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Encyclopedia > Think tank

A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization, institute, corporation, or group that conducts research and engages in advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economy, science or technology issues, industrial or business policies, or military advice.[1] Many think tanks are non-profit organizations, which some countries such as the US and Canada provide with tax exempt status. While many think tanks are funded by governments, interest groups, or businesses, some think tanks also derive income from consulting or research work related to their mandate.[2] A think tank is a group of individuals dedicated to high-level synergistic research on a variety of subjects, usually in military laboratories, corporations, or other institutions. ... This article is about the concept. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead foregone. ... This article is about political advocates. ... For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation). ...


There are different opinions about think tanks; supporters like the National Institute for Research Advancement hail them as "one of the main policy actors in democratic societies ..., assuring a pluralistic, open and accountable process of policy analysis, research, decision-making and evaluation".[3] Opposing them, critics like SourceWatch have called them "little more than public relations fronts ... generating self-serving scholarship that serves the advocacy goals of their industry sponsors."[4] The National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA) is a Japanese independent policy research body based in Tokyo founded in 1974 under the National Institute for Research Advancement Act. ... SourceWatchs logo features a magnifying glass through which its name can be seen. ... For other senses of this word, see Bias (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Since "think tank" is a term that has only found use since the 1950s, there is still some debate over what constitutes the first think tank. One candidate is the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI), founded in 1831 at the initiative of the Duke of Wellington. Another is the Fabian Society of Britain, founded in 1884 to promote gradual social change. The Brookings Institution, founded in the US in 1916 is another candidate for the first think tank. The term think tank itself, however, was originally used in reference to organizations that offered military advice, most notably the RAND Corporation, formed originally in 1946 as an offshoot of Douglas Aircraft and which became an independent corporation in 1948. It has been suggested that FRUSI be merged into this article or section. ... Arms of Dukes of Wellington The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior rank in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... For other uses, see RAND (disambiguation). ...


Until around 1970, there were no more than several dozen think tanks, mostly focused on offering non-partisan policy and military advice to the United States government, and generally with large staffs and research budgets. After 1970, the number of think tanks exploded, as many smaller new think tanks were formed to express various ideological views.


Until the 1940s, most think tanks were known only by the name of the institution. During the Second World War, think tanks were referred to as "brain boxes" after the slang term for the skull. The phrase "think tank" in wartime American slang referred to rooms in which strategists discussed war planning. The first recorded use of the phrase to refer to modern think tanks was in 1959, and by the 1960s the term was commonly used to describe RAND and other groups assisting the armed forces. In recent times, the phrase "think tank" has become applied to a wide range of institutions, and there are no precise definitions of the term. Marketing or public relations organizations, especially of an international character, sometimes refer to themselves as think tanks, for example. For other uses, see RAND (disambiguation). ...


Types of think tanks

Think tanks represent a variety of ideological perspectives. Some think tanks, such as the Heritage Foundation, are clearly aligned with conservative causes. Others, especially those focused on social and environmental reforms, such as the Tellus Institute, are viewed as clearly liberal. Still others, such as the Cato Institute, promote libertarian social and economic reforms. The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Tellus Institute is a non-profit research and policy organization based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement...


A new trend, resulting from globalization, is collaboration between think tanks across continents. For instance, the Brookings Institution, Washington DC, collaborates with Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Qatar for an initiative on West-Islam relations. Also in the area of West-Islam relations, Strategic Foresight Group, a think tank based in India, works closely with the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats in the European Parliament. The World Economic Forum has created a Council of 100 Leaders on West-Islam relations, which brings together heads of major global think tanks ranging from Oxford Islamic Centre at Oxford University to Strategic Foresight Group, Observer Research Foundation,CASS-India, CSDS, Centre for Policy Research, ETC in Delhi of India and Al-Azhar University in Egypt. Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Introduction Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) is a think tank that helps policy makers to anticipate and shape, the future in uncertain times. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Introduction Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) is a think tank that helps policy makers to anticipate and shape, the future in uncertain times. ... ETC can refer to: Electronic toll collection Electronic throttle control Estimated Time of/to Completion Et cetera Electronic Theatre Controls Electron transport chain in mitochondria responsible for creating a proton gradient that allows the formation of ATP. ATM card service by HSBC and Hang Seng Bank only for withdrawal of... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ...


Criticism

Critics such as Ralph Nader have suggested that, because of the private nature of the funding of think tanks, their results are biased to a varying degree. Some argue members will be inclined to promote or publish only those results that ensure the continued flow of funds from private donors. This risk of distortion similarly threatens the reputation and integrity of organizations such as universities, once considered to stand wholly within the public sector.[citation needed] Defenders state that think tanks arose to challenge alleged liberal orthodoxy of the universities in place starting in the 1970s. Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial...


