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Encyclopedia > Thiazide diuretic

Thiazides are diuretics, a class of drug that promote water loss from the body. They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. The chemical structure of the original thiazide diuretics contained a thiazide ring system; the term is also used for drugs with a similar action that are not chemically thiazides, such as chlorthalidone and metolazone. A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form the anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... Kidney nephron The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... Blood plasma is a component of blood. ... Uric acid is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen and the structure shown right: Uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism in the human body and is found in small amounts in urine. ... Metolazone is an oral diuretic drug, commonly classified with the thiazide diuretics, and marketed under the brand names Zaroxolyn and Mykrox. ...


Thiazides are often used to treat hypertension. They are the recommended first-line treatment in the US (JNC VII) guidelines and a recommended treatment in the European (ESC/ESH) guidelines. They have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. They may cause vasodilation by desensitizing the vascular smooth muscle cells to calcium release induced by norepinephrine (PMID 15611360). For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation) Hypertension or high blood pressure is a medical condition wherein the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... In epidemiology, the morbidity rate is a ratio that measures the incidence and prevalence of a specific disease. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ... Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... Norepinephrine or noradrenaline is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ...


Side-effects can include hypokalemia, increased serum cholesterol, and impotence. The side effect of hypokalemia has motivated combining thiazides with ACE inhibitors, which also lower blood pressure but cause hyperkalemia as a side-effect. A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ... Cholesterol chemical structure Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin_Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Hyperkalemia (hyper is high, kalium is the Latin name for potassium) is an elevated blood level (above 5. ...


Thiazides also lower urinary calcium excretion. That is why they are used to prevent calcium-containing kidney stones. This effect is associated with positive calcium balance and is associated with an increase in bone mineral density and reductions in fracture rates attributable to osteoporosis. Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... A bone mineral density (BMD) test, also called a bone mass measurement, is used to measure bone density and determine fracture risk for osteoporosis. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is changed, and a concomitantly fracture risk is increased. ...


Thiazide treatment may be combined with ACE inhibitors to increase diuresis without changing plasma potassium concentrations. While ACE inhibitors cause diuresis with potassium retention, thiazide increases potassium excretion. Their combined effects on potassium cancel each other out. ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin_Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin_Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ...


Mechanism of hypokalemia

Thiazide-induced hypokalemia (decreased plasma potassium concentration) is partly caused by the direct inhibition of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and also as a result of activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Decreased sodium reabsorption decreases the sodium gradient the nephron usually uses to reabsorb potassium, resulting in greater potassium excretion. In addition, the increased flow of tubular fluid increases the potassium gradient between the epithelium and lumen, driving the secretion of potassium. Finally, low blood volume induced by diuresis results in activation of the renin-angiotensin system, activating aldosterone, which significantly elevates the secretion of potassium. For this reason, ACE inhibitors, which inhibit angiotensin II production and therefore aldosterone activation, are frequently used in combination with thiazides to combat hypokalemia. The renin-angiotensin system (RAAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a hormone system that helps regulate long-term blood pressure and blood volume in the body. ... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Numark | Thiazide Diuretics (1374 words)
Thiazide diuretics are a family of drugs that remove water from the body.
Thiazide diuretics are used to lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
Thiazide diuretics and digitalis-containing products should be used only under the direct supervision of a doctor trained in their use.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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