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Encyclopedia > Third Estate
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system
History
Capetian dynasty
Valois dynasty
Bourbon dynasty
Estates-General

In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). From these terms came the name of the medieval French national assembly: the Estates-General (Fr. Etats-Généraux), the analogue to the British Parliament but with no constitutional tradition of vested powers, nor with any permanency: the French monarchy remained absolute, and the estates general were convened only episiodically. Administrative map of ancien régime France Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... The seigneurial system was the semi-feudal system of noble privilege in France and its colonies. ... France under the Ancien Régime, the socio-political system which persisted throughout the rule of the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, was a nation half-way between feudalism and modernity, ruled over by a powerful absolute monarchy which relied on the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and the... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... In France under the ancien gime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: tats-G raux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ... Administrative map of ancien régime France Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France under the ancien gime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: tats-G raux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the...


The Third Estate comprised all those who were not members of the aristocracy or the clergy, including peasants, working people and the bourgeoisie. In 1789, the Third Estate made up 98% of the population in France. Due in part to a limited franchise, the representatives of the Third Estate actually came from the wealthy upper bourgeoisie; sometimes the term's meaning has been restricted to the middle class, as opposed to the working class. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...

Contents

The Estates General

Main article French States-General In France under the ancien gime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: tats-G raux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ...


The first Estates-General was called by Philip IV in 1302, in order to obtain national approval for his anticlerical policy. Philip organized the assembly into three divisions, and every following Estates-General down to 1789 maintained the division. Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ...


The Estates-General of France dwindled in importance, and after 1614 it was not called again for 175 years. Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ...


1789: End of The Estates General

Main article Estates-General of 1789 The Estates-General of 1789 was the first meeting of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry, since 1614. ...


In May 1789, Louis XVI convened the Estates-General in order to address the financial crisis of the kingdom, which was effectively bankrupt. By this point, however, the French aristocracy has declined in power and influence, while the bourgeoisie had become much more important and conscious of itself as a class. The aristocracy still refused to support the effectively bankrupt monarchy, citing immunity from taxation. The Third Estate, containing representatives of the bourgeois, asked for greater share of representation than it had possessed in earlier centuries; they were given twice as many representatives, but since voting was to be by the three Estates rather than by individual representatives, this gave them no immediately meaningful advantage. The Third Estate then asked for all estates to meet together as a single body. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


When Louis XVI did not respond, the Third Estate declared itself (June 17, 1789) the National Assembly, invited representatives of the other two estates to join them, and signed the Tennis Court Oath demanding a democratic constitution for France. The Third Estate, along with the support of sympathetic clergy and aristocrats, managed to win support of both the popular mobs of Paris and of much of the national military, and thus found itself in a position to reorganize the French state as it saw fit, marking the beginning of the first modern revolution the world had ever seen. June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ...


Quote

1st. What is the third estate? Everything.
2nd. What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing.
3rd. What does it demand? To become something therein.
-Abbé Sieyès, "What is the third estate?"("Qu'est-ce que le Tiers-Etat?"), January 1789 [1] (http://www.magnesium.net/~locutus/work/eurohist2.htm)

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès ( May 3, 1748 - June 20, 1836) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the revolutionary and Napoleonic era. ...

See also

See also:

In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... The term Fourth Estate refers to the press, both in its explicit capacity of advocacy and in its implicit ability to frame political issues. ... A social class is, in the most basic sense, a group of people that shares the same or similar social status. ... Class Warfare is a book of interviews with Noam Chomsky conducted by David Barsamian. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ...

References

  • Jackson J. Spielvogel, Western Civilization, West Publishing Co. Minneapolis, 1994. for the English-language version of the quote from Abbé Sieyès, quoted at http://www.magnesium.net/~locutus/work/eurohist2.htm.
  • http://vdaucourt.free.fr/Mothisto/Sieyes2/Sieyes2.htm for French-language original of this quotation.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Third Estate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate).
The Third Estate comprised all those who were not members of the aristocracy or the clergy, including peasants, working people and the bourgeoisie.
The Third Estate, containing representatives of the bourgeois, asked for a greater share of representation than it had possessed in earlier centuries; they were given twice as many representatives, but since voting was to be by the three Estates rather than by individual representatives, this gave them no immediately meaningful advantage.
Third World definition (2614 words)
Like the third estate, wrote Sauvy, the third world is nothing, and it "wants to be something." The term therefore implies that the third world is exploited, much as the third estate was exploited, and that, like the third estate its destiny is a revolutionary one.
The underdevelopment of the third world is marked by a number of common traits; distorted and highly dependent economies devoted to producing primary products for the developed world and to provide markets for their finished goods; traditional, rural social structures; high population growth; and widespread poverty.
Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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