FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Thirteen Years' War
Thirteen Years' War
Malbork • Chojnice • Ryn • Bornholm • Pruszcz Gdański • Świecino • Zatoka Świeża

The Thirteen Years' War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. The Prussian Confederation asked the Polish king for help and offered to incorporate Prussia into Poland. When the king agreed, war between Poland and the Teutonic Knights broke out. It ended with the Peace of Toruń in 1466, an agreement between the Teutonic Knights and Poland, which, although negotiated with help from the Papal legate, was not confirmed by the Pope, nor by the emperor. It was followed by the Pfaffenkrieg (a priests' war against the King of Poland) in 1467-79. The Battle of Chojnice (Battle of Conitz) occurred on September 18, 1454 by the town of Poland and the Teutonic Knights during the Thirteen Years War, it was won by the latter. ... The Battle of Åšwiecino (or Åšwiecin) (named for the village of Åšwiecino, near Å»arnowiec Lake, northern Poland) also called the Battle of Å»arnowiec or in German Battle of Schwetzin, took place on September 17, 1462 during the Thirteen Years War. ... Combatants Poland Teutonic Order Commanders  ? Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Strength 30 ships 44 ships Casualties The Battle of Zatoka Åšwieża was fought on September 15, 1463 between the Polish and Teutonic navies. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ...

Contents


Preliminaries

Reasons behind the war

In the 15th century, the states of Prussia saw the rapid economic development of their cities. However this was not followed by an increase in their political influence. The rule of the Teutonic Knights was seen as more and more anachronistic — taxes (funt customs) and the system of grain licences (every trader had to pay large fees for the privilege of trading grain) were hindering economic development in the province. At the same time the gentry wanted a bigger say in the running of the country, and were looking enviously at neighbouring Poland, where nobles enjoyed wider privileges. The Teutons were also accused of violating the few existing privileges of the gentry and the cities. Craftsmen were discontented because of competition from so-called partacze, that is artisans settled by the Teutons near their castles. Kashubians, Poles, Germans and Prussians were slowly melting into one nation, and as national differences disappeared, the common goals of all the ethnic and social groups of Prussia became more prominent. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...


The western part of Prussia, called Pomerellia, where the main city of Gdańsk (Danzig) was situated, was originally captured by Duke Boleslaus I of Poland, was then ruled by Pomeranian and Brandenburg dukes until conquest by Teutonic Order and some links to Poland were still present and actually increasing with strong cultural and trading contacts, and marriages between the elite families of Kraków, Gdańsk), and (Toruń). Kraków was a Hanseatic League city and had many German craftsmen and inhabitants at that time. Many Prussians — both Poles and Germans — taught and studied at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków. Eastern Pomerania (also Pomerelia, East Pomerania, GdaÅ„sk Pomerania, Vistula Pomerania) is a geographical and historical region in the east of Pomerania in northern Poland. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta GdaÅ„ska Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 460 524 (2004) - Ranked 6th 1,100,000 (Tricity) 1761/km² Founded City rights 997 1263 Latitude Longitude 54°40N 18°60... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms OrzeÅ‚ Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... ToruÅ„ (pronounce: [], Kashubian: TorÅ„, German: Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze) was an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th century. ... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ...


The memory of the Polish roots of Pomerania by later developing Polish nationals wasn't an important reason for starting the uprising, but it became more important later.


There was a long tradition of resistance against the Teutonic Knights in Prussia. In 1397 Prussian knights had founded a secret organisation called The Lizard Union (Związek Jaszczurczy, Eidechsenbund), with more or less anti-Teutonic goals, but since that organisation had not included the urban population, it failed. After victory by the Polish and Lithuanian forces at the Battle of Grunwald during the Great War 1409-1411, the Prussian states eagerly pledged allegiance to King Wladyslaw Jagiełło, but they quickly returned to Teutonic rule after the Poles were unable to conquer Malbork. A clause in the peace treaty stated that it was guaranteed by the Prussian states, which would gain the right to defy the Teutonic Order if it broke the treaty. In the succeeding wars the Prussian states opposed any conflict, and pushed the Grand Masters of the Order to make peace. Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 2,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald or Battle of Tannenberg took place on July 15, 1410 between... Wladislaus II on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus II Jagiello (Polish Władysław II Jagiełło, Lithuanian Jogaila, and in Belarusian as Jahajla (Ягайла)) (c. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ...


On February 21, 1440 a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation. The main contributors were from the gentry of Chełmno Land, from Toruń, Chełmno and from the Hanseatic cities of Elbląg and Gdańsk. Grand Master Paul Russdorf was seen to approve the existence of the Confederacy, but his successor, Conrad von Erlichhausen tried to destroy it. His policy was followed by Ludvig von Erlichhausen. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... ToruÅ„ (pronounce: [], Kashubian: TorÅ„, German: Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze) was an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th century. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia-Masuria Municipal government Rada Miejska w ElblÄ…gu Mayor Henryk SÅ‚onina Area 83,32 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 130,000 none 1544,64/km² Founded City rights 9th century 1246 Latitude Longitude 54° 10 N 19° 24 E Area code +48 55 Car plates...