Some critics[who?] go further to assert think tanks are little more than propaganda tools for promoting the ideological arguments of whatever group established them. They charge that most think tanks, which are usually headquartered in state or national seats of government, exist merely for large-scale lobbying to form opinion in favor of special private interests. They give examples such as organizations calling themselves think tanks having hosted lunches for politicians to present research that critics claim is merely in the political interest of major global interests such as Microsoft, but that the connections to these interests are never disclosed. They charge, as another example, that the RAND Corporation issues research reports on national missile defense that accelerate investment into the very military products being produced by the military manufacturers who control RAND. Critics[who?] assert that the status of most think-tanks as non-profit and tax exempt makes them an even more efficient tool to put special interest money to work. The Discovery Institute has generated a great deal of controversy by injecting the controversial concept of intelligent design into public debate. [5] [6] [7] This article is about the political effort. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For other uses, see RAND (disambiguation). ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead foregone. ... This article is about political advocates. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ...


In some cases, corporate interests have found it useful to create "think tanks" that are thinly disguised vehicles for corporate propaganda. For example, The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition was formed in the mid 1990s to dispute research finding a link between second-hand smoke and cancer. [8] According to an internal memo from Philip Morris, "the credibility of the EPA is defeatable, but not on the basis of ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) alone. It must be part of a larger mosaic that concentrates all the EPA's enemies against it at one time." [9] The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), is well documented in the Tobacco Documents entered in evidence and passed through due process of law of the largest civil suit in United States history which resulted in a Multistate Settlement Agreement of a record $240 billion dollars by the tobacco companies. ...


Asian think tanks

Chinese think tanks

In the People's Republic of China a number of think tanks are sponsored by governmental agencies but still retain sufficient non-official status to be able to propose and debate ideas more freely. Indeed, most of the actual diplomacy between China and the United States has taken the form of academic exchanges between members of think tanks. This article is about negotiations. ...


Hong Kong think tanks

In Hong Kong, those early think tanks established in the late 1980s and early 1990s including Hong Kong Transition Project, Hong Kong Democratic Foundation and The One Country Two Systems Research Institute focused on the political development including first direct Legislative Council members election in 1991 and the political framework of “One Country, Two Systems” manifested in the Sino-British Joint Declaration. After the return of sovereignty to the Mainland China in 1997, more and more think tanks were established by various groups of intellectuals and professionals. They have various missions and objectives including promoting civic education; undertaking research on economic social and political policies (the mission of the Civic Exchange); promoting “public understanding of and participation in the political, economic, and social development of the Hong Kong SAR” (one of the objectives of Savantas). Civic Exchange (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) is a non-government public policy think tank and registered charity group based in Hong Kong. ... The Lion Rock Institute 獅子山學會 was founded in 2004. ...


Iranian think tanks

  • Ravand Institute

Asef Think Tank, another Iranian Think Tank, is founded by Aghil Malakifar in 2004[10]. It has been offering a blend of interdisciplinary research, global focus, and accessible writing that has made it a leading source of Farsi information on the interactions among key driving forces of the future. This article is about the institution. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi...


European think tanks

Denmark

In Denmark, the Copenhagen Institute is the first free-market think tank, founded in 2003. In 2004 high-profile representatives of Danish academia, business, media and the arts founded the free-market think tank CEPOS, which has been active in setting a new agenda in the Danish welfare debate. The Copenhagen Institute is Denmarks first free-market think tank. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Danish Centre for Political Studies, also known as CEPOS, is an independent classical liberal/free-market conservative think-tank in Denmark. ...


France

Most known think tanks include the Montaigne Institute, the EU-centered Robert Schuman Foundation, the Concorde Foundation, the libertarian Turgot Institute, the geoeconomics-centered Institut Choiseul and the antiglobalization Copernic Foundation. Headquartered in the heart of Paris, France, Institut Choiseul for International Politics and Geoeconomics is an independent research center that analyzes international relations, economic and political strategies as well as international cultures. ...


Other think tanks are more independent, such as : La Republique des Idées (close to the left), [nonfiction.fr] (think tank based on ideas, debates and nonfiction topics), terra nova (close to the socialist party, but independent).


Some of them are associated with the major political parties:

Union for a Popular Movement Uridine monophosphate, cf. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Socialist Party is the name of several different political parties around the world that are explicitly called Socialist. ...

Germany

In Germany all of the major parties are loosely associated with research foundations that play some role in shaping policy, but generally from the more disinterested role of providing research to support policymakers than explicitly proposing policy. The foundations are:

The German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP) is a non-partisan foreign policy-oriented think-tank with close links to the German Foreign Office. The pro-business Initiative Neue Soziale Marktwirtschaft (INSM) is funded by the industry lobby-group Gesamtmetall. The US-based Aspen Institute has a sister organization in Berlin, committed to the promotion of transatlantic dialogue. The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Heinrich Böll Foundation, affiliated with the German Green Party and headquartered in Berlin, Germany, is a legally independent political foundation. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... Mission The German Hanns-Seidel-Foundation is a non-profit organization committed to serve democracy, peace and development. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ... The Friedrich Naumann Foundation (Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung für die Freiheit) (FNF) is a German foundation for liberal politics, related to the Free Democratic Party. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Konrad Adenauer Foundation (Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung) (KAS) is a German research foundation associated with the Christian Democratic Union party of Germany. ... The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Bonn The SPD-associated Friedrich Ebert Foundation (German: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung; Abbreviation: FES) is the largest and oldest of the German party-associated foundations. ... The Aspen Institute is a U.S. nonprofit cultural organization founded in 1950 dedicated to fostering enlightened leadership and open-minded dialogue. ...


