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Encyclopedia > Thich Quang Duc
Thích Quảng Đức

Thích Quảng Ðức photographed during his self-immolation. Journalist Malcolm Browne won the 1963 World Press Photo of the Year for this image.[1]
Religion   Mahayana Buddhism
Other Names:   Bồ Tát Thích Quảng Đức
Senior posting
Based in   South Vietnam
Title   Buddhist monk
Period in office   1917–1963
Religious career
Ordination   1917
Previous post   Chairman of the Panel on Ceremonial Rites of the Congregation of Vietnamese Monks
Abbot of the Phước Hòa Pagoda
Personal
Date of birth   1897
Place of birth   Hội Khánh, a village that in 1897 was in French Indochina
Date of death   June 11, 1963
Place of death   Saigon, Republic of Vietnam (In 1963 Saigon was part of South Vietnam)

Hòa thượng Thích Quảng Ðức [a] (IPA: [tʰic wɐːŋ dɨk]; (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – died June 11, 1963) was a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon road intersection on June 11, 1963. Thich Quang Duc was protesting the persecution of Buddhists by South Vietnam's Ngo Dinh Diem administration. Photos of his self-immolation were circulated widely across the world and brought attention to the policies of the Diem regime. Malcolm Browne won a Pulitzer Prize for his iconic photo of the monk's death, as did David Halberstam for his written account. After his death, his body was re-cremated, but his heart remained intact. This was interpreted as a symbol of compassion and led Buddhists to revere him as a bodhisattva, heightening the impact of his death on the public psyche. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Malcolm W. Browne (1933) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and photographer. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Image File history File links Thich_Quang_Duc. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... In the field of road transport, an intersection is a road junction where two or more roads either meet or cross at grade (they are at the same level). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Malcolm W. Browne (1933) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and photographer. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... This article is about the author and journalist. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...


Thich Quang Duc's act increased international pressure on Diem and led him to announce reforms with the intention of mollifying the Buddhists. However, the promised reforms were implemented either slowly or not at all, leading to a deterioration in the dispute. With protests continuing, the Special Forces loyal to Diem's brother Ngo Dinh Nhu launched nationwide raids on Buddhist pagodas, seizing the holy heart and causing deaths and widespread damage. Several Buddhist monks followed Thich Quang Duc's example and burned themselves to death. Eventually, an Army coup toppled and killed Diem in November. The self-immolation is widely seen as the turning point of the Vietnamese Buddhist crisis which led to the change in regime. The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces (Vietnamese:Lá»±c Lượng Đặc Biệt or LLDB) were the elite military units of the Republic of Vietnam, commonly known as South Vietnam. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu  , born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... The Xa Loi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August 21, 1963. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... On November 1, 1963, President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam was deposed in a CIA-backed coup detat led by Duong Van Minh. ... For the coup itself, see 1963 South Vietnamese coup. ... Thich Tri Quang, leader of the Buddhist protests. ...

Contents

Biography

Accounts of the life of Thich Quang Duc are derived from information disseminated by Buddhist organizations. These record him as being born in the village of Hoi Khanh, in Van Ninh County of Khanh Hoa province in central Vietnam. He was born as Lâm Văn Tức, one of seven children born to Lam Huu Ung and his wife Nguyen Thi Nuong. At the age of seven, he left worldly life to study Buddhism under Hòa thượng Thich Hoang Tham, who was his maternal uncle and spiritual master. Thich Hoang Tham raised him as a son and Lam Van Tuc changed his name Nguyễn Văn Khiết. At the age of 15, he took the samanera (novice) vows and was ordained as a monk at the age of 20 under the dharma name Thích Quảng Ðức. After ordination, he traveled to a mountain near Ninh Hoa, vowing to live the life of a solitary Buddhism-practicing hermit for three years. He returned in later life to open the Thien Loc Pagoda at the site of his mountain retreat.[2] Van Ninh is a county in the province of Khanh Hoa in Vietnam. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sangha. ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... A Dharma name is a new name acquired during a Buddhist refuge ceremony. ... Ninh Hòa is a town in Quang Nam Province in central Vietnam. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ...


