FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Thiamin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Thiamin
Thiamin
IUPAC name 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-methyl- pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]- 4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl] ethanol
Identifiers
CAS number [59-43-8]
PubChem 1130
MeSH Thiamin
SMILES [Cl-].Cc1c(CCO)sc[n+]1Cc2cncnc2N
Properties
Molecular formula C12H17N4OS+
Molar mass 265.356
Melting point

248-260 °C (hydrochloride salt) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x573, 159 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thiamine User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references
For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine

Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. It is colorless chemical compound with a chemical formula C12H17N4OS. It is soluble in water, methanol, and glycerol and practically insoluble in acetone, ether, chloroform, and benzene. Thiamin decomposes if heated. Its chemical structure contains a pyrimidine ring and a thiazole ring. The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the formula C6H6. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... Thiazole, or 1,3-thiazole, is a clear to pale yellow flammable liquid and pyridine-like odor with the molecular formula C3H3NS. It is a 5-membered ring, in which two of the vertices of the ring are nitrogen and sulfur, and the other three are carbons [1]. Thiazole is...


Thiamin is essential for neural function and carbohydrate metabolism. A severe thiamin deficiency results in Beriberi which is a nerve and heart disease. In less severe deficiency, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.[1]

Contents

History

Thiamin was first discovered in 1910 by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan when researching how rice bran cured patients of beriberi. He named it aberic acid (later oryzanin). He did not determine its chemical composition, nor that it was an amine. It was first crystallized by Jansen and Donath in 1926 (they named it aneurin, for antineuritic vitamin). Its chemical composition and synthesis was finally reported by Robert R. Williams in 1935. He also coined the current name for it, thiamine. Suzuki Umetaro (鈴木梅太郎, April 7, 1874 – September 20, 1943) was a Japanese scientist. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Robert R. Williams (February 16, 1886–October 2, 1965) was an American telephone company researcher who carried out vitamin research in his spare time and established the structure of thiamine (vitamin B1). ...


Sources

Thiamin is found in a wide variety of many foods at low concentrations. While yeast and liver are the most highly concentrated sources of thiamin, these foods are not commonly consumed in the American diet. Cereal grains, however, are the most important dietary sources of thiamin in the diet as these foods are consumed readily in most diets. Of the cereal grains, whole grains contain more thiamin than refined grains. Thiamin is found in the outer layers of the grain as well as the germ. During the refining process these segments of the grain are removed therefore decreasing the thiamin content in products such as white rice and white bread. For example, 100 g of whole wheat flour contains 0.55 mg of thiamin while 100 g of white flour only contains 0.06 mg of thiamin. In addition to cereal grains some vegetables and meats are also good sources of thiamin. Listed below are foods rich in thiamin.[2]

  • Yeast
  • Oatmeal
  • Brown rice
  • Whole grain flour (rye or wheat)
  • Peas
  • Asparagus
  • Kale
  • Cauliflower
  • Potatoes
  • Oranges
  • Pork
  • Cured ham
  • Liver (beef or pork)
  • Eggs

Antagonists

Thiamin in foods can be degraded in a variety of ways. Sulfites, which are added to foods usually as a preservative,[3] will attack thiamin at the methylene bridge in the structure, cleaving the pyrimidine ring from the thiazole ring.[4] The rate of this reaction is increased under acidic conditions. Thiamin can also be degraded by thiaminases. Some thiaminases are produced by bacteria. Bacterial thiaminases are cell surface enzymes that must dissociate from the membrane before being activated. The dissociation can occur in ruminants under acidotic conditions. Rumen bacteria also reduce sulfate to sulfite, therefore high dietary intakes of sulfate can have thiamin-antagonistic activities.


Plant thiamin antagonists are heat stable and occur as both the ortho and para hydroxyphenols. Some examples of these antagonists are caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and tannic acid. These compounds interact with the thiamin to oxidize the thiazole ring, thus rendering it unable to be absorbed. Two flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, have also been implicated as thiamin antagonists.[5]


Absorption

Thiamin is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the upper small intestine. At low concentrations the process is carrier mediated and at higher concentrations, absorption occurs via passive diffusion. Active transport is greatest in the jejunum and ileum. The cells of the intestinal mucosa have thiamin pyrophosphokinase activity, but it is unclear whether the enzyme is linked to active absorption. The majority of thiamin present in the intestine is in the phosphorylated form, but when thiamine arrives on the serosal side of the intestine it is often in the free form. The uptake of thiamine by the mucosal cell is likely coupled in some way to its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. On the serosal side of the intestine, evidence has shown that discharge of the vitamin by those cells is dependent on Na+-dependent ATPase.[6]


Transport

Bound to serum proteins

The majority of thiamin in serum is bound to proteins, mainly albumin. Approximately 90% of total thiamin in blood is in erythrocytes. A specific binding protein called thiamin-binding protein (TBP) has been identified in rat serum and is believed to be a hormonally regulated carrier protein that is important for tissue distribution of thiamin.[7] Look up Serum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Albumin can refer to ovalbumin, the principal protein in egg white albumins, a group of proteins including serum albumin and together constituting roughly 60% of the protein in blood plasma. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ...