Greece

In Greece, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement(PASOK), is affiliated with the 'Institute of Developing Policies, Andreas Papandreou', ΙΣΤΑΜΕ. The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou (Greek: ) (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a major figure in Greek politics. ...


Ireland

In Ireland, the Economic and Social Research Institute advises the government on all economic and social matter. The Institute of European Affairs is a leading contributor to European debate on climate change, security, policy and economic issues. The Iona Institute is an Irish based think tank which focuses on religion and society. The Economic and Social Research Institute in Ireland produces research focusing on Irelands economic and social development in order to inform policy-making and societal understanding. ... Logo of the Institute of European Affairs The Institute of European Affairs website is a policy research think-tank and forum based in Dublin (with a branch in Brussels). ... The Iona Institute is an Irish-based think tank specialising in religion and society. ...


Italy

In Italy, many think tanks are described as independent, non-partisan organisations. However, there are also a number of research centres which derive funds from government contracts. The following is a partial listing of some of the most referenced Italian think tanks. Partisan may refer to: A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ...

  • Adam Smith Society
  • Centre for Social Studies and Policies (CENSIS)
  • Centre for Science, Society and Citizenship (CSSC)
  • Institute for International Affairs
  • Roselli Foundation
  • Vision
  • In the Venices (Italy), the Venezie Institute is the first Venetian free-market think tank, founded in 2005. It aims to bring about institutional, social and economic changes in the Venices (Venezie) based on the traditional Venetian principles of free enterprise, institutional integrity, limited government and individual liberty. It is completely independent of any political party, religious or economic interest group. Its motto: "Pro Bono Publico".

The European University Institute (EUI) in Florence (Italy) is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by the European Community member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective. ... The word Venices is generally taken as meaning the historical Venices within Northern Italy - i. ... The Venezie Institute is a research unit of the Confederazione Veneziana movement. ... The word Venices is generally taken as meaning the historical Venices within Northern Italy - i. ...

Netherlands

Just like in Germany, all of the major parties in the Netherlands are associated with research foundations that play a role in shaping policy.

  • The GreenLeft party is associated with the Wetenschappelijk Bureau GroenLinks;
  • The PvdA is associated with the Wiardi Beckman Stichting;
  • The VVD is associated with the Teldersstichting.

One non-partisan, partially government-sponsored and academically independent institute with a think tank function is the Netherlands Institute for International Relations 'Clingendael'. GroenLinks (GL, English: GreenLeft) is a Dutch Green political party. ... The Labour Party (in Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA) is a Dutch social-democratic political party. ... The Wiardi Beckman Stichting (The Wiardi Beckman Foundation) is a scientific institute linked to the left-wing Social Democratic Party PvdA. The foundation is named after Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman, a member of the Upper House, who during the Second World War was summoned by Queen Wilhelmina to become a... The Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) (Dutch: Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie) is a Dutch liberal political party. ...


Poland

After the fall of the Iron Curtain, Central Europe has seen a number of new think tanks arise and some of them are already playing a role in the forming of government policy. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


In Poland, there are several think tanks. The most well-known of them are:

Think tanks on economic issues: Institute of Public Affairs (IPA, Instytut Spraw Publicznych) is an independent, non-partisan public policy think tank. ...

Centrum im. ...

Portugal

In Portugal, a very important think tank is Compromisso Portugal, based on neoliberal-minded entrepreneurs and academists aiming to contribute to the debate of ideas how to develop Portugal.


Compromisso Portugal is in fact not a think tank - as it is shown on its own website (consider the promoters wall are the members) - there are no permanent researchers, fellows or academics who are working in the organization. The initiative uses the motto "think tank you" as a sort of market slogan. It is comprised of people who come together for a few meetings (one main one according to the site) a year. Currently, in Portugal there are no true think tanks. Perhaps the only organization that comes close to this sort of description and has a permanent structure is Instituto de Estudos Estratégicos e Internacionais (IEEI) and deals with international and strategic policy issues. Look up Not in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Romania

Romanian Academic Society (SAR) is a Bucharest-based think tank and NGO founded in 1996. It is considered close to the right wing of politics. The Romanian Academic Society (Societatea Academică Română in Romanian) is a Bucharest-based think tank and NGO founded in 1995, which seeks to contribute to good governance and development through policy research and advocacy, among other goals, such as European integration for Romania and enhancement of public dialogue with...


Spain

In Spain, think tanks are progressively raising their public profile. The most influential Spanish think tank is the Elcano Royal Institute, created in 2001 following the example of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) in the UK, and linked to the Government in power. More independent and also influential are the CIDOB in Barcelona founded in 1973; the Juan March Institute in Madrid, created in 1986; FRIDE (Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior) established in 1999 by Diego Hidalgo and main driving force behind projects such as the Club de Madrid, a group of democratic former heads of state and government (including Clinton, Gorbachev, Cardoso or Delors) who provide counsel to governments and institutions all over the world or the Foreign Policy Spanish Edition. The Fundación Alternativas -also based in Madrid- is, for its part, close to the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party). Former Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar presides over the FAES Fundacion para el Analisis y los Estudios Sociales, a think tank that is associated with the Partido Popular. Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs. ... CIDOB, acronym of Center of International Relations and International Cooperation (in Catalan language, Centre d’Informació i Documentació Internacionals a Barcelona), is a Barcelona, Spain -based foundation. ... The Institute, located in Madrid (Spain), it is part of the Juan March Foundation, one of the Spanishs leading charities for social research. ... The Club of Madrid is an independent organization created for the purpose of promoting democracy and change in the global community. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... José María Aznar López (born February 25, 1953) was President of the Government (styled Presidente del Gobierno, i. ... FAES is the acronym for the Spanish think tank association Fundacion para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales, translated as Foundation for Social Analysis and Studies. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the main centre-right political party in Spain. ...