After his self-imposed isolation ended, he began to travel around central Vietnam expounding the dharma. After two years, he went into retreat at the Sac Tu Thien An Pagoda near the south central coastal city of Nha Trang. In 1932, he was appointed an inspector for the Buddhist Association in Ninh Hoa before becoming the inspector of monks in his home province of Khanh Hoa. During this period in central Vietnam, he was responsible for the building of 14 temples. In 1934, he moved to southern Vietnam and traveled throughout the provinces spreading Buddhist teachings. During his time in southern Vietnam, he also spent two years in Cambodia studying the Buddhist texts of the Theravada tradition. After his return from Cambodia, he oversaw the construction of a further 17 new temples during his time in the south. The last of the 31 new temples that he was responsible for constructing was the Quan The Am (Avalokiteshvara) Pagoda in Phu Nhuan district of Gia Dinh province, on the outskirts of Saigon. The street on which the temple stands is now named in his honor. After the temple-building phase, Thich Quang Duc was appointed to serve as the Chairman of the Panel on Ceremonial Rites of the Congregation of Vietnamese Monks, and as abbot of the Phuoc Hoa Pagoda, which was the initial location of the Association for Buddhist Studies of Vietnam (ABSV). When the office of the ABSV was relocated to the Xa Loi Pagoda, the main pagoda in Saigon, Thich Quang Duc resigned in order to concentrate on his personal Buddhist practice.[2] For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Look up retreat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The fishing harbour in Nha Trang. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ... Phú Nhuận is one of the nineteen districts in Ho Chi Minh City, formerly Saigon, Vietnam. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... The Xa Loi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August 21, 1963. ...


Religious background

Artist's rendition of Thich Quang Duc, a widely distributed photograph amongst Vietnamese Buddhists. This is based on a photograph taken in front of the steps of his temple.

In a country where surveys of the religious composition at the time estimated the Buddhist majority to be between 70 and 90 percent,[3][4][5][6] President Ngo Dinh Diem was a member of the Catholic Vietnamese minority, and pursued policies widely regarded by historians as biased. Specifically, the government was regarded as favoring Catholics for public service and military promotions, as well as in the allocation of land, business arrangements and tax concessions.[7] Diem once told a high-ranking officer, forgetting that he was a Buddhist, "Put your Catholic officers in sensitive places. They can be trusted."[8] Many officers in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam converted to Catholicism in the belief that their military prospects depended on it.[8] Additionally, the distribution of firearms to village self-defense militias saw weapons only given to Catholics, with some Buddhists in the army being denied promotion if they refused to convert to Catholicism.[9] Some Catholic priests ran their own private armies,[10] and there were forced conversions and looting, shelling and demolition of pagodas in some areas, to which the government turned a blind eye.[11] Some Buddhist villages converted en masse to receive aid or avoid being forcibly resettled by Diem's regime.[12] The "private" status that was imposed on Buddhism by the French, which required official permission to be obtained by those wishing to conduct public Buddhist activities, was not repealed by Diem.[13] Catholics were also de facto exempt from the corvée labor that the government obliged all citizens to perform, and U.S. aid was disproportionately distributed to Catholic majority villages by Diem's regime.[14] The Catholic church was the largest landowner in the country and enjoyed special exemptions in property acquisition, and land owned by the Catholic Church was exempt from land reform.[15] The white and gold Vatican flag was regularly flown at all major public events in South Vietnam,[16] and Diem dedicated his country to the Virgin Mary in 1959.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... The Roman Catholic Church in Vietnam is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... National flag. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...

Main article: Hue Vesak shootings
The Buddhist flag.
The Buddhist flag.

Buddhist discontent erupted following a ban in early May on flying the Buddhist flag on Vesak, the birthday of Gautama Buddha. Just days before, Catholics had been allowed to fly the Vatican flag at a celebration for Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc of Hue, Diem's brother. A large crowd of Buddhists protested against the ban, defying the government by flying Buddhist flags on Vesak and marching on the government broadcasting station. Government forces fired into the crowd of protesters, killing nine people. Diem's refusal to take responsibility—he blamed the Vietcong for the deaths—led to further Buddhist protests and calls for religious equality.[17] As Diem remained unwilling to comply with Buddhist demands, the frequency and size of the protests increased. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Buddhism. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Buddhism. ... Buddhist flag The Buddhist flag is a flag designed to symbolise Buddhism. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... National flag. ... Archbishop Peter Martin Ngo Dinh Thuc (October 6, 1897 - December 13, 1984), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Hué, Vietnam, was born in Hué, on October 6, 1897, of Catholic parents. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...