Cellular uptake

Uptake of thiamin by cells of the blood and other tissues occurs via active transport. About 80% of intracellular thiamin is phosphorylated and most is bound to proteins. In some tissues, thiamin uptake and secretion appears to be mediated by a soluble thiamin transporter that is dependent on Na+ and a transcellular proton gradient. The highest concentration of the transporter have been found in skeletal muscle, heart, and placenta.[8]


Tissue Distribution

Human storage of thiamin is about 25 to 30 mg with the greatest concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, liver, and kidneys. Thiamin monophosphate(TMP) and free thiamin is present in plasma, milk, cerebrospinal fluid, and likely all extracellular fluids. Unlike the highly phosphorylated forms of thiamin, TMP and free thiamin are capable of crossing cell membranes. Thiamin contents in human tissues are less than those of other species.[9]


Deficiency

Systemic thiamin deficiency can lead to myriad problems including neurodegeneration, wasting and death. A lack of thiamin can be caused by malnutrition, alcoholism, a diet high in thiaminase-rich foods (raw freshwater fish, raw shellfish, ferns) and/or foods high in anti-thiamine factors (tea, coffee, betel nuts).[10] Neurodegeneration is progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Thiaminase is an enzyme (EC 2. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Areca catechu Linnaeus Areca nut, or pinang, more commonly known as betel nut, is the seed of the betel palm or Areca catechu, a species of palm tree which grows throughout the Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. ...


Well-known syndromes caused by thiamin deficiency include Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and beriberi, diseases also common with chronic alcoholism. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a combination of Korsakoffs syndrome, which is characterized by confusion, severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia and confabulation; and Wernickes encephalopathy, which is characterized by nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, coma and, if untreated, death. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ...


Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), is the most common thiamin deficiency disorder in young ruminant and nonruminant animals. Symptoms of PEM include a profuse, but transient diarrhea, listlessness, circling movements, star gazing or opisthotonus (head drawn back over neck), and muscle tremors.[11]


It is thought that many people with diabetes have a deficiency of thiamin and that this may be linked to some of the complications that can occur.[12][13] This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Alcoholic Brain Disease[14]

Thiamin and thiamin-using enzymes are present in all cells of the body, thus, a thiamin deficiency would seem to adversely affect all of the organ systems. However, the nervous system (and heart) shows particular sensitivity to the effects of a thiamin deficiency at the cellular level.


Nerve cells and other supporting cells (such as glial cells) of the nervous system require thiamin. Examples of neurologic disorders that are linked to alcohol abuse include Wernicke’s Encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome) and Korsakoff’s psychosis (alcohol amnestic disorder) as well as varying degrees of cognitive impairment.


How does alcoholism induce thiamin deficiency? The enzymes transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) all require thiamin as a cofactor in order to function in carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, a thiamin deficiency would be detrimental to the functionality of these enzymes. Transketolase is important in the pentose phosphate pathway. PDH and α-KGDH function in biochemical pathways that result in the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a major form of energy for the cell. PDH is also needed for the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, and for myelin synthesis.


What are the mechanisms of alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency? 1) Inadequate nutritional intake: Alcoholics tend to intake less than the recommended amount of thiamin, however it is also seen that others have an extremely high level of free thiamin, suggesting an inability of these individuals to convert thiamin to the biologically active, phosphorylated form. 2) Decreased uptake of thiamin from the GI tract: Active transport of thiamin into the enterocyte occurs mostly in conditions of low thiamin concentration. The absorption is disturbed during acute alcohol exposure as illustrated by less thiamin being converted into the phosphate-containing form, suggesting a dysfunction of the enzyme responsible for this transformation: thiamin diphosphokinase. 3) Impaired thiamin utilization: Magnesium, which is required for the binding of thiamin to thiamin-using enzymes within the cell, is also deficient due to chronic alcohol consumption. The inefficient utilization of any thiamin that does reach the cells will further exacerbate the thiamin deficiency.


Following improved nutrition and the removal of alcohol consumption, some impairments linked with thiamin deficiency are reversed; particularly poor brain functionality.


Toxicity

Thiamin administered to animals as thiamin hydrochloride at levels 1000 times the amount required to prevent signs of if thiamin deficiency can supress the respiratory center and be fatal. Thiamin administered to