Sweden

In Sweden, the Eudoxa think tank has successfully introduced a combination between studies of free-market ideas, emerging technologies, technological and environmental foresight. Most famous among the Swedish think tanks is Timbro, a free market think tank. Eudoxa AB is a Swedish think tank, formed in 2000. ... Emerging technologies and converging technologies are terms used interchangeably to cover the emergence and convergence of new and potentially disruptive technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, robotics, and artificial intelligence. ... Timbro is a Swedish neoliberal, free market think tank and lobbying group that works to influence legislation as well as public opinion and promote the interests of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (in Swedish: Svenskt Näringsliv). ...


Switzerland

In Switzerland, Avenir Suisse (which proposes a free-market liberalism agenda) is a think tank that is currently active. The Geneva Association (also known as the International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics) is another global think tank. Its main goal is to research the growing economic importance of insurance activities in the major sectors of the economy. Avenir Suisse is a free-market liberal Swiss think tank. ... The International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics, also known by its short name The Geneva Association, is a unique world organisation formed by a maximum of 80 CEOs (Chief Executive Officers) from the most prominent insurance companies around the world. ...


United Kingdom

In Britain, think tanks play a similar role to the United States, attempting to shape policy, and indeed there is some cooperation between British and American think tanks. Some of the major UK think tanks include RUSI, Chatham House, IISS, Policy Exchange, the Globalisation Institute, the Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, Migration Watch UK, the Institute for Public Policy Research, Demos, the Social Market Foundation, the Adam Smith Institute, the Centre for Policy Studies, the Overseas Development Institute, the Bruges Group,the Centre for European Reform, the Young Foundation, and the Henry Jackson Society. It has been suggested that FRUSI be merged into this article or section. ... Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs. ... The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs. ... Policy Exchange is a centre-right think tank based in London. ... The Globalisation Institute is a free-market international development think tank founded in London in 2005 and much favoured by Conservative Party (UK) leader David Cameron. ... The Centre for Defence and International Security Studies (or CDiSS) is a British defence and security think tank. ... MigrationWatch UK is an independent pressure group that is concerned with issues of immigration to the United Kingdom. ... The Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank in the United Kingdom, with close links to the ruling Labour Party. ... Demos is an influential think tank based in the United Kingdom. ... The Social Market Foundation is a think tank based in the UK. It was formed in 1989 by supporters of David Owen after the SDP disbanded. ... The Adam Smith Institute is a think tank based in the United Kingdom, named after the father of modern economics, Adam Smith. ... The Centre for Policy Studies is a United Kingdom-based think tank. ... Largest UK think tank and research institute on international development. ... The Bruges Group is a euro-sceptic think tank which is often associated with the British Conservative Party (although this has been disputed). ... The Centre for European Reform is a London-based think tank devoted to improving the quality of the debate on the European Union. ... The Young Foundation is an organisation whose proclaimed mission is to undertake research to identify and understand social needs and then develop practical initiatives and institutions to address them. ... The Henry Jackson Society is a non-partisan society or think tank (with tax-exempt charity status) that aims to promote democratic geopolitics. It is based at Peterhouse, a college of the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. ...

See also: List of UK think tanks.

This is a list of think tanks in the United Kingdom. ...

Brussels

A number of think tanks are based in Brussels and carry out research related to the European Union, including the Centre for European Policy Studies, founded in 1983[11] as the first EU-focused think tank and Bruegel, which is devoted to international economics and is funded by 16 EU member states and 28 private corporations,[citation needed]. This article is about the settlement itself. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...


The most prominent Brussels-based think-tanks are:

The European Policy Centre (EPC) is a European non-profit think tank. ...

Middle Eastern Think Tanks

Turkey

Think tanks in Turkey are relatively new business. Many of them are sister organisations of a political party or a company. University think tanks are not typical think tanks. Turkish think tanks provide research and ideas yet they play less important roles in policy making when compared with the American think tanks. Among the most important think tanks in Turkey are the following:

  • USAK (Ankara) In English, the organization calls itself International Strategic Research Organization, ISRO. On the website, it is claimed that "ISRO is not intended to be a forum for single-issue advocacy or lobbying." It was established in 2004 and is an umbrella organization with 9 research centers. It is liberal and close to the Turkish diplomatic circles, military and political circles. Sponsored by the business community and member donations.

It has been suggested that ODAM be merged into this article or section. ...

United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... The Zayed Center for Coordination and Follow-Up was set up in 1999 as the think-tank of the League of Arab States, an association of 22 Arab nations, with the endorsement of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Organization of African Unity. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ... The Gulf Research Center (GRC) is an independent research institute located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq...