In 1452 the Prussian Confederation asked Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, for mediation in their conflict with the Teutonic Order. On December 5, 1453, the Emperor, apparently not caring to listen to all the arguments of the Confederacy, banned it and ordered it to obey the Teutonic Order. Faced with that situation the Prussians sent envoys to Poland -- although the Prussian confederacy, under the influence of Toruń and the Pomeranian and Chełmno Land gentry had already sought contact with Poles. They receive support, especially from Greater Poland and from the party of Queen Sophia Holszanska (mother of the King of Poland, Casimir IV). The Cardinal Bishop of Kraków, Zbigniew Oleśnicki (former regent of Poland during the reign of Ladislaus III of Poland and Hungary), opposed this support and tried to prevent war. In January 1454 the Prussians asked the Polish King to incorporate Prussia into Poland. The King asked the Prussian Confederacy for a more formal petition. Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... ToruÅ„ (pronounce: [], Kashubian: TorÅ„, German: Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki (1389 - 1455) was a Polish cardinal and statesman. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ...


On February 4, 1454, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sent a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. Two days later the Confederacy started its rebellion and soon almost all Prussia, except for Malbork, Sztum and Chojnice, were free from Teutonic rule. Most of the captured castles were immediately destroyed. On February 10, 1454, the Confederacy sent an official delegation to Poland, headed by Johannes von Baysen, called Jan Bazynski by the Poles. By February 20 the delegates were in Kraków and asked Casimir IV, to bring Prussia into the Polish kingdom. After negotiating the exact conditions of incorporation, the King agreed and on March 6, 1454 delegates of Prussian Confederation stated that whole of Prussia pledged allegiance to the Polish King. On the same day, the King agreed to all the conditions of the Prussian delegates — for instance Toruń demanded the destruction of the Polish city of Nieszawa — giving wide privileges to the Prussian cities and gentry. Three days later, Johannes von Baysen (Jan Baszyński) became the first Polish governor of Prussia. After April 15 most of the Prussian states, with the exception of the Bishopric of Warmia, pledged allegiance to their new ruler. Poland sent the Grand Master a declaration of war, predated to February 22. When the war started everybody expected it to be over quickly, on both sides. February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Sztum is a town in Poland, capital of Sztum County, located in Pomeranian Voivodship, with some 11,000 inhabitants (2000). ... Chojnice is a town in northern Poland with 40,600 inhabitants (2000), near famous Tuchola Forests, Lake Charzykowskie and many other water reservoirs. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin: Warmia or Varmia, German: Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


References

BISKUP, Marian. Wojna trzynastoletnia (The Thirteen Years War).


International situation

In 1454 Poland was in conflict with Lithuania, which meant that although Casimir IV was Grand Duke of Lithuania as well as King of Poland, Lithuania sent no aid during the whole war to Poland, and didn't participate in it, except for a few raids without any impact on the result of the war. There was also the threat of attack by Russia and by the Ottoman Turks who in 1453 sacked Constantinople. The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Elsewhere, the international situation was quite good for Poland -- no-one apart from the main combatants was likely to intervene. The southern border of Poland was more or less secure because of the weakness of the Czech kingdom, which resulted from the Hussite Wars. The Holy Roman Empire because of its internal problems wasn't able to directly intervene in the conflict. The Hanseatic League, on the one hand, backed the Teutonic Knights (because they supported differential economical Hansa privileges), but on the other, they felt sympathy for the plight of the Prussian cities. The Order in Inflanty had problems with Denmark and was unable to help the Teutonic Knights in Prussia. Because of conflict between Sweden and Denmark both sides stayed more or less neutral in the upcoming conflict. The Hussite Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1420 to circa 1434. ... The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation ▶(?), Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanicae, see names and designations of the empire) was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze) was an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th century. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ...


France and England were too weakened after the Hundred Years' War. The King of Burgundy, Flanders and the Netherlands, Philip the Good, was interested more in creating the independent kingdom of Burgundy. The Pope's primary concern was the Turkish menace. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... A map of Europe in the 1430s, at the height of the Hundred Years War The Hundred Years War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between the Kingdom of England and France; beginning in... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks. ... This article is about the Belgian region Flanders and the eponymous historical region of the Low Countries. ... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ...


The Forces of the Belligerents

The main part of the Polish army of that period was conscripted. All noblemen from the class known as the Szlachta, when called by the king, had to appear with their village-mayors and village-administrators. Cities gave wagons with horses, food, and service to them (including escorts). Units were divided into choragwie (standards) of two kinds: family, which were made by very large clans, and land which were from nobles from particular territory. Peasants also participated as infantrymen. The highest command belonged to the king. The total army could amount to 30,000 cavalry. Polish szlachcic. ...


