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Encyclopedia > Third world

The Third World is a term used, along with First World and Second World, to broadly categorise the nations of the Earth to three social, political, and economic divisions. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through to the 1980s. ...


Origin of the Term

The three worlds during the Cold War era;      First World      Second World      Third World

The economist and demographer Alfred Sauvy, in an article published in the French magazine L'Observateur, August 14, 1952, coined the term Third World in referring to countries currently called either "developing" or "under-developed", especially in Latin America, Africa, Oceania, and Asia, that were unaligned with either the Communist Soviet bloc or the Capitalist [[United States|American]hello] bloc during the Cold War (1945–1989).[1] Today, Third World is synonymous with all countries in the developing world, regardless of their political status[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x629, 21 KB) Summary Shows traditional location of First world Second world Third World during the w:Cold War, I made the map w:First world Blue - developed countries w:Second world Red - former communist countries (not as common a used... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x629, 21 KB) Summary Shows traditional location of First world Second world Third World during the w:Cold War, I made the map w:First world Blue - developed countries w:Second world Red - former communist countries (not as common a used... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through to the 1980s. ... Alfred Sauvy by Erling Mandelmann © http://www. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Third World was a reference to the Tiers Étathello, the (Third Estate), the commoners of France before and during the French Revolution — opposed to the priests and nobles who composed the First Estate and the Second Estate. Like the third estate, wrote Sauvy, the Third World has nothing, and "wants to be something", implying that the Third World is exploited (as was the third estate) and that its destiny is revolutionary. Moreover, it conveyed the second concept of political non-alignment with neither the industrialised Capitalist bloc nor the industrialised Communist bloc. Cleric, Knight, and Workman: the three estates in medieval illumination The estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognised in the Middle Ages, and also later, in Europe. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


The problematic definition of “The Third World”


In academic circles, the countries of the Third World are known as the "Global South", the "developing countries", and the "under-developed countries"; and are called, by economic development workers, the "Two-thirds World" and "The South". Some developers disapprove of the "developing countries" term, because it implies that industrialization is the only progressive way. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


History of Third World countries


The economically under-developed countries of Africa, Asia, Americas, and Oceania considered as an entity with common characteristics, such as poverty, uncontrolled high birthrates, and economic dependence upon the advanced countries tended to be former European colonies. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...


After World War II, the capitalist Western and the communist Eastern blocs fought to expand their spheres of influence to the Third World. The military and intelligence services of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. worked secretly and publicly to influence Third World governments, with relative success. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The term Third World became popular usage during the Cold War when many poor nations adopted it in describing themselves as unaligned with neither N.A.T.O. nor the U.S.S.R., but instead composed an unaligned Third World. In that context, the First World denoted the U.S. and its anti-Communist allies, concomitantly, Second World denoted the "Eastern Bloc" — the U.S.S.R. and its communist and socialist allies.


Originally, the Third World bloc comprised the countries of Yugoslavia, India, and Egypt. Many believed they could successfully court the Communist and Capitalist blocs into economic partnerships without directly falling into the respective sphere of influence. Fearing they would align with the enemy bloc, they were exploited and undermined by the First World and Second World superpowers. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


The Third World's economies are distorted by dependence upon exportation of primary products, to the First and Second worlds, in return for finished products. After liberation from colonial rule in the 1950s - 1970s, many Third World nations were illiterate, over-populated, and politically unstable. This was particularly true of Africa, where nation-states were artificially created by European colonial powers in order to control populations by imposing local, minority-rule governments, indifferent to local social and cultural reality.


For the most part, Third World did not include China. Politically, the Third World emerged at the Bandung Conference (1955), which established the Nonaligned Movement. Numerically, the Third World dominates the United Nations, but is so culturally and economically diverse that its political cohesion is hypothetical. The petroleum-rich countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, etc.) and the new industrial countries (Taiwan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, etc.) have little in common with poor countries (Haiti, Chad, Afghanistan, etc.). The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon(Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Criticism of the term

The term Third World remains a common usage despite criticism that it is inaccurate and outdated, colonialist, and a type of Other category; more because it is an ideology rather than a reality. [2] Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ...


In general, Third World countries are not as industrialized or technologically advanced as OECD countries, and consequently developing nation is the current term in use in academia. Terms such as Global South, developing countries, less economically developed countries (LEDC), least developed countries, and the Majority World have become more popular in circles where the term third world is regarded to have derogatory or out-of-date connotations. Other synonymous terms include the two-thirds world (because two-thirds of the world is underdeveloped) and The South. Some theorists, such as Andre Gunder Frank and Walter Rodney have used the term underdevelopment or underdeveloped world, to indicate the active process by which the global South has been locked out of development by imperialism and the post-colonial policies of the richer nations. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... ... Map of the Least Developed Countries as defined by the United Nations Least Developed Countries (LDCs or Fourth World countries) are countries which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. ... A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ... Andre Gunder Frank (Berlin, February 24, 1929 – Luxembourg, April 23, 2005) was a German economic historian and sociologist who was one of the founders of the Dependency theory and the World Systems Theory in the 1960s. ... Walter Rodney (March 23, 1942 - June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure. ... Underdevelopment is the state of an organism or of an organisation (e. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


See also

Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ...

References

  1. ^ Michael Quinion (2005-02-26). FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD WORLDS (html). World Wide Words. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  2. ^ Hannah Arendt quotes (html). ThinkExist.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. “The Third World is not a reality, but an ideology.”
  • A. R. Kasdan, The Third World: A New Focus for Development (1973)
  • E. Hermassi, The Third World Reassessed (1980)
  • H. A. Reitsma and J. M. Kleinpenning, The Third World in Perspective (1985)
  • J. Cole, Development and Underdevelopment (1987).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Third World definition (2614 words)
The underdevelopment of the third world is marked by a number of common traits; distorted and highly dependent economies devoted to producing primary products for the developed world and to provide markets for their finished goods; traditional, rural social structures; high population growth; and widespread poverty.
In 1980, the earth's population was estimated at 4.4 billion, 72 percent of it in the third world, and it seemed likely to reach 6.2 billion, 80 percent of it in the third world, at the close of the century.
Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War.
Encyclopedia4U - Third world - Encyclopedia Article (613 words)
The third world is the group of "underdeveloped" countries of the world.
Many third world countries believed they could successfully court both the communist and capitalist nations of the world, and develop key economic partnerships without necessarily falling under their direct influence.
In practice, this plan did not work out quite so well; many third world nations were exploited or undermined by the two superpowers who feared these supposedly neutral nations were in danger of falling into alignment with the enemy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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