Israel

The Shalem Center is an academic research institute in Jerusalem established in 1994 with the goal of developing the ideas needed to guide and sustain the Jewish people in the coming decades. ... Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ...

United States think tanks

Think tanks in the United States play an important role in forming both foreign and domestic policy. Typically, an issue such as national missile defense will be debated within and among think tanks and the results of these debates will influence government policy makers. Think tanks in the United States generally receive funding from private donors, and members of private organizations. Think tanks may feel more free to propose and debate controversial ideas than people within government. A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... In government, domestic policy is the counterpart of foreign policy; it consists of all government policy decisions, programs, and actions that primarily deal with internal matters, as opposed to relations with other nation-states. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute...


Although think tanks span the political spectrum, liberal critics charge that conservative think tanks are far more prevalent than their progressive counterparts. To this, conservatives respond that liberals are present in greater numbers on university faculties. In an annual survey, the liberal media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) lists the 25 think tanks most often cited in the mainstream media. Their data for 2006 show that the most-cited think tank was the Brookings Institution, followed by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Heritage Foundation, the American Enterprise Institute, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Of these top five, the FAIR regards the first two as centrist and the next three as conservative. Regarding media citations of think tanks more generally, the FAIR found 45% to be centrist, 40% conservative or center-right, and 16% progressive or center-left. Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), is a media criticism organization based in New York, New York, founded in 1986. ...


Conservative

Modern neoconservatism is associated with some of the foreign policy initiatives of think tanks such as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Project for the New American Century (PNAC). The Claremont Institute and the Heritage Foundation are more traditional conservative think tanks. Neoconservatism refers to the political movement, ideology, and public policy goals of new conservatives in the United States, who are mainly characterized by their relatively interventionist and hawkish views on foreign policy, and their lack of support for the small government principles and restrictions on social spending, when compared with... The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... The Claremont Institute is a conservative think tank based in Claremont, California. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ...

The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... CSPs Freedom Flame logo. ... The Claremont Institute is a conservative think tank based in Claremont, California. ... -1... The Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) is a American think tank. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... The Hudson Institute is a right-leaning U.S. think tank, founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by the futurist Herman Kahn and other colleagues from the RAND Corporation. ... The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research is an influential New York City-based free market think tank established in 1978. ... The Middle East Forum (MEF) is an American pro-Israel neoconservative think tank founded in 1990 by historian and columnist Daniel Pipes, who also serves as its director. ... The National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) is a non-partisan, non-profit think tank that develops and promotes private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector. ... The Pacific Research Institute (PRI) is a free market think tank based in San Francisco, California. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ...

Liberal

On the other side of the political spectrum are think tanks such as the Institute for Policy Studies and the Center for American Progress. Economic Policy Institute is a prominent progressive think tank whose research emphasizes interests of low-income and middle-income workers. The Roosevelt Institution is pushing the think tank model by attempting to organize university and college student bodies into effective think tanks. Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) is an American lobby for progressive or leftist causes based in Washington, DC. The organization was founded in 1963 with a stated mandate to provide an independent center of research and education on public policy problems in Washington. ... The Center for American Progress is a progressive American political policy research and advocacy organization. ... The Economic Policy Institute or EPI is a progressive United States think tank based in Washington, D.C. and concerned with, as its name implies, the formulation of economic policy. ... The Roosevelt Institution is a student think tank, the first of its kind. ...

The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) describes itself as a policy organization . ... The Center for American Progress is a progressive American political policy research and advocacy organization. ... The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) is an economic policy think-tank based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by economists and current co-directors Dean Baker and Mark Weisbrot in 1999, according to the organizations website. ... The Center for Progressive Reform (originally the Center for Progressive Regulation) is an academic think tank which relies primarily on the research contributions of its Member Scholars, professional university-based academics. ... The Economic Policy Institute or EPI is a progressive United States think tank based in Washington, D.C. and concerned with, as its name implies, the formulation of economic policy. ... Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) is an American lobby for progressive or leftist causes based in Washington, DC. The organization was founded in 1963 with a stated mandate to provide an independent center of research and education on public policy problems in Washington. ... The Phoenix Group was founded by those attending a political meeting attended by George Soros and Peter Lewis[1] in Scottsdale, Arizona. ... The Rockridge Institute is an American non-profit research and progressive think tank located in Berkeley, California. ... Public Citizen is a U.S. non-governmental organization, founded by Ralph Nader in 1971 and based in Washington, DC. Its activities span across a diverse range of issues, including energy policy, trade policy, campaign finance reform and accountability, consumer protection, medical malpractice, and public health. ... The Roosevelt Institution is a student think tank, the first of its kind. ...

Centrist

In order to retain non-profit tax-exempt status most think tanks, including those listed above as conservative or liberal, formally claim nonpartisan status. Centrist think tanks include the Atlantic Council of the United States and Center for Strategic and International Studies, non-partisan foreign policy-oriented organizations, the Institute for Collaborative Engagement, a non-partisan internationally-focused organization, and the The Lincoln Square Institute, a non-partisan presidential election forum. Other think tanks include Brookings Institution a center-left organization considered the oldest think tank in America, and the Progressive Policy Institute, a "New Democrat" organization focused on moving the Democratic party in a more centrist direction. Organisations called Atlantic Councils exist in most NATO and Partnership for Peace countries. ... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... The Institute for Collaborative Engagement is an American based internationally focused think-tank formed around the year 2000. ... Lincoln Square in Chicago, Illinois - Home of The Lincoln Square Institute // The Lincoln Square Institute was founded in 2006 by a group of public policy scholars. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly...