Self-immolation

On June 10, a spokesperson for the Buddhists privately informed the U.S. correspondents that "something important" would happen the following morning on the road outside the Cambodian embassy in Saigon.[18] Most of the reporters disregarded the message, since the Buddhist crisis had at that point been going on for over a month, and the next day only a few journalists turned up, including David Halberstam of the New York Times and Malcolm Browne, who was the Saigon bureau chief for the Associated Press.[18] is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thich Tri Quang, leader of the Buddhist protests. ... This article is about the author and journalist. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Malcolm W. Browne (1933) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American journalist and photographer. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Thich Quang Duc arrived as part of a procession that had begun at a nearby pagoda. Around 350 monks and nuns marched in two phalanxes, preceded by an Austin Westminster sedan, carrying banners printed in both English and Vietnamese. They denounced the Diem government and its policy towards Buddhists, demanding that it fulfill its promises of religious equality.[18] Another monk offered to burn himself, but Thich Quang Duc's seniority prevailed.[19] The Austin Motor Company was a British manufacturer of automobiles that rose to be a major motorcar brand, the dominant partner after merger with Morris in 1952 but declining after absorption into the British Leyland Motor Corporation, and its subsequent troubles. ... The Westminster series large automobiles sold by the Austin Motor Company from 1954, replacing the A70 Hereford. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Today, the car in which Thich Quang Duc traveled to his self-immolation is parked at Huế's Thien Mu Pagoda.
Today, the car in which Thich Quang Duc traveled to his self-immolation is parked at Huế's Thien Mu Pagoda.

The act itself occurred at the intersection[b] of Phan Dinh Phung Boulevard and Le Van Duyet street.[18] Thich Quang Duc emerged from the car along with two other monks. One placed a cushion on the road while the second opened the trunk and took out a five-gallon gasoline can. As the marchers formed a circle around him, Thich Quang Duc calmly seated himself in the traditional Buddhist meditative lotus position on the cushion. His colleague emptied the contents of the gasoline container over Thich Quang Duc's head. Thich Quang Duc rotated a string of wooden prayer beads and recited the words "Nam Mô A Di Đà Phật" ("homage to Amitabha Buddha") before striking a match and dropping it on himself. Flames consumed his robes and flesh, and black oily smoke emanated from his burning body.[18][20] Image File history File linksMetadata Thich_Quang_Duc_Car_Parked_In_Hue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Thich_Quang_Duc_Car_Parked_In_Hue. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Kodo Sawaki in lotus position practices meditation in Zen The first pictorial representation of the lotus position is seen in the ancient Indian depiction of Shiva as Pashupati, Lord of Beasts, in Harappa The lotus position (Sanskrit: Padmasanam -- lotus posture) is a cross-legged sitting posture which originated in representations... Prayer beads are traditionally used to keep count of the repetitions of prayers, chants or devotions. ... Nianfo (念佛. Chinese pinyin nian fo; Japanese: nembutsu; Korean: yeombul), literally mindfulness of the Buddha. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... Media:Example. ...


The last words of Thich Quang Duc before his self-immolation were documented in a letter he had left:

Before closing my eyes and moving towards the vision of the Buddha, I respectfully plead to President Ngo Dinh Diem to take a mind of compassion towards the people of the nation and implement religious equality to maintain the strength of the homeland eternally. I call the venerables, reverends, members of the sangha and the lay Buddhists to organise in solidarity to make sacrifices to protect Buddhism.[2]   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ...

David Halberstam wrote: This article is about the author and journalist. ...

I was to see that sight again, but once was enough. Flames were coming from a human being; his body was slowly withering and shriveling up, his head blackening and charring. In the air was the smell of burning human flesh; human beings burn surprisingly quickly. Behind me I could hear the sobbing of the Vietnamese who were now gathering. I was too shocked to cry, too confused to take notes or ask questions, too bewildered to even think... As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, his outward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him.[21]

Police who tried to reach him could not break through the circle of Buddhist clergy. One of the policemen threw himself to the ground and prostrated himself in front of Thich Quang Duc in reverence.[19] The spectators were mostly stunned into silence, but some wailed and several began praying. Many of the monks and nuns, as well as some shocked passers-by, prostrated themselves before the burning monk.[19] In English and Vietnamese, a monk repeatedly declared into a microphone, "A Buddhist priest burns himself to death. A Buddhist priest becomes a martyr."[18] Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position. ...