From the beginning of 15th century the Polish Crown started to hire mercenaries in addition, which usually fought under the flag of St. George (especially Czech mercenaries). That is under either a red cross on white, or a white cross on red (the latter was used only when two Czech units met on opposite sides of a battlefield and had to be differentiated). (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


An important part of the tactics was, the concept of tabor, learned from the Czechs. This is an article on the military formation called tabor. ...


The Poles had artillery (at first primitive cannons: bombards and suchlike). Hand arms appeared, but they weren't very effective: the so-called pistols. Much more important were crossbows, which, properly used, could cause large losses.


The army of the Prussian states consisted of conscripts and small units provided by cities (around 750 people each unit). In total they could provide about 16,000 soldiers plus a few thousand armed peasant infantry. They also had more artillery than the Polish army.


The Prussian cities were also able to raise a small navy, partially from armed trade ships, partially from hired privateers from other cities.


The Teutonic Order in 1454 lost most of its arsenals, but later it was able to raise armies from loyal knights (free Prussians) and peasants. However most of its forces were hired mercenaries, mainly from Germany and the Czech lands.


Overview

First phase

The first land operations (February - August 1454) were carried out by Prussian state conscripts, supported by Czech mercenaries from Moravia, Lesser Poland, etc. This force, commanded by Ścibor Bażynski (Scibor von Baysen, brother of Johannes von Baysen), tried to besiege the Grand Master Ludvik von Erlichhausen in the city and castle of Malbork, but without much success, due to the professional command of Heinrich Reuss von Plauen the Elder, Count of Elbląg. Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Little Poland or Lesser Poland (Polish Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ...


In the meantime there was some organised support for the Teutonic Order from the German Duchies, mainly in Saxony. That support entered Prussia in the second half of March 1454, from the direction of New March (Neumark). It was able to take the highly important strategic city of Chojnice, which was situated on the important route from Poland to the mouth of the Vistula. Johannes von Baysen moved conscript and mercenary forces there, and they were soon followed by Mikolaj Szarlejski, who was the representative of the Polish kingdom and received the title of Supreme Commander of Forces in Prussia. With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ...


On April 7, 1454, the Teutons gave Neumark to Brandenburg "to assure itself better relations and connection with Germany". April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ...


At the end of April 1454, the Prussian army started the siege of Chojnice -- the defence of the city was commanded by Heinrich Reuss von Plauen the Younger from Greitz. However, the Polish commander Mikolaj Szarlejski lacked any significant commanding skill, his army hadn't enough artillery, and the Prussian states weren't able to pay their mercenaries, so Chojnice was not seriously endangered.


After the arrival of Casimir IV, when he received the official oath of allegiance from his new subjects in Elbląg and Toruń, he directed to Chojnice a levee en masse of Polish nobles from Kuyavia which replaced unpaid mercenaries. Cavalry forces such as the nobles, however, were ill-suited to the taking of castles, so the situation of Chojnice did not change. The king also sent his own units and a levee en masse to lay siege to Malbork, but Polish forces were unable to take the castle even with Prussian reinforcements, which were relocated to Malbork after taking Sztum (August 8, 1454). The Teutons defended themselves skilfully and were even able to defeat forces from Gdańsk in a sudden attack on September 13. Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... Sztum is a town in Poland, capital of Sztum County, located in Pomeranian Voivodship, with some 11,000 inhabitants (2000). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ...


The situation of the Polish crown was getting very bad, and it worsened when in September 1454 a large army of mercenaries under the command of Rudolf, prince of Żagań, and a Moravian nobleman, the very talented soldier Bernard Szumborski arrived in Prussia from the German Reich. The army had 9000 cavalry and 6000 infantry, plus artillery and many wagons in tabor. That army was slowly moving to Chojnice, apparently to release it from siege. It forced King Casimir to call a pospolite ruszenie (levee en masse) of Greater Poland, without the traditional approval of the provincial sejmik. Noblemen, angered by the disruption of the harvest and the unconventional form of the call, massed near the village of Cerekwica and demanded from the king several privileges, which were granted in the privilege of Cerekwica September 14, 1454. After that the king divided his forces into seven large units and the army marched to Chojnice, where it was joined by Prussians. At Chojnice the army met the Teutonic knights and on September 18, 1454 was defeated in the major battle of Chojnice. The defeat was a near disaster: the Polish army quickly withdrew from Malbork, and Sztum was again captured by Teutons. They were also able to take other big cities, like Gniew and Tczew. Impressed by the Teutons' victory, some Prussian lands also capitulated. This was a great victory for the Teutons, and they had now only one minor problem: they hadn't enough money to pay the victorious mercenaries. The Grand Master promised them on October 9 that if he could not pay them by February 19, 1455, they would receive all cities, castles and lands of Prussia, with the rights to sell them. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with levée en masse. ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... The Battle of Chojnice (Battle of Conitz) occurred on September 18, 1454 by the town of Poland and the Teutonic Knights during the Thirteen Years War, it was won by the latter. ... Tczew (Kashubian: Derszowo; German Dirschau) is a town on the river Vistula in Eastern Pomerania region, in northern Poland with 60,000 inhabitants (2002). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat...