Founded in 1997, the American Iranian Council (AIC) was formed as a civil society organization focused upon promoting better relations between the United States and Iran. ... The Aspen Institute is a U.S. nonprofit cultural organization founded in 1950 dedicated to fostering enlightened leadership and open-minded dialogue. ... Organisations called Atlantic Councils exist in most NATO and Partnership for Peace countries. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... The Endowments headquarters at 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private nonprofit organization promoting international cooperation and active international engagement by the United States of America. ... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... The Constitution Project is a non-profit organization in the United States that works on building bipartisan consensus around major constitutional and legal problems. ... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... The Committee for Economic Development (CED) is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan think tank based in Washington, DC. Its membership consists of some 200 senior corporate executives and university leaders. ... The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) is a non-profit, non-partisan public policy think tank, which focuses on technology and innovation. ... The New America Foundation is a non-profit public policy institute and think tank located in Washington, D.C. that promotes innovative political solutions transcending conventional party lines -- what they call radical centrist politics. ... The Progressive Policy Institute (PPI) is a think tank in the United States, founded in 1989 and affiliated with the Democratic Leadership Council. ... Resources for the Future (RFF) is a nonprofit and nonpartisan organization that conducts independent research -- rooted primarily in economics and other social sciences -- on environmental, energy, and natural resource issues. ... The Henry L. Stimson Center is a not-for-profit institution focused on practical, creative, non-partisan solutions to enduring and challenging problems of national and international security. ... For other uses, see RAND (disambiguation). ... Based in Washington, D.C., the nonpartisan Urban Institute collects data, conducts policy research, evaluates social programs, educates the public on key domestic issues, and provides advice and technical assistance to developing governments abroad. ... The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center) was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by act of Congress in 1968. ...

Libertarian

The most prominent is the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank based in Washington, DC. The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement...

The Ayn Rand Institute: The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism (ARI) was established in 1985, three years after Ayn Rands death, by Leonard Peikoff, Rands legal and intellectual heir. ... The Atlas Economic Research Foundation was founded in 1981 by Antony Fisher. ... Cascade Policy Institute is a libertarian-leaning think tank based in Oregon. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) is a neoliberal think tank based in Washington DC. It calls itself a non-profit, non-partisan research and advocacy institute dedicated to the principles of free enterprise and limited government. ... The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) was the first modern think tank established in the United States specifically to promote, research and promulgate free-market and libertarian ideas. ... The Goldwater Institute is a Phoenix, Arizona-based public policy think-tank established in 1988. ... The Heartland Institute is a free-market oriented public policy think tank based in Chicago. ... The Independent Institute is a libertarian-oriented think tank in the United States. ... The Mackinac Center for Public Policy is a nonprofit free-market research and educational organization located in Midland, Michigan. ... The Mercatus Center at George Mason University is a research, education, and outreach organization that works with scholars, policy experts, and government officials to connect academic learning and real world practice. ... The Ludwig von Mises Institute is a foundation, based in Auburn, Alabama, dedicated to research on economics and political economy. ... The Reason Foundation is a nonprofit think tank founded in 1986 that also publishes Reason magazine. ...

Government

Government think tanks are also important in the United States, particularly in the security and defense field. These include the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Institute for Homeland Security Studies, and the Center for Technology and National Security Policy, at the National Defense University; the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the Naval War College and the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College. For more than 25 years, the National Defense University (NDU)[1]has been the premier center for Joint Professional Military Education. ... The Naval War College. ... The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI)[1] is the U.S. Armys institute for geostrategic and national security research and analysis. ... The United States Army War College is a United States Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500 acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks, a military post dating back to the 1770s. ...


In addition, the government funds, wholly or in part, activities at approximately 30 Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). FFRDCs, are unique independent nonprofit entities sponsored and funded by the U.S. government to meet specific long-term technical needs that cannot be met by any other single organization. FFRDCs typically assist government agencies with scientific research and analysis, systems development, and systems acquisition. They bring together the expertise and outlook of government, industry, and academia to solve complex technical problems. Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) conduct research for the United States Government. ...


These FFRDCs include the MITRE Corporation, the Institute for Defense Analyses, the Aerospace Corporation and others organizations supporting various departments within the U.S. Government.