After approximately ten minutes, Thich Quang Duc's body toppled forward onto the street and the fire subsided. A group of monks covered the smoking corpse with yellow robes, picked it up and tried to fit it into a coffin, but the limbs could not be bent and one of the arms protruded from the wooden box as he was carried to the nearby Xa Loi Pagoda in central Saigon. Outside the pagoda, students unfurled bilingual banners which read: "A Buddhist priest burns himself for our five requests." By 13:30, around one thousand monks had congregated inside Xa Loi to hold a meeting while outside a large crowd of pro-Buddhist students had formed a human barrier around it. The meeting soon ended and all but a hundred monks slowly left the compound. Nearly one thousand monks accompanied by laypeople returned to the cremation site. The police lingered nearby. At around 18:00, 30 nuns and 6 monks were arrested for holding a prayer meeting on the street outside Xa Loi Pagoda. The police then encircled the pagoda, blocking public passage and giving observers the impression that an armed siege was imminent by donning riot gear.[22] That evening, thousands of Saigonese claimed to have seen a vision of the Buddha's face in the sky as the sun had set. They claimed that in the vision the Buddha was weeping.[23]


Funeral and aftermath

After the self-immolation, the U.S. put more pressure on Diem to re-open negotiations on the faltering agreement. Diem had scheduled an emergency cabinet meeting at 11:30 on June 11 to discuss the Buddhist crisis which he believed to be winding down. Following Thich Quang Duc's death, Diem cancelled the meeting and met individually with his ministers. Acting U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam William Trueheart, warned Nguyen Dinh Thuan, Diem's Secretary of State of the desperate need for an agreement, saying that the situation was "dangerously near breaking point" and expected that Diem would meet the Buddhists' five-point manifesto. U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk warned the Saigon embassy that the White House would publicly announce that it would no longer "associate itself" with the regime if this did not occur.[24] The Joint Communique and concessions to the Buddhists were signed on June 16.[25] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Trueheart is a former United States diplomat. ... Nguyen Dinh Thuan was the Secretary of State under President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


June 15 was set as the date for the funeral of Thich Quang Duc, and on that day 4,000 people gathered outside Xa Loi Pagoda, only for the ceremony to be postponed. On June 19, his remains were carried out of Xa Loi to a cemetery 16 kilometers (10 miles) south of the city for a re-cremation and funeral ceremony. Following the signing of the Joint Communique, attendance was limited by agreement between Buddhist leaders and police to approximately 400 monks.[25] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Intact heart and symbolism

The heart of Thich Quang Duc.

After the re-cremation during the funeral, the heart of Thich Quang Duc remained intact, although shrunken.[26] It was considered to be holy and placed in a glass chalice at Xa Loi Pagoda. The intact heart relic[19] is regarded as a symbol of compassion and Thich Quang Duc has subsequently been revered by Vietnamese Buddhists as a bodhisattva (Bồ Tát) and accordingly is often referred to in Vietnamese as Bồ Tát Thích Quảng Đức.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...

See also: Xa Loi Pagoda raids

The funeral was not to be the final act involving Thich Quang Duc's remains. On August 21, the ARVN Special Forces of Nhu attacked Xa Loi and other Buddhist pagodas across Vietnam. The secret police had intended to confiscate Thich Quang Duc's ashes, but two monks had escaped with the urn, jumping over the back fence and finding safety at the U.S. Operations Mission next door.[27] Nhu's men did manage to confiscate the charred heart of Thich Quang Duc.[28] The Xa Loi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August 21, 1963. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces (Vietnamese:Lực Lượng Đặc Biệt or LLDB) were the elite military units of the Republic of Vietnam, commonly known as South Vietnam. ...


