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Encyclopedia > Third Battle of Chattanooga
Battle of Chattanooga
Part of the American Civil War

Date November 23November 25, 1863
Location Chattanooga, Tennessee
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg
Strength
Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1]
Casualties
5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4,146 missing/captured)[1]

The Third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga, and including the Battle of Lookout Mountain and the Battle of Missionary Ridge) was fought from November 23 to November 25, 1863, in the American Civil War. By defeating the Confederate forces of General Braxton Bragg, Union Army Major General Ulysses S. Grant eliminated the last Confederate control of Tennessee and opened the door to an invasion of the Deep South that led to the Atlanta Campaign of 1864. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Download high resolution version (1764x1221, 1655 KB)TITLE: Battle of Chattanooga--Gen. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Chattanooga” redirects here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Patrick Cleburne Strength Three Divisions One Division Casualties 507 221 The battle of Ringgold Gap was a battle in the American Civil War, fought in Northwest Georgia. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of...

Contents

Background

After their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, the 40,000 men of the Union Army of the Cumberland under Major General William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee besieged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender. His pursuit to the city outskirts had been leisurely, giving the Union soldiers time to prepare defenses. Bragg's troops established themselves on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, both of which had excellent views of the city, the Tennessee River (which flows through the city) and the Union's supply lines. Confederate artillery atop Lookout Mountain controlled access by the river, and Confederate cavalry launched raids on all supply wagons heading toward Chattanooga, which made it necessary for the Union to find another way to feed their men. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed... Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... “Chattanooga” redirects here. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... Missionary Ridge is a geographic feature in Chattanooga, Tennessee, site of the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a battle in the American Civil War, fought on November 25, 1863. ... View from the top of Lookout Mountain, February, 1864, by George N Barnard Lookout Mountain, actually a plateau, is located at the northwest corner of Georgia, the northeast corner of Alabama, and along the southern border of Tennessee near Chattanooga. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ...


The Union government, alarmed by the potential for defeat, sent reinforcements. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies, designated the Military Division of the Mississippi; he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas. Devising a plan known as the "Cracker Line", Grant's chief engineer, William F. "Baldy" Smith, launched a surprise amphibious landing at Brown's Ferry that opened the Tennessee River by linking up Thomas's Army of the Cumberland with a relief column of 20,000 troops led by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, thus allowing supplies and reinforcements to flow into Chattanooga, greatly increasing the chances for Grant's forces. In response, Bragg ordered Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet to force the Federals out of Lookout Valley. The ensuing Battle of Wauhatchie (October 28 to October 29) was one of the war's few battles fought exclusively at night. The Confederates were repulsed, and the Cracker Line was secured. is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Battle of Wauhatchie Conflict American Civil War Date October 28-29, 1863 Place Hamilton County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Wauhatchie, also known as Browns Ferry, was fought October 28–29, 1863, in Hamilton County, Marion County, and Dade County, Tennessee, in the American Civil War. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bragg weakened his forces by sending Longstreet's corps against Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside near Knoxville. When Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman arrived with his four divisions (20,000 men) in mid-November, Grant began offensive operations. Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Nickname: Location within the U.S. State of Tennessee. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ...


Initial movements

On November 23, Union forces under Thomas struck out and advanced east to capture a line from Orchard Knob and Indian Hill to Bushy Knob, and including Bald Knob (now the site of Chattanooga National Military Cemetery), placing them halfway to the Confederates' main line at the summit of Missionary Ridge. The advance met little Confederate resistance. Bragg moved Walker's division (under Brig. Gen. States Rights Gist) from Lookout Mountain to strengthen his left flank. is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... States Rights Gist, CSA States Rights Gist (September 3, 1831 — November 30, 1864) was a Confederate general who served during the Civil War. ...


Battle of Lookout Mountain

Battle of Chattanooga
Battle of Chattanooga

The plan for November 24 was a two-pronged attack—Hooker against the Confederate left, Sherman the right. Hooker's three divisions struck at dawn at Lookout Mountain and found that the defile between the mountain and the river had not been secured. They barreled right through this opening; the assault ended around 3:00 p.m. when ammunition ran low and fog had enveloped the mountain. This action has been called the "Battle above the Clouds" because of that fog. Bragg withdrew his forces from the southern end of the mountain to a line behind Chattanooga Creek, burning the bridges behind him. I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sherman crossed the Tennessee River successfully, then took what he thought was the north end of Missionary Ridge but was actually a completely separate rise known as Billy Goat Hill. The division of Patrick Cleburne was rushed in to reinforce the Confederate right flank at Tunnel Hill on the north end of the ridge. No attack occurred on this flank on November 24. Patrick Cleburne Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Franklin. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Battle of Missionary Ridge