Mercenaries later captured two other cities, Kwidzyń and Lasin. But none of the largest and most important cities of Prussia, not even Królewiec (Königsberg), surrendered, and they were all determined to continue the war. As a result, the Teutonic Order was totally dependent on help from the German Reich. Coat of Arms of Kwidzyn Flag of Kwidzyn For other places called Marienwerder, see Marienwerder (disambiguation) Kwidzyn (German Marienwerder) is a town in northern Poland on the Liwa River, with 39,300 inhabitants (1995). ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...


To save the situation, King Casimir started hiring more Czech and Silesian soldiers and sending them to the cities of Pomerania, Pomesania and Chełmno Land. He also decided to call for another levee en masse from the whole Polish kingdom. The levee en masse in Opoka, this time dominated by gentry from Lesser Poland, demanded privileges similar to those given in Cerekwica. The King quickly approved them, but under the influence of the aristocracy from Lesser Poland later, in privileges for the whole country given November 11 - November 16, 1454 in Nieszawa (Famous privilege of Nieszawa) he changed some of his promises given earlier both in Opoka and Cerekwica. Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (-Latin, Polish: ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Schlesien, Czech: Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Pomerania (Polish: , German: , Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers, reaching the Recknitz... Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish MaÅ‚opolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ...


This time the Polish army counted almost 30000 cavalry plus 3000 mercenaries. The mercenaries had a few good commanders: Jan Kolda from Zampach and Jan Skalski from the northern Czech city of Mala Skala (literally, "little rock") and a member of Czech family of Valdsztejn, better known under their German name, Waldstein or Wallenstein. This time the Grand Master avoided battle as too risky. The army started the siege of Lasin, whose defense was commanded by Austrian mercenary Fryc Raveneck. However, the army was totally unprepared for taking castles. Large preparations ended with another fiasco. Also, the first negotiations with Teutons (January 9 -January 10, 1455) failed. January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat...


The situation of King Casimir became difficult. To pay his mercenaries he had to borrow from the clergy. He decided to give two cities as a fief to Eric II of Pomerania from Slupsk, hoping that that would secure northern Pomerania. Later Casimir had to go to Lithuania to calm down opposition and he was forced to stay there until the summer of 1455. Słupsk (pronounce: [swupsk], German Stolp) is a city in Middle Pomerania region and the capital of the region, in north-western Poland with some 100,000 inhabitants. ...


In that situation the Teutons were able to conquer the eastern part of Prussia - helped by rebellions in a few cities, which were caused by huge new war taxes (Königsberg, Lipnik (April 17, 1455)). The last East Prussian city loyal to the Polish king, Knipawa, was taken after a long siege by Teutonic knights commanded by Heinrich Reuss von Plauen (older) on June 14, 1455. The Poles were suffering defeat after defeat, and they later also lost Warmia (Ermeland). However, the Grand Master was unable to pay his mercenaries and they took Malbork, Tczew and Ilawa in May 1455. Mercenaries under Czech Ulrich von Čirvonka (Oldrzych Czerwonka) immediately started negotiations with Poland on selling these castles. April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... Kneiphof (Polish Knipawa) is the name of one of the three cities that constituted the city of Königsberg in the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights . ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin: Warmia or Varmia, German: Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government Rada Miejska Iławy Mayor Jarosław Maśkiewicz Area 22 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 34 000 - 1545/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°36 N 19°34 E Area code +48 89 Car plates NIL Twin towns - Municipal Website Iława is a... This article is about the month of May. ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat...


The international situation also became significantly worse. The Holy Roman Emperor Frideric III March 24, 1455 banned the Prussian Confederation, which caused that everybody could claim its property and forbade any trade with its members. After the death of Pope Nicholas V, the new Pope Callixtus III on September 24, 1455 warned that he would excommunicate the Prussian Confederacy and all its allies (which could mean King Casimir) if it would not settle peace with the Teuton Order. In June 1455 Teuton Order gained a new ally, the king of Denmark, Christian I, who declared war against Poland and the Prussian Confederacy. This however meant nothing more than a disturbance in trade, since Denmark was still busy fighting with Sweden. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... Nicholas V, né Tomaso Parentucelli (November 15, 1397–March 24, 1455) was pope from March 6, 1447, to March 24, 1455. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... There are two monarchs who have been named Christian I Christian I of Denmark Christian I of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Shocked by the loss of Knipawa, King Casimir, in debt and unable to hire new mercenaries, called another levee en masse. The Polish army moved slowly to Thorn, but military actions were halted briefly, when the king finally agreed to mediation by Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg (all earlier propositions of mediation from different sides had been rejected). The elector however failed to negotiate a peace, because the Teutons, after recent successes, were unwilling to compromise. The Poles suggested from their side that the Teuton Order should leave Prussia and go elsewhere to fight with pagans (a location suggested earlier by Polish envoys to the Holy Roman Empire was Podolia, near the Tatars). In that situation negotiations September 26 ended with no gains, and the war continued. This article is about Frederick II of Brandenburg. ... Historical arms of Podolia The region of Podolia (Ukrainian: Podillya, Polish: Podole) lies in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine that correspond to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ...