The location chosen for the self-immolation, in front of the Cambodian embassy, raised questions as to whether it was coincidence or a symbolic choice. Trueheart and embassy official Charles Flowerree felt that the location was selected to show solidarity with the Cambodian government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk. South Vietnam and Cambodia had strained relations: in a speech on May 22, Sihanouk had accused Diem of mistreating Vietnamese and ethnic minority Khmer Buddhists. The Times of Vietnam had published an article on June 9 which claimed that Cambodian monks had been encouraging the Buddhist crisis. The Times asserted that it was part of a Cambodian plot to extend its neutralist foreign policy into South Vietnam. Flowerree noted that Diem was "ready and eager to see a fine Cambodian hand in all the organized Buddhist actions."[29] Time in office: Apr. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khmer can refer to, the: Khmer people, the ethnic group to which the great majority of Cambodians belong to Khmer language Khmer script Khmer Empire, which ruled much of Indochina from the 9th to the 13th centuries. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...


Diem reaction

Ngo Dinh Diem

Diem made a radio address at 19:00 on the day of Thich Quang Duc's death, asserting that he was profoundly troubled by the event. He appealed for "serenity and patriotism" and announced that stalled negotiations would resume with the Buddhists. He claimed that negotiations had been progressing well and in a time of religious tension emphasized the role of the Catholic philosophy of personalism in his rule. He alleged that extremists had twisted the facts and asserted that the Buddhists can "count on the Constitution, in other words, me."[22] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Personalism is the school of thought that consists of three main principles, and which can broadly be qualified as species of Humanism : Only people are real (in the ontological sense), Only people have value, and Only people have free will. ...


The Army of the Republic of Vietnam responded to the appeal, putting on a show of solidarity behind Diem to isolate dissident officers. Thirty high-ranking officers headed by General Le Van Ty declared their resolve to carry out all missions entrusted to the army for the defense of the constitution and the Republic. The declaration was a veneer which masked a developing plot to oust Diem. Some of the signatories were to become personally involved in Diem's overthrow and death in November. Generals Duong Van Minh and Tran Van Don, the presidential military advisor and the chief of the army who were to lead the coup, were overseas and were spared the charade of signing.[30] The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... General Le Van Ty (died 1964) was the first chief of staff of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. ... Dương Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... Tran Van Don (born 1917 in Bordeaux, France) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, and one of the principal figures in the coup which deposed Ngo Dinh Diem from the presidency of South Vietnam. ...


Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu, the wife of Diem's younger brother and chief adviser Ngo Dinh Nhu, who was regarded as the First Lady of South Vietnam at the time as Diem was a bachelor, said that she would "clap hands at seeing another monk barbecue show", a comment which further heightened Buddhist discontent.[31] In late June, Diem's government charged that Thich Quang Duc had been drugged before being forced to commit suicide.[32] The regime also accused Browne of bribing Thich Quang Duc to burn himself.[33] Trần Lệ Xuân (born 1924 in Hanoi, Vietnam), popularly known as Madame Nhu but more properly Madame Ngô Đình Nhu, was considered the First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1963. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu  , born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ...


Political and media impact

Photographs taken by Browne of the self-immolation quickly spread across the wire services and featured on the front pages of newspapers worldwide. The self-immolation was later regarded as a turning point in the Buddhist crisis and the critical point in the collapse of the Diem regime. Although Diem's decline and downfall had already begun, the self-immolation is widely seen as the pivotal point in the Buddhist crisis.[34] The historian Seth Jacobs asserted that Thich Quang Duc had "reduced America's Diem experiment to ashes as well" and that "no amount of pleading could retrieve Diem's reputation" once Browne's images were ingrained into the psyche of the world public.[35] Ellen Hammer described the event as having "evoked dark images of persecution and horror corresponding to a profoundly Asian reality that passed the understanding of Westerners."[36] John Mecklin, an official from the U.S. embassy, noted that the photograph "had a shock effect of incalculable value to the Buddhist cause, becoming a symbol of the state of things in Vietnam."[34] William Colby, then chief of the CIA's Far East Division, opined that Diem "handled the Buddhist crisis fairly badly and allowed it to grow. But I really don't think there was much they could have done about it once that bonze burned himself."[34] A news agency is an organization journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... Thich Tri Quang, leader of the Buddhist protests. ... Ellen J. Hammer (September 17, 1921 - January 28, 2001) was an American historian who specialised in 20th-century Vietnamese history. ... John Martin Mecklin (1918-1971) was an American journalist and diplomat. ... William Egan Colby (January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) became Director of Central Intelligence on September 4, 1973, after James R. Schlesinger. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...

