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Encyclopedia > Third Rome
Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Coat of arms of the Russian Empire.
Coat of arms of the Russian Empire.

The Third Rome idea is that Moscow is the successor to the legacy of the Roman Empire (the Second Rome being Constantinople). This concept has been popular since the times of the early Russian Tsars. Byzantine Empire emblem File links The following pages link to this file: Byzantine Empire ... Byzantine Empire emblem File links The following pages link to this file: Byzantine Empire ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_Russian_Empire_Central. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_Russian_Empire_Central. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...

Contents

Claim of Russia to be successor to Rome

Within decades after the Fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453, some were nominating Moscow as the "Third Rome", or new "New Rome". Stirrings of this sentiment began during the reign of Ivan III, Grand Duke of Moscow who had married Sophia Paleologue. Sophia was a niece of Constantine XI, the last Eastern Roman Emperor and Ivan could claim to be the heir of the fallen Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire). // Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Byzantine defenders, some mercenaries, many civilians Heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى Meḥmed-i sānÄ«, Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, around 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Orthodox Church. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


At the beginning, the notion of "Third Rome" was not necessarily imperial in nature, but rather apolyptic. Its purpose was to point out the role of Russia as the last small remainder "in the wilderness", of the once-great Christian civilization, most of which had succumbed to heresy - both Roman Catholicism and Islam were considered heretical offshoots of the Judeo-Christian stem by many Orthodox believers. Thus Russia was seen as comparable to the six thousand Israelites who had refused to worship Baal during the lifetime of the prophet Elijah, an immensly popular biblical figure in Orthodoxy. For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ...


It is noteworthy, that before Ivan III, Stefan Dušan, tsar of Serbia, and Ivan Alexander, tsar of Bulgaria, both related to the last Byzantine dynasty, facing the decline of the Byzantine empire in the 14th century, made similar claims. Bulgarian manuscripts advanced the idea that Turnovo, the capital of the Bulgarian empire, was the new Constantinople. These plans were never realized as the Ottomans defeated Serbs at Kosovo Polje in 1389, and put an end to the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396 with the occupation of the Despotate of Vidin. However, the rhethorics developed to this respect earlier in Turnovo were imported to Moscow by Cyprian, a clergyman of Bulgarian origin, who became Metropolitan of Moscow in 1381. DuÅ¡an Silni Tsar Stefan UroÅ¡ IV DuÅ¡an Silni (the mighty) (Serbian: Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (circa 1308 – December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331 – 1346) and tsar (1346 – December 5, 1355). ... Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria was married twice. ... The Double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation) The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... This page does not concern St Cyprian (Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus), bishop of Carthage. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ...


The idea crystallized with a panegyric letter composed by the Russian monk Philoteus (Filofey) in 1510 to their son Grand Duke Vasili III , which proclaimed, "Two Romes have fallen. The third stands. And there will not be a fourth. No one will replace your Christian Tsardom!" Contrary to the common misconception, Filofey explicitly identifies Third Rome with Russia (the country) rather than with Moscow (the city). A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Filofei (Филофей in Russian) (? - ?, Pskov) was a hegumen of the Yelizarov Monastery in Pskov in the 16th century. ... 1510 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Filofei (Филофей in Russian) (? - ?, Pskov) was a hegumen of the Yelizarov Monastery in Pskov in the 16th century. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ...


Origin of Tsar title

Since Roman princesses had married the Grand Princes of Moscow, and, since Russia had become, with the fall of Byzantium, the most powerful Orthodox Christian state, the Tsars were thought of in Russia as succeeding the Byzantine Emperor as the rightful rulers of the (Christian) world. Like kaiser, the word "tsar", or czar, is derived from the word "caesar". This is a list of Princes and Grand Princes of Russian principality Moscow. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ...


On 16 January 1547, Grand Duke Ivan IV was the first crowned Russian Tsar, though his father, Vasili III, and grandfather, Ivan III both had used the term before him (largely in correspondence) in reference to themselves. January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479–December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand...


On 2 November 1721, Peter I restyled himself as "Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia" as part of his course of modernization and westernization of the country. The new title was supposed to reflect both the traditional claims of his predecessors and his success in establishing Imperial Russia as a new European power. November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Peter the Great or Peter Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


See also

Byzantium after Byzantium (Bizanţ dupa Bizanţ in Romanian; Byzance après Byzance in French) refers to the Byzantine imperial heritage related to the political, social, cultural, and intellectual background of the history of Southeastern Europe, as examplified by the strong links established between the Empire and the two principalities of... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...

Reference

  • Dmytryshyn, Basil (transl). 1991. Medieval Russia: A Source Book, 850-1700. 259-261. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Fort Worth, Texas.
  • Poe, Marshall. “Moscow, the Third Rome: the Origins and Transformations of a ‘Pivotal Moment.’” Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas (2001) (In Russian: “Izobretenie kontseptsii “Moskva—Tretii Rim.” Ab Imperio. Teoriia i istoriia natsional’nostei i natsionalizma v postsovetskom prostranstve 1: 2 (2000), 61-86.)
  • Martin, Janet. 1995. Medieval Russia: 980-1584. 293. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

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