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Encyclopedia > Thin films

Thin films are thin material layers ranging from fractions of a nanometre to several micrometres in thickness. Electronic semiconductor devices and optical coatings are the main applications benefiting from thin film construction. Some work is being done with ferromagnetic thin films as well for use as computer memory. The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ...


Ceramic thin films are also in wide use. The relatively high hardness and inertness of ceramic materials make this type of thin coating of interest for protection of substrate materials against corrosion, oxidation and wear. In particular, the use of such coatings on cutting tools may extend the life of these items by several orders of magnitude. Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ...


Thin-film technologies are also being developed as a means of substantially reducing the cost of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The rationale for this is that thin-film modules are expected to be cheaper to manufacture owing to their reduced material costs, energy costs, handling costs and capital costs. However, thin films have had to be developed using new semiconductor materials, including amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride and film crystalline silicon. In all cases, these technologies face major technical and financial hurdles. A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating solar power (energy). ... Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline allotropic form of silicon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 114. ... The selenide ion is Se2-. A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of -2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... Telluride is either: A compound of a metal with the element Tellurium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark gray with bluish tinge Atomic mass 28. ...


The engineering of thin films is complicated by the fact that their physics is in some cases not well understood. In particular, the problem of dewetting may be hard to solve, as there is ongoing debate and research into some processes by which this may occur. Dewetting is one of the processes that can occur at a solid-liquid or liquid-liquid interface. ...

Contents

High precision thin film deposition on large substrates

Schematic of Linear Target technology
Schematic of Linear Target technology

One of the major barriers met in thin film deposition is the ability to coat large dimension substrates whilst obtaining high precision results with mono or multi-layer depositions. The HiTUS plasma sputter deposition technology together with the Linear Target technology has demonstrated major improvements in desired results such as precision, uniformity, stress control from compressive to tensile with zero in between, and roughness on substrates measuring up to and over and above 50/60cm. The Linear Target also enables the development of a large area linear process with the same advantages as HiTUS for roll-to-roll or in-line processes. Deposition is a word used in many fields to describe different processes: In law, deposition is the taking of testimony outside of court. ... Look up mono, mono- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sputter deposition is a method of depositing thin films by sputtering a block of source material onto a substrate. Sputtered atoms ejected into the gas phase are not in their thermodynamic equilibrium state, and tend to deposit on all surfaces in the vacuum chamber. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ... Uniformity may refer to more than one thing: For the subject of uniformity in mathematical systems of topology, see uniform space. ... Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). ... In physics, tension is a force on a body directed to produce strain (extension); it can be considered to be negative compression. ... Roughness or rugosity is a measurement (see surface metrology) of the small-scale variations in the height of a physical surface. ... The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ... In-line expansion or inlining for short is a compiler optimization which expands a function call site into the actual implementation of the function which is called, rather than each call transferring control to a common piece of code. ...


Techniques

Sputtering is a physical process whereby atoms in a solid target material are ejected into the gas phase due to bombardment of the material by energetic ions. ... DC plasma (violet) enhances the growth of carbon nanotubes in this laboratory-scale PECVD apparatus. ... Molecular beam epitaxy, abbreviated MBE, is the deposition of one or more pure materials onto a single crystal wafer, one layer of atoms at a time, under ultra-high vacuum, forming a perfect crystal. ... Sol gel is an inorganic, catalytic silicon oxide gel, used for its negative tone photosensitive properties. ... Spin coating is a procedure used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. ... Pulsed laser deposition is a thin film deposition technique. ...

See also

Thin-film optics is the branch of optics which deals with very thin structured layers of different materials. ... Dispersion of a light beam in a prism. ... A thin film transistor (TFT) is a special kind of field effect transistor made by depositing thin films for the metallic contacts, semiconductor active layer, and dielectric layer. ... Thin film memory is a high-speed variation of core memory developed by Sperry Rand in a government-funded research project. ...

Weblinks


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thin film - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (215 words)
Thin films are material layers of about 1 µm thickness.
Ceramic thin films are also in wide use.
However, thin films have had to be developed using new semiconductor materials, including amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride and film crystalline silicon.
Thin film - ArticleWorld (466 words)
Thin films are layers of ferromagnetic, semiconductor or ceramic materials not more than 1μm thick which are used in a number of applications like electronics and optics.
Thin films are deposited onto substrate material or onto layers of materials that have been previously deposited by a number of modern techniques.
Thin film technology is also applied in the new field of nanotechnology, which may require the deposition of layers of materials atom by atom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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