The new Polish army was even bigger than before, because this time it included soldiers from Red Rus, small auxiliary forces of Tatars and a few mercenaries from Silesia. It laid siege to Lasin, but Raveneck was able to defend the city. Additionally, when Casimir IV ordered a further march to Grudziadz, Szlachta refused and instead decided to pay a new tax, which would allow the king to hire more mercenaries. Red Ruthenia (Polish: Ruś Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) is the name used since the medieval times to refer to the area known as Eastern Galicia prior to World War I. History Originally it was related to a certain territory between Western Bug and Wieprz rivers. ...


After that, the situation did not change much. The Teutonic Knights were able to capture another city, Kłajpeda, but their offensive in other directions was stopped by the burghers of Toruń and of Chełmno Land, Andrzej Tęczyński. In autumn 1455 the peasants of eastern Masuria, tired of the burdens of war, revolted against the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Knights defeated the rebels at Ryn on January 1, 1456. Land-based military actions were limited to raids and local skirmishes. The port of KlaipÄ—da handles some 20 million tons of cargo each year KlaipÄ—da (approximate English transcription: [ˈklaı.pÉ›.dÊŒ], simplified Lithuanian transcription: [klaǐpÄ“da]; German: Memel or Memelburg) is a Lithuanian town on the Baltic Sea. ... This article is about geographic region of Masuria (Mazury), Poland. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ...


In the maritime arena, King Casimir ordered Gdańsk to build a fleet which would be able to break sea connections between the Teuton Order and its allies. In May 1456 privateers hired by Gdańsk captured Dutch ships, which caused conflict with Amsterdam and the Prince of Burgundy, Philip the Good. In two weeks in August 1457 three ships from Gdańsk, near Bornholm, defeated a combined Danish-Livonian Order fleet of 16 ships. // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ...


After long negotiations Teutonic mercenaries agreed to sell Poland three castles in Prussia, including Malbork. Heavy new taxes caused rebellions in Gdańsk and Toruń which were bloodily suppressed by the cities with help from the king's army. Finally the Polish and Prussian states were able to gather 190,000 Hungarian gold pieces (Złotych węgierskich?), most of which had been borrowed from Gdańsk. On June 6, 1457 Malbork, Tczew and Iława were transferred to the Polish army. Two days later King Casimir entered the castle of Malbork, and its burghers paid homage to him. Ulrich von Czerwonka became the first Polish sheriff of the castle, and also received three other counties. The king again granted broad privileges to the Prussian cities. It was generally expected that now, with the fall of the Teutonic capital, war would end quickly. Optimism faded, however, when the Polish army commanded by Prandota Lubieszowski was unable to take Gniew, which was again defended by Raveneck. Casimir had to return to Poland to seek money to pay his debts and mercenaries. The mood worsened when the Grand Master organised a new offensive. The Teutonic Knights received significant aid from the burghers of Königsberg, free Prussian knights and others. Although they were unable to take Welawa and Sepopol, the two Polish castles which were the initial target of the offensive, they again defeated the Polish army in September 1457. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ...


On September 28, 1457, Teutonic Order forces under the command of Szumborski (who had been released by the Poles), with help from the burghers, took Malbork by surprise -- only the castle commanded by Czerwonka was saved. Prandota Lubieszowski was able to stop further advances of the Teutonic army, but this was not the last of the Teuton successes. They captured Ilawa (which again pledged allegiance to the Teutons), Chełmno and Starogard Gdański. The situation was saved by a new Polish army sent from Greater Poland. September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... Starogard GdaÅ„ski (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; German Preussisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in north-western Poland with 50,700 inhabitants (1998). ...


The international situation became increasingly complicated. The new bishop of Ermeland was Cardinal Eneas Silvio Piccolomini, known for his pro-Teuton sympathies. Soon after that, in 1458, Piccolomini was elected pope and took the name of Pius II. Another complication was the death of Wladislav Habsburg and the election of George Podiebrad as new (Hussite) king of the Czechs, and Matthias Corvinus as king of Hungary. Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ... Pius II, né Enea Silvio Piccolomini, in Latin Aeneas Sylvius (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was pope from 1458 to 1464. ... George of Podebrady - statue in KunÅ¡tát (Czech Republic). ... The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ...