U.S. President John F. Kennedy said that "no news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one."
U.S. President John F. Kennedy said that "no news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one."

U.S. President John F. Kennedy, whose government was the main sponsor of Diem's regime, learned of the self-immolation of Thich Quang Duc when he was handed the morning newspapers while he sat in bed talking to his brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, on the phone. Kennedy was reported to have interrupted their conversation about segregation in Alabama by exclaiming "Jesus Christ!"[35] He later remarked that "no news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one."[35] U.S. Senator Frank Church, a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, claimed that "such grisly scenes have not been witnessed since the Christian martyrs marched hand in hand into the Roman arenas."[36] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1133, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States John F. Kennedy Template:POTUSgallery Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x1133, 710 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:John F. Kennedy President of the United States John F. Kennedy Template:POTUSgallery Metadata This file contains... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was a four-term U.S. Senator representing Idaho as a Democrat (1957-1981). ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... First Christians In its first three centuries, the Christian church endured regular (though not constant) persecution at the hands of Roman authorities. ...


In Europe, the photos were sold on the streets as postcards during the 1960s, and communist China distributed millions of copies of the photo throughout Asia and Africa as evidence of what it called "US imperialism". One of Browne's photos remains affixed to the sedan in which Thich Quang Duc drove to his self-immolation and is part of a tourist attraction in what is now Ho Chi Minh City commemorating the event.[33] For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Saigon redirects here. ...


For Browne and the Associated Press (AP), the pictures were a marketing success. Ray Herndon, the United Press International (UPI) correspondent who had forgotten to take his camera on the day, was slated in private by his employer. UPI estimated that 5,000 readers in Sydney, then a city of around 1.5-2 million, had switched to AP news sources.[37] For Diem's part, his English language mouthpiece, the Times of Vietnam, intensified its attacks on the U.S. journalists and the Buddhists. Headlines such as "Xa Loi politburo makes new threats" and "Monks plot murder" were printed. One article questioned the relationship between the monks and the press by posing the question as to why "so many young girls are buzzing in and out of Xa Loi early [in the day]" and then going on to allege that they were brought in for sexual purposes for the reporters.[38] The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Times of Vietnam is a former English language newspaper that existed in South Vietnam under the rule of President Ngo Dinh Diem. ...


Browne's award-winning photograph of Thich Quang Duc's death has been reproduced in popular media for decades and was used as the cover for the self-titled 1992 debut album Rage Against the Machine. In South Park episode 408, Chef Goes Nanners, the character Chef produces Browne's photo of the self-immolation before setting a monk on fire in protest over the town's racist flag.[39] Rage Against the Machine is the debut album by rock band Rage Against the Machine, released November 3, 1992. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Chef Goes Nanners is episode 408 of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Precedents and influence

Despite the shock of the Western public, the practice of Vietnamese monks self-immolating was not uncommon. Instances of self-immolations in Vietnam had been recorded for centuries, usually carried out to honor Gautama Buddha. The most recently recorded case had been in North Vietnam in 1950. The French colonial authorities had tried to eradicate the practice after their conquest of Vietnam in the 19th century, but had not been totally successful. They did manage to prevent one monk from setting fire to himself in Hue in the 1920s, but he managed to starve himself to death instead. During the 1920s and 1930s, Saigon newspapers reported multiple instances of self-immolations by monks in a matter-of-fact style. The practice had also been seen in China: in the city of Harbin in 1948, a monk seated himself in the lotus position on a pile of sawdust and soybean oil and set fire to himself in protest against the treatment of Buddhism by the communists of Mao Zedong. His heart remained intact, as did that of Thich Quang Duc.[40] After Thich Quang Duc, self-immolations were carried out by five further members of the Vietnamese Buddhist clergy up until late October 1963 as the Buddhist protests in Vietnam escalated.[41] On November 1, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam overthrew Diem in a coup. Diem was assassinated after the coup on November 2.[42] Monks have continued to burn themselves since, although for reasons unrelated to Diem, such as honoring the Buddha.[43] Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... Sawdust is composed of fine particles of wood. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Mao redirects here. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... On November 1, 1963, President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam was deposed in a CIA-backed coup detat led by Duong Van Minh. ... For the coup itself, see 1963 South Vietnamese coup. ...