Other countries

Russia

  • Institute of World Economy and International Relations
  • Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies

Russian think tanks have experienced a precipitous decline over the past five years. Think tanks under the Soviet Union, analogous to their American counterparts, grew to play a significant role in strategic policy formation. During the era of glasnost, begun by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and continuing under Russian President Boris Yeltsin, public think tanks and policy organizations underwent a brief blooming. However, as economic problems intensified under Yeltsin, and political pressure on public organizations grew under President Vladimir Putin, most of the Russian think tanks have withered away while those who stood closer to Kremlin saw a recent revival. //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


Brazil

  • Instituto Liberdade is a conservative/libertarian Brazilian Think Tank, formed by intellectual entrepreneurs and funded by private sources.
  • Institute of Applied Economic Research is a public foundation linked up to the Strategic Issues Core of the Brazilian Republic Presidency. This foundation is better known as IPEA. Its research activities are made to give technical and institutional support enhancing governmental actions.
  • VIDE - Vigilância Democrática is a conservative Brazilian Think Tank, formed by young professionals (business administrators, engineers, artists etc.) bringing the conservative agenda (defense of live, free commerce, individual liberties) to national and local discussions in Brazil.

Instituto Liberdade do Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian Think Tank, funded by private donors, aligned with the Austrian School of Economics theory, conducting research on public policies issues in order to influence government policy makers, debating within and among other free market think tanks, and creating awareness in... The Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA) or Institute of Applied Economic Research is a Brazilian government-led research organization dedicated to generation of macroeconomical, sectorial and thematic studies in order to base government planning and policy making. ...

Australia

Most Australian think tanks are based at universities - for example, the Melbourne Institute - or are government funded - for example, the Productivity Commission or the CSIRO. The Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research (often simply referred to as The Melbourne Institute) is an Australian economic research institute based in Melbourne, Victoria. ... The Productivity Commission is the Australian Governments principal review and advisory body on microeconomic policy and regulation. ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ...


There are also about 20-30 "independent" Australian think tanks, which are funded by private sources. The best-known of these are:

Think tanks play much more limited role on Australian public and business policy making than in the United States. However, in the past decade the number of think tanks has increased substantially. Australia Institute logo The Australia Institute is an Australian think tank conducting public policy research, funded by grants from philanthropic trusts, memberships and commissioned research. ... The Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) is an Australian think tank, founded in April 1976 by Greg Lindsay (Executive Director). ... CEDA (the Committee for Economic Development of Australia) is an independent, bipartisan, non-profit forum and think tank. ... The Institute of Public Affairs (IPA) is a conservative/neoliberal think tank based in Melbourne, Australia. ... The Lowy Institute for International Policy is based in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The National Civic Council (NCC) is an Australian public policy think tank. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sydney Institute, founded in 1989, is a privately funded current affairs forum and think-tank. ...


New Zealand

The Centre for Strategic Studies:New Zealand (CSS:NZ) is a international and military affairs research centre located in Wellington, New Zealand. ... Victoria Universitys Kelburn Campus. ... The Maxim Institute is a research and public policy think tank based in Auckland, New Zealand. ... The Ecologic Foundation is based in Nelson, New Zealand. ...

Canada

The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives is Canadas leading left-wing think tank. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Founded in 1982, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research is a virtual institute dedicated to collaborative advanced research and scholarship of relevance to the Canadian and global community. ... --BaronLarf 16:30, August 17, 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is a think-tank whose mandate is to deal with issues of international governance and economics. ... The Conference Board of Canada is a not-for-profit Canadian organization dedicated to researching and analyzing economic trends, as well as organizational performance and public policy issues. ... The Fraser Institute is a conservative and libertarian think tank based in Canada. ... The International Policy Forum is a fully student-run think tank based at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. ... The Institut national de la recherche scientifique (French, National Institute of Scientific Research) is the research-oriented branch of the Université du Québec. ... The Institute for Research on Public Policy (IRPP) is Canadas oldest non-partisan public policy think tank. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Mackenzie Institute for the Study of Terrorism, Revolution and Propaganda is a think tank in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...

Taiwan

The Academia Sinica (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), headquartered in the Nan-kang district () of Taipei, is the national academy for Taiwan. ...

South Africa

The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) (French: ) is a policy think-tank with a focus on human security in Africa. ...

Mexico

  • CRI-UNAM
  • Galilei Consulting
  • Colef
  • Colmex
  • CIDE
  • ITAM
  • CIDAC

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, CIDE for short, was derived from the 1913 Websters Dictionary and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from WordNet. ... The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM), formerly Instituto Tecnológico de México (ITM), was founded on March 29, 1946 by the Mexican Asociation of Culture (Asociación Mexicana de Cultura). ...

Notes

  1. ^ see The American Heritage Dictionary. "Think Tank." 2000. and Merriam Webster's Dictionary. "Think Tank."
  2. ^ • Diane Stone ‘Think Tanks and Policy Analysis’, in Frank Fischer, Gerald J. Miller. & Mara S. Sidney (eds.) Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Methods, and Politics, New York, Marcel Dekker Inc. 2006: 149-157
  3. ^ NIRA's World Directory of Think Tanks 2002: Introduction
  4. ^ Think tanks - SourceWatch
  5. ^ News: Discovery's Creation (Seattle Weekly)
  6. ^ Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive - New York Times
  7. ^ Access : : Nature
  8. ^ http://www.tobaccoscam.ucsf.edu/pdf/9.6-Ong%26Glantz-JunkScience.pdf
  9. ^ How Big Tobacco Helped Create "the Junkman" | Center for Media and Democracy
  10. ^ About us - Asef think tank http://www.iranasef.org/about.asp
  11. ^ About CEPS. Centre for European Policy Studies (2008-02-29). Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
  12. ^ The Age, April 17, 2007: ["New think tank to help swing ideas from right to left" http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/new-think-tank-to-help-swing-ideas-from-right-to-left/2007/04/05/1175366408429.html]