In Spring 1458 Casimir IV again called for a levee en masse, this time calling even the Masovians. Ignoring the mediation of John Giskra (Jan Jiskra), a Czech mercenary who hoped for an end to war with Prussia and the start of a new conflict with Hungary, the Polish army slowly marched into Prussia, during June crossing the Vistula via ponton bridge near Toruń. Again the army was supported by Tatar auxiliary forces from Crimea and by the king's own army. The army was commanded by Piotr of Szamotuly, the castellan of Poznań. The Polish army marched directly to Malbork, reaching the city on August 10. This time it was quite well equipped with artillery sent by Gdańsk and Elbląg. The siege, however, was another fiasco, due partly to lengthy negotiations, and partly to Piotr's lack of aggression on the battlefield. He was such an inept commander that Fryc Raveneck was able to take yet another castle. The nobles demanded the storming of the castle, and when this did not happen, they started deserting and returning to Poland. Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ... The Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... The Poznan is also a breed of horse. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


In Low Prussia there was a peasant rebellion against Polish rule. The peasants captured a few castles and gave them to the Teutonic Knights, declaring that they were ready to fight on the Teutonic Order's side against Poland.


In the meantime the king, using John Giskra as mediator, negotiated with the Teutons. The Poles again proposed that the Teuton Order should leave Prussia for Podolia. The Teutons agreed on Podole, but refused to leave Prussia. Danzigers proposed a compromise which would leave part of Prussia for the Teuton Order. At one point there was a signed cease fire lasting 9 months (there was even a signed treaty, and John Giskra as mediator kept Malbork), and peace appeared certain, but the Prussian states decided to persuade the king to break off negotiations. Historical arms of Podolia The region of Podolia (Ukrainian: Podillya, Polish: Podole) lies in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine that correspond to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ...


One positive sign was peace with Denmark. The Danish king finally conquered Sweden, but the Swedish king, Karol Knutson, escaped to Poland and started supporting the Polish cause financially. Gdańsk and Knutson were hiring more and more privateers, which seriously damaged Baltic trade, and finally Christian I, king of Denmark, decided in July 1458 to sign a cease fire, which was in May 1459 extended to four years, and then to 20 years. Events January 24 - Matthias I Corvinus becomes king of Hungary Foundation of Magdalen College, University of Oxford George of Podebrady becomes king of Bohemia Pope Pius II becomes pope Turks sack the Acropolis Births February 15 - Ivan the Young, Ruler of Tver (d. ...


In 1459 Jan Bazynski died, and his brother, Ścibor Bażynski, became the new governor of Prussia. Teutonic Knights were raiding the Polish lands and enjoying quite a few successes (for example Kaspar Nostyc, komtur of Chojnice, captured for a few months one of the Polish cities in northern Greater Poland). There were other attempts at mediation (by the Bavarian prince, the Austrian prince, and even by bishops from Inflanty) but they were all refused by Poland. More serious mediation was undertaken by pope Pius II, who was trying to mount a coalition against the Turks. He suspended the curse over Prussian states and he explicitly stated that the forementioned curse was also against Poland. That statement outraged king Casimir, who rejected the arrival of the Pope's legate (Hieronymus Lando). In 1460, on June 3, the Pope reactivated the curse against Prussia, Poland and the Polish king. At the same time the Czech king George Podiebrad banned and jailed Ulrich von Czirvonka and his comrades, and agreed to hire Teuton soldiers in the territory of his kingdom. Chojnice is a town in northern Poland with 40,600 inhabitants (2000), near famous Tuchola Forests, Lake Charzykowskie and many other water reservoirs. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... George of Podebrady - statue in KunÅ¡tát (Czech Republic). ...


1460 March 21 Polish army, this time regular, supported by Danzigers and peasants, started again siege of city of Malbork (castle of Malbork was still in Polish hands). This time army had a little better and more energic commander, Prandota Lubieszowski, and enough artillery. Prandota died and was replaced by Jan Koscielecki with Danziger Jan Meydeburg as advisor. This regular siege finally cause capitulation of city of Malbork in 1460 July 5. Blume, burgmeister was hanged as traitor (since he pledged allegiance to Polish king and later opened gates of city to Teutons). Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ...