The Americans in Saigon often found the self-immolations to be surreal and made puns about "bonze fires" and "hot cross bonzes", almost as an escape mechanism from the bewilderment.[44] In one instance, the young son of an American officer based at the Saigon U.S. Embassy doused himself with gasoline and set himself on fire. He was seriously burned before the fire was extinguished and later could only offer the explanation that "I wanted to see what it was like."[44] Thich Quang Duc's actions were twice fatally copied in the United States in protest against the Vietnam War. Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker pacifist, poured kerosene over himself and set light to himself below the third-floor window of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara at the Pentagon on November 2, 1965. Alice Herz, an 82-year-old woman, also burned herself that year in Detroit.[45] A cow standing on a pole. ... Bonze can mean different things: Bonze is an archaic English term for a Chinese or Japanese Buddhist monk; see Buddhist clergy and bhikkhu. ... For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... Hot cross buns Czech hot cross buns called mazanec A hot cross bun is a type of sweet spiced bun made with currants and leavened with yeast. ... Gallows humor is humor that makes light of death or other serious matters. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... A Vietnamese tribute to Morrisons suicide Norman Morrison (December 29, 1933 - November 2, 1965), born in Erie, Pennsylvania, was a Baltimore Quaker best known for committing suicide at age 31 in an act of self-immolation to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... This article is about the United States military building. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Alice Herz (1883 – March 26, 1965) was the first of eight activists in the United States known to have immolated themselves in protest of the escalating Vietnam War, following the example of Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức who immolated himself in protest to the oppression of Buddhists under... Detroit redirects here. ...


Notes

• a)^  Hòa thượng means "The Most Venerable" in Vietnamese.
• b)^  In the satellite image (10°46′31″N 106°41′13″E / 10.775159, 106.686864) of the Saigon intersection where Thích Quảng Đức performed his self-immolation, Phan Đình Phùng (now Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Street runs NE-SW and Lê Văn Duyệt (now Cách Mạng Tháng Tám) Street runs NW-SE. On the western corner of the intersection stands a memorial to Thích Quảng Đức, and on the northern corner a Petrolimex fuel station.

References

  1. ^ Browne 1963.
  2. ^ a b c d Nhị Tường 2005.
  3. ^ Gettleman 1966, pp. 275–276, 366.
  4. ^ Time Staff 1963a.
  5. ^ Tucker 2000, pp. 49, 291, 293.
  6. ^ Ellsberg 1971, pp. 729–733.
  7. ^ Tucker 2000, p. 291.
  8. ^ a b Gettleman 1966, pp. 280–282.
  9. ^ Harrison 1963b, p. 9.
  10. ^ Warner 1963, p. 210.
  11. ^ Fall 1963, p. 199.
  12. ^ Buttinger 1967, p. 993.
  13. ^ Karnow 1997, p. 294.
  14. ^ a b Jacobs 2006, p. 91.
  15. ^ Buttinger 1967, p. 933.
  16. ^ Harrison 1963a, pp. 5–6.
  17. ^ Jacobs 2006, pp. 140–150.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Jacobs 2006, p. 147.
  19. ^ a b c d Karnow 1997, p. 297.
  20. ^ Jones 2003, p. 268.
  21. ^ Halberstam 1965, p. 211.
  22. ^ a b Jones 2003, p. 270.
  23. ^ Jacobs 2006, p. 148.
  24. ^ Jones 2003, p. 272.
  25. ^ a b Hammer 1987, p. 149.
  26. ^ Thich Nguyen Tang 2007.
  27. ^ Jones 2003, pp. 307–308.
  28. ^ Time Staff 1963b.
  29. ^ Jones 2003, p. 271.
  30. ^ Hammer 1987, p. 147.
  31. ^ Langguth 2002, p. 216.
  32. ^ Jones 2003, p. 284.
  33. ^ a b Prochnau 1995, p. 309.
  34. ^ a b c Jones 2003, p. 269.
  35. ^ a b c Jacobs 2006, p. 149.
  36. ^ a b Hammer 1987, p. 145.
  37. ^ Prochnau 1995, p. 316.
  38. ^ Prochnau 1995, p. 320.
  39. ^ Parker 2000.
  40. ^ Hammer 1987, p. 146.
  41. ^ Jacobs 2006, p. 152, 168, 171.
  42. ^ Jacobs 2006, pp. 173–180.
  43. ^ Hammer 1987, p. 318.
  44. ^ a b Prochnau 1995, p. 310.
  45. ^ Zinn 2003, p. 486.

