House of Braganza became the new dynasty of Portugal. Meanwhile, Spain was finally forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic in 1648, ending the Eighty Years' War. With Spain weakening, France became the dominant power in Europe, an outcome confirmed by its victory in the subsequent Franco-Spanish War. John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: João IV de Portugal pron. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... The Royal House of Braganza (Portuguese: Casa Real de Bragança, pron. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Combatants France Spain The Franco-Spanish War was a military conflict between France and Spain. ...


The defeat of Spain and imperial forces also marked the decline of Habsburg power and allowed the emergence of Bourbon dominance.


From 1643–45, during the last years of the Thirty Years' War, Sweden and Denmark fought the Torstenson War. The result of that conflict and the conclusion of the great European war at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 helped establish post-war Sweden as a force in Europe. The Hannibal war, Hannibal controversy or Torstenson War was a short period of conflict between Sweden and Denmark/Norway which occurred in 1643 to 1645 during the waning days of the Thirty Years’ War. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The edicts agreed upon during the signing of the Peace of Westphalia were instrumental in laying the foundations for what are even today considered the basic tenets of the sovereign nation-state. Aside from establishing fixed territorial boundaries for many of the countries involved in the ordeal (as well as for the newer ones created afterwards), the Peace of Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects to their rulers. In earlier times, people had tended to have overlapping political and religious loyalties. Now, it was agreed that the citizenry of a respective nation were subjected first and foremost to the laws and whims of their own respective government rather than to those of neighboring powers, be they religious or secular. Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ...


The war had a few other, more subtle consequences:

  • The Thirty Years' War marked the last major religious war in mainland Europe, ending large-scale religious bloodshed in 1648. There were other religious conflicts in the years to come, but no great wars.
  • The destruction caused by mercenary soldiers defied description (see Schwedentrunk). The war did much to end the age of mercenaries that had begun with the first landsknechts, and ushered in the age of well-disciplined national armies.

1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... The Schwedentrunk (English: ) is a particularly disgusting and humiliating method of torture and execution. ... Landsknechts (German, Land land, country + Knecht servant: i. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Thirty Years War

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... A religious war is a war where the main cause is, or appears to be, religion or religious differences. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination of the territory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw IV Waza, Krzysztof RadziwiÅ‚Å‚, Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski, Marcin Kazanowski, Samuel Drucki-SokoliÅ„ski Mikhail Borisovich Shein Strength ~25,000-30,000 ~25,000-35,000 Casualties unknown ~15,000 Polish-Russian Wars Kiev Expedition â€“ Muscovite-Lithuanian â€“ Livonian â€“ 1605–18... The Thirty Years War was a large conflict in early modern European history. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... This is a list of wars fought by Sweden between 1521 and 1814: The Swedish War of Liberation or Befrielsekriget (1521-1523) The Armstice of Gotland (1524) The Recess of Malmö (1524) The Danish Counts Feud or Danska Grevefejden (1534-1536) The Armstice of Copenhagen (1537) The Great Russian... List of Spanish wars 1568 - 1648 Eighty Years War 1585 - 1604 Anglo-Spanish War (1585) 1618 - 1648 Thirty Years War 1654 - 1660 Anglo-Spanish War (1654) 1667 - 1668 War of Devolution 1672 - 1678 Franco-Dutch War 1683 - 1684 War of the Reunions 1702 - 1713 War of the Spanish Succession 1718... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ...

References

  1. ^ 1625-1629. Aligned with the Catholic Powers 1643-1645.
  2. ^ Germany - The Thirty Years' War - The Peace of Westphalia
  3. ^ Population
  4. ^ The Thirty Years' War
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  • Benecke, G. Germany in the Thirty Years War (1978).
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  • Kamen, Henry. "The Economic and Social Consequences of the Thirty Years' War", Past and Present, No. 39. (Apr., 1968), pp. 44–61. in JSTOR
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1988).
  • Langer, Herbert. The Thirty Year's War. Poole, England: Blandford Press, 1980.
  • Murdoch, Steve; Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 Brill, 2001
  • Parker, Geoffrey. The Thirty Years' War. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984. recent scholarly synthesis
  • Polišenský, J.V. "The Thirty Years' War", Past and Present, No. 6. (Nov., 1954), pp. 31–43. in JSTOR
  • Polišenský, J.V. "The Thirty Years' War and the Crises and Revolutions of Seventeenth-Century Europe", Past and Present, No. 39. (Apr., 1968), pp. 34–43. in JSTOR
  • Prinzing, Friedrich. Epidemics Resulting from Wars, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1916.
  • Roberts, Michael. Gustavus Adolphus: A History of Sweden, 1611-1632 (2 vols, 1953, 1958).
  • A. W. Ward, ed. The Cambridge Modern History, vol 4: The Thirty Years War 1902. 1006 pp
  • Wedgwood, C.V.; Kennedy, Paul. Thirty Years War. New York: The New York Review of Books, Inc., 2005 (ISBN 1-59017-146-2).

Cicely Veronica Wedgwood (1910-1997) was a British historian. ...

Fiction

Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... The 1632 series, also known as the 1632-verse or Ring of Fire series, is an alternate history book series, created, primarily co-written-by and coordinated by historian Eric Flint. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Collaborative fiction is a form of writing by two or more authors who take it in turns to write a portion of the story. ... The Last Valley is a 1970 historical film, set during the Thirty Years War in Europe. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article is about the English actor. ... For the Pakistani actor of the same name, see Umer Sharif. ... James Clavell, born Charles Edmund Dumaresq Clavell (10 October 1924 – 7 September 1994) was a British novelist, screenwriter, director and World War II hero and POW. Clavell is best known for his epic Asian Saga series of novels and their televised adaptations, along with such films as The Great Escape... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... The War Hound and the Worlds Pain is a fantasy novel by Michael Moorcock, the first of the von Bek series of novels. ... Graf Ulrich von Bek is a fictional character created by Michael Moorcock. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... During the Thirty Years War the city of Magdeburg was besieged by the Holy Roman Empires Imperial Army from November 1630 to 20 May 1631 in the Sack of Magdeburg. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Mother Courage and Her Children (German: Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder) was a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956) with significant contributions from his mistress at the time, Margarete Steffin. ... George Alfred Henty (1832-1902) was a British novelist. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... George Alfred Henty (1832-1902) was a British novelist. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Memoirs of a Cavalier (1720) is a work of historical fiction by Daniel Defoe, set during the Thirty Years War and the English Civil Wars. ...

External links

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Thirty Years War. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1366 words)
The war as a whole may be considered a struggle of German Protestant princes and foreign powers (France, Sweden, Denmark, England, the United Provinces) against the unity and power of the Holy Roman Empire as represented by the Hapsburgs, allied with the Catholic princes, and against the Hapsburgs themselves.
In 1629, Denmark, by the Treaty of Lübeck, withdrew from the war and surrendered the N German bishoprics.
The general results of the war may be said to have been a tremendous decrease in German population; devastation of German agriculture; ruin of German commerce and industry; the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a mere shell in the succeeding centuries; and the decline of Hapsburg greatness.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Thirty Years War (10042 words)
German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe, not only because nearly all the countries of Western Europe took part in it, but also on account of its connection with the other great European wars of the same era and on account of its final results.
THE WAR IN THE PALATINATE AND THE WAR WITH DENMARK
In this year the command of the Bavarian army was assumed by the Duke of
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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