This Polish success was quickly countered by the Teutons, who conquered other cities in western Prussia, and, what's more, defeated the army of Gdańsk near Pruszcz Gdanski in July 1460, even burning the suburbs of Gdańsk. Gdańsk asked the king for help. The Teutons also conquered Lębork and Bytów (which, as we remember, were in the possession of Eric II of Pomerania), Łeba and Puck (Puck was garrisonned by mercenaries hired by the former Swedish king Karol Knutson). Szumborski also captured the castle of Swiecie (Swiecin or Schwetz). Toruń immediately sent soldiers there, who, helped by the King's army, started a siege. In Warmia the administration Paul Legendorf commenced. He was appointed by the Pope, and promised neutrality between the Teutons and Polish king. The neutrality of Legendorf made him very popular amongst the burghers and peasants, who were simply tired of war. Pruszcz Gdański (see also Cities alternative names) is a city in Eastern Pomerania, north-western Poland with some 21,200 inhabitants (1995). ... LÄ™bork (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Lãbórg; German Lauenburg) is a town (town 1341) on the rivers Leba and Okalica in Middle Pomerania region, north-western Poland with some 37,000 inhabitants. ... Bytow Castle Bytów is a town in Middle Pomerania region, northwestern Poland, with 17,700 inhabitants. ... Łeba is the name of the river in Middle Pomerania, Poland, that goes to Łebsko lake and later on to Baltic sea. ... Puck (pronounce: [puʦk], Kashubian/Pomeranian: Pùck ; German Putzig) is a town on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea in Eastern Pomerania region, north-western Poland with some 12,000 inhabitants. ... Świecie is a town in northern Poland with 27,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Warmia (Polish: Warmia or Warmija, Latin: Warmia or Varmia, German: Ermland or Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ...


Situation of Poland became desperate. One by one, castles and cities were captured by the Teutonic army. Internal situation was also not very bright, because of the conflict between the pope and the king over nominating the new bishop of Kraków (since both king and pope were convinced that the other had no right to choose the new bishop).


The Polish king again called for levee en masse, but most of the gentry refused participation after Andrzej Teczynski was killed in Kraków by burghers (in a dispute over payment for his armour). Again, this was a total fiasco. Commanders (amongst them Piotr from Szamotuly) seemed even as if they didn't know where they should go, and after a few weeks (and raids to duchy of Eric II of Pomerania) army returned home.


This, and another success of the Teutons, which took almost all castles and towns of Ermeland, capturing the last Polish points of resistance, convinced the king finally that war should be left to professionals. The gentry agreed to pay new taxes for hiring and maintaining a more regular army. Her new commander was Piotr Dunin.


In 1461 Poland had only one success - capturing the castle of Swiecie. On the sea privateers hired by Danzig were far more successful, although they had to fight not only with Teutonic ships and privateers hired by the Teutons, but also with ships from Lübeck. Lübeck ( pronunc. ...


Second phase

The first group — initially around 2000 soldiers — of regular army came to Prussia around October 1461, under Piotr Dunin from Prawkowice. Piotr Dunin was soldier to the bones, knowing newest methods of military tactics. Almost immedietely he achieved two successes, capturing castles of Lasin and Sztum. Teutons in the same time captured few cities and castles, for example the city of Brodnice (the castle stayed in Polish hands) and Starogard. Sejm in New City of Korczyn in Lesser Poland decided to raise new taxes for increasing Polish regular army. It was only summer 1462 when Dunin finally, after losing the castle of Brodnica, could start any more serious action. His first success was rescuing the castle of Frombork. But what changed the course of the war was battle of Swiecin, where died the excellent Teuton commander Fryc Raveneck. After that battle Poles, supported by Ulrich von Czirwonka (released from Czech jail), were able to start an offensive. In July 27, 1463 Dunin started siege of Gniew. Because of great strategic importance of the city and castle, the grand master of Teutonic Order decided to send it rescue. The army of Teutons, under commanders Plauen, Szumborski and the Grand Master gathered in Stargard. In September 15, 1463 the navy of Teutons, on 44 ships, was destroyed in battle of Zatoka Świeża by 30 ships from Gdańsk and Elbląg. Soon after the battle Szumborski, with approval of Teuton Order, made a treaty with Poland, withdrawing from war but still having in his possession few castles in Chełmno Land. Gniew capitulated soon in January 1, 1464. Nowy Korczyn (50°18´ / 20°49´) also known as Khadash, Nayshtut, Neustadt, Novi Kochin and Novi Kortchin, known formerly as Nowe Miasto Korczyn, is a village at the mouth of Nida river, where it meets the Wistula river in Busko-Zdrój County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, Poland. ... Brodnica is a town in northern Poland with 27,400 inhabitants (1995). ... Frombork is a town in northern Poland, situated on Vistula Bay in the Warmia i Mazury voivodship with a population of 2700 (in 2000). ... The Battle of Swiecino (or Swiecin) (named for the village of Swiecino, near Zarnowiec Lake, northern Poland) also called the Battle of Żarnowiec or in German Battle of Schwetzin, took place on September 17, 1462 during the Thirteen Years War. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... Combatants Poland Teutonic Order Commanders  ? Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Strength 30 ships 44 ships Casualties The Battle of Zatoka Åšwieża was fought on September 15, 1463 between the Polish and Teutonic navies. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ...


The Teutons started to have serious financial problems. Every year they received less money from the German Reich. Their mercenaries, the core of the Teutonic army, were not paid and refused to make any serious offensives. At the same time the armies of Poland and the Prussian Confederation (mainly Gdańsk) were continuing their offensive.