Bibliography

  • Browne, Malcolm (1963), World Press Photo 1963, Amsterdam: World Press Photo, <http://www.worldpressphoto.org/index.php?option=com_photogallery&task=view&id=170&Itemid=115&bandwidth=high>. Retrieved on 2007-10-23
  • Buttinger, Joseph (1967), Vietnam: A Dragon Embattled, Praeger Publishers
  • Ellsberg, Daniel, ed. (1971), "The Situation in South Vietnam - SNIE 53-2-63", The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 2, Boston: Beacon Press, <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon2/doc125.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-08-21
  • Fall, Bernard (1963), The Two Viet-Nams, Praeger Publishers
  • Gettleman, Marvin E. (1966), Vietnam: History, documents and opinions on a major world crisis, New York: Penguin Books
  • Halberstam, David (1965), The Making of a Quagmire, New York: Random House
  • Hammer, Ellen J. (1987), A Death in November, Boston: E. P. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-24210-4
  • Harrison, Gilbert, ed. (1963a), "Diệm's other crusade", The New Republic (no. 1963-06-22)
  • Harrison, Gilbert, ed. (1963b), "South Vietnam: Whose funeral pyre?", The New Republic (no. 1963-06-29)
  • Jacobs, Seth (2006), Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem and the Origins of America's War in Vietnam, 1950–1963, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 127, ISBN 0742544478
  • Jones, Howard (2003), Death of a Generation, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-505286-2
  • Karnow, Stanley (1997), Vietnam: A history, New York: Penguin Books, pp. 210, ISBN 0-670-84218-4
  • Langguth, A. J. (2002), Our Vietnam, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-74321-231-2
  • Nhị Tường (2005), Tiểu Sử Bổ Tát Thích Quảng Dức, Fawker: Quang Duc Monastery (published 2005-05-01), <http://www.quangduc.com/BoTatQuangDuc/09tieusu.html>. Retrieved on 2007-08-20
  • Parker, Trey (Writer, Director) (2000), Chef Goes Nanners, South Park, series 4, no. 55 (2000-07-05), New York: Comedy Central
  • Prochnau, William (1995), Once upon a Distant War, New York: Times Books, ISBN 0-812-92633-1
  • Thich Nguyen Tang, ed. (2007), Quang Duc Photo Gallery, Fawker: Quang Duc Monastery (published 2007-06-02), <http://www.quangduc.com/BoTatQuangDuc/25photo.html>. Retrieved on 2007-10-24
  • Time Staff (1963a), "The Religious Crisis", Time Magazine (no. 1963-06-14), <http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,874816,00.html>. Retrieved on 2007-08-21
  • Time Staff (1963b), "The Crackdown", Time Magazine (no. 1963-08-30), <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940704-1,00.html>. Retrieved on 2007-10-23
  • Tucker, Spencer C. (2000), Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-040-0
  • Warner, Denis (1963), The Last Confucian, New York: Macmillan
  • Zinn, Howard (2003), A People's History of the United States, New York: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-052842-7

This article is about the author and journalist. ... Randolph Severn Trey Parker III (born October 19, 1969) is an Academy Award nominated American animator, screenwriter, film director, voice actor, actor and musician. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller, A Peoples History of the United States. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Ðức, Thích Quảng
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Duc, Thich Quang; Thich Quang Duc; Thích Quảng Ðức,
SHORT DESCRIPTION Vietnamese monk who self-immolated in 1963
DATE OF BIRTH 1897
PLACE OF BIRTH Hội Khánh, Khánh Hoà province, Vietnam
DATE OF DEATH June 11, 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Saigon, Vietnam

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