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Abilene paradox is a paradox in which the limits of a particular situation force a group of people to act in a way that is directly the opposite of their actual preferences. ... The Brain Trust was the name given to a group of diverse academics who served as advisers to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the early period of his tenure. ... The term collective behavior was first used by Robert E. Park, and employed definitively by Herbert Blumer, to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a spontaneous way. ... The French social theorist Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) used the term collective consciousness in his The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), Suicide (1897), and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912). ... Collective effervescence (CE) is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people as might be experienced at a sporting event, a carnival, or a riot. ... It has been suggested that symbiotic intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Futurists is a term often used to describe management consultants who advise corporations on a wide range of global trends, risk management and potential market opportunities. ... Group behaviour in sociology refers to the situations where large number of people in a given area behave simoultanesly in similar way and have a similar goal, but they individaully and without coordiantion. ... Group polarization effects have been demonstrated to exaggerate the inclinations of group members after a discussion. ... Group-serving bias is identical to self-serving bias except that it takes place between groups rather than individuals, under which group members make dispositional attributions for their groups successes and situational attributions for group failures, and vice versa for outsider groups. ... Groupthink is a type of thought exhibited by group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. ... This article is a list of think tanks by country. ... This article is a list of think tanks in the United Kingdom. ... The Overton window is a concept in political theory, named after the former vice president of the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Joe Overton, who developed the model. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ...

Additional reading

  • Abelson, Donald E. Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.
  • Boucher, Stephen, et al, Europe and its think tanks; a promise to be fulfilled. An analysis of think tanks specialised in European policy issues in the enlarged European Union, Studies and Research No 35, October, Paris, Notre Europe, 2004
  • Cockett, Richard, Thinking the unthinkable: think tanks and the economic counter revolution; 1931 - 1983, London: Fontana, 1995
  • Dickson, Paul. "Think Tanks". New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. 397 pages.
  • Goodman, John C. "What is a Think Tank?" National Center for Policy Analysis, 2005.[1]
  • Fan, Maureen. "Capital Brain Trust Puts Stamp on the World", Washington Post (16 May 2005): B01.[2]
  • Patrick Dixon. Futurewise - Six Faces of Global Change - issues covered by Think Tanks and methodology for reviewing trends, impact on policy 2003): Profile Books
  • Hellebust, Lynn and Kristen Hellebust, editors. Think Tank Directory: A Guide to Independent Nonprofit Public Policy Research Organizations. Topeka, Kansas: Government Research Service, 2006 (2nd edition).
  • Lakoff, George. Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
  • Ladi, Stella. Globalisation, Policy Transfer And Policy Research Institutes, Edward Elgar, 2005.
  • McGann, James. The International Survey of Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI, 1999.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalyst for Ideas and Action. Co-edited with Kent B.Weaver. Transaction Publishers, 2000.
  • McGann, James. Comparative Think Tanks, Politics and Public Policy. Edward Elgar, 2005.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the U.S: Academics, Advisors and Advocates. London: Routledge, 2007.
  • McGann, James. Think Tanks: Catalysts for Democratization and Market Reform. Forthcoming.
  • McGann, James. Global Trends and Transitions: 2007 Survey of Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI, 2008.
  • McGann, James. The Global Go To Think Tanks. Philadelphia: FPRI 2008.
  • Smith, James. A. The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, New York: The Free Press, 1991.
  • Stone, Diane. Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process, London: Frank Cass, 1996
  • Stone, Diane. ‘Garbage Cans, Recycling Bins or Think Tanks? Three Myths about Policy Institutes’, Public Administration, 85(2) 2007: 259-278
  • Stone, Diane, and Andrew Denham, eds. Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
  • Struyk, Raymond J. Managing Think Tanks: Practical Guidance for Maturing Organizations, Budapest, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative Washington DC., Urban Institute 2002
  • UNDP – United Nations Development Program. Thinking the Unthinkable, Bratislava, UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2003

is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Patrick Dixon is a business thinker and futurist. ... Futurewise is a non-profit charitable organization in Washington State that works to keep overdevelopment and urban sprawl from consuming farms, forests and rural areas. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think is a book by cognitive linguist George Lakoff. ...

External links

is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Largest UK think tank and research institute on international development. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Think Tank - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki (518 words)
The "Think Tank", so-named by Captain Kathryn Janeway, was a cooperative of technologically-advanced alien intellectuals whose alleged purpose was to solve problems...
By their own count, the Think Tank were opportunistic explorers who had solved problems for hundreds of clients, many of whom were at war.
However, the Think Tank also demanded that Seven of Nine be transferred to them and that she become a member of their group.
Think tank | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free ... (493 words)
A think tank is a group of individuals dedicated to high-level synergistic research on a variety of subjects, usually in military laboratories, corporations, or other institutions.
Some supposed think tanks may be more accurately understood as a front for a marketing or public relations organisation.
Since think tanks generally prefer secrecy for their internal organising methods, it is difficult to map their network of connections and interests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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