However, King Casimir was unable to get all the fruits of these successes, because of troubles in Lithuania. The Lithuanians suddenly rejected the idea of moving the Teutonic Order to Podole, even if Lithuania would get some territories in Prussia. This forced the king to open new negotiations with the Teutonic Order, with the Hanseatic League as mediators. On July 3, 1462 negotiations started in Toruń. The Polish negotiators (Johannes Longinus aka Jan Długosz, famous historian, and rector of University of Kraków Jan from Dąbrowka) with the Prussian representatives (Gabriel and Ścibor Bażynski with envoys from big cities) argued that Pomerania from time immemorial belonged to Poland, pointing out Slavic names in Pomerania, the Slavic language of inhabitants, the tax of St. Peter paid by Pomerania, and that Pomerania belonged to the Polish Church diocese of Włocławek. They also strongly emphasized that Prussians of their own will asked for the incorporation of Prussia into Poland. They also tried to prove that even eastern Prussia was, in time past, tied in some way to Poland. The Teutons questioned all their arguments and past Papal judgments. Instead they strongly underlined that Poland once officially resigned all claims to Pomerania and Culmer land, and also pointed to the Emperor's statement of 1453 when he forbade all opposition in Prussia. Hanseatic mediators proposed a cease fire for 20 years; this was refused. The Poles proposed again moving the Teutons to Podole; this was refused too. Unofficially the Poles proposed leaving the Teutonic Order in Sambia as Polish vassals. This idea was rejected too. Finally the Poles demanded at least Pomerania, Chełmno Land, Malbork and Elbląg, and when this was rejected too, negotiations broke down. The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze) was an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th century. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Jan DÅ‚ugosz Jan DÅ‚ugosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki of Kraków. ... WÅ‚ocÅ‚awek (pronounce: [vÈ—oʦwavek]) is a town in central Poland on the Vistula river, with population of approximately 123 000. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ...


Dunin continued on the offensive, capturing more and more castles. Masovians, enraged by Teutonic raids, organised a levee en masse and captured the castle of Działdowo, but again the king had to leave Poland for Lithuania, and financial problems stopped further advances. This caused another round of negotiations in 1465, which were again unsuccessful. Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ...


In 1466 Bishop Legendorf of Warmia decided to join the Polish forces and declare war on the Teutons. Polish forces under Piotr Dunin were finally also able to captured Chojnice (September 28, 1466). Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ...


All of these successes caused the Teutonic Order to seek new negotiations (which are well documented because one of the Polish negotiators was again historian Johannes Longinus - Jan Dlugosz ). The new mediator was Pope Paul II. With a lot of help from the Pope's legate Rudolf from Rudesheim, in October 10, 1466, a peace treaty (known as the peace of Toruń 1466) was finally signed. Prussia as a whole was incorporated into the Polish kingdom; the Teutons were allowed to rule its eastern part as Polish vassals. The Grand Master received the title of Senator of the Polish kingdom. The treaty was signed by the Pope's legate. Both sides agreed, that although the Pope's approval wasn't necessary, they would ask him to confirm the treaty so as to ensure it. Later however, the Pope refused to do that. The treaty was also disputed by Emperor (?). Pope Paul II, né Pietro Barbo (February 23, 1417 – July 26, 1471), was pope from 1464 to 1471. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order...


Aftermath

Peace of Toruń 1466, changes to Polish legal system such as privilege in Nieszawa etc. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order...


Important persons

  • Casimir IV, king of Poland
  • Johannes Longinus (Polish name: Jan Długosz), Polish historian and negotiator
  • Piotr Dunin, talented Polish commander
  • Bernard Szumborski, Czech mercenary, talented commander in Teutonic army.

Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Jan DÅ‚ugosz Jan DÅ‚ugosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki of Kraków. ...

External links

This is a summary of the book by Marian Biskup, "Wojna trzynastoletnia", plus some other information


  Results from FactBites:
 
King Philip's War (922 words)
Had the Indians met their foe in open battle they would soon have been annihilated; but their method was to attack the lonely farmhouse, the unprotected settlement, or to creep by stealth at dead of night upon the sleeping hamlet and with fiendish yells to fall upon their victims with the tomahawk.
The war soon ended; the Indians had lost three thousand men, their power was utterly broken, and never again was there a war of the races in southern New England.
Thirteen towns had been laid in ashes; the wilderness was marked on every side with desolate farms and ruined homes.
Thirteen Years' War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5179 words)
The Thirteen Years' War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights.
In 1454 Poland was in conflict with Lithuania, which meant that although Casimir IV was Grand Duke of Lithuania as well as King of Poland, Lithuania sent no aid during the whole war to Poland, and didn't participate in it, except for a few raids without any impact on the result of the war.
In autumn 1455 the peasants of eastern Masuria, tired of the burdens of war, revolted against the Teutonic Knights.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m