On November 25, Grant changed his plan and called for a double envelopment by Sherman and Hooker. Thomas was to advance after Sherman reached Missionary Ridge from the north. The Ridge was a formidable defensive position, manned in depth, and Grant knew that a frontal assault against it would be suicidal, unless it could be arranged in support of the flanking attacks by Sherman and Hooker. As the morning progressed, Sherman was unable to break Cleburne's line, and Hooker's advance was slowed by the burned bridges on the creek. At 3:30 p.m., Grant was concerned that Bragg was reinforcing his right flank at Sherman's expense. Hence, he ordered Thomas to move forward and try to seize the first of three lines of Confederate entrenchments to his front. is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ...


The Union soldiers moved forward and captured the first line but were subjected there to punishing fire from the two remaining Confederate lines up the ridge. Most of Thomas's troops had been at the disastrous loss at Chickamauga and had suffered taunts by Sherman's and Burnside's newly arrived forces. Now they were under fire from above with no apparent plan to advance or move back. Without orders, the Union soldiers continued the attack against the remaining lines. They advanced doggedly up the steep slope, shouting "Chickamauga, Chickamauga!" until they finally overwhelmed and captured the remaining Confederate lines. Bragg had placed his artillery and trenches of the infantry along the actual crest of the ridge, rather than the military crest, and they were unable to provide effective fire. Nonetheless, the Army of the Cumberland's ascent of Missionary Ridge was one of the war's most dramatic events. A Union officer remembered that Military crest is a term in military science that refers to the shoulder of a hill or ridge rather than its actual crest (highest point). ...

little regard to formation was observed. Each battalion assumed a triangular shape, the colors at the apex. ... [a] color-bearer dashes ahead of the line and falls. A comrade grasps the flag. ... He, too, falls. Then another picks it up ... waves it defiantly, and as if bearing a charmed life, he advances steadily towards the top ...[2]

Grant was initially furious that his orders had not been followed exactly. Thomas was taken by surprise as well, knowing that he would be blamed if the assault failed. But it succeeded. By 4:30 p.m., the center of Bragg's line broke and fled in panic, requiring the abandonment of Missionary Ridge and a headlong retreat eastward to the Chickamauga River (also known as South Chickamauga Creek).


Aftermath

During the night, Bragg ordered his army to withdraw toward Chickamauga Station (currently the site of Lovell Air Field) and the following day began retreating from there toward Dalton, Georgia, in two columns taking two different routes. During the retreat, minor battles were fought at Chickamauga Station, at Shepherd's Run in Hickory Valley, at Cat Creek (Mackey Branch) in old Concord community, and at Graysville, Georgia. The date, November 26, was coincidentally the first official American Thanksgiving Day. Dalton is a city in Whitfield County, Georgia, United States. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ...


The pursuit ordered by Grant was effectively thwarted at the Battle of Ringgold Gap. Casualties for the Union Army amounted to 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, and 349 missing) of about 56,000 engaged; Confederate casualties were 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, and 4,146 missing, mostly prisoners) of about 44,000. When a chaplain asked General Thomas whether the dead should be sorted and buried by state, Thomas replied "Mix 'em up. I'm tired of States' rights."[3] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Patrick Cleburne Strength Three Divisions One Division Casualties 507 221 The battle of Ringgold Gap was a battle in the American Civil War, fought in Northwest Georgia. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ...


One of the Confederacy's two major armies was routed. The Union held Chattanooga, the "Gateway to the Lower South." It became the supply and logistics base for Sherman's 1864 Atlanta Campaign, as well as for the Army of the Cumberland, and Grant had won his final battle in the West prior to receiving command of all Union armies in March 1864. Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ...


See also

Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Battle of Chattanooga II was a battle in the American Civil War, beginning on August 21, 1863, as the opening battle in the Chickamauga Campaign. ...

References

  • National Park Service battle description
  • Catton, Bruce, The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War, 1982 ed., American Heritage Publishing, 1960, ISBN 0-517-38556-2.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Livermore, Thomas L., Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America 1861-65, reprinted with errata, Morninside House, 1986, ISBN 0-527-57600-X.

Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Livermore, pp. 106-08.
  2. ^ Catton, p. 439.
  3. ^ Eicher, p. 613.

Further reading

  • McDonough, James Lee, Chattanooga: A Death Grip on the Confederacy, University of Tennessee Press, 1984. ISBN 0-87049-630-1.

External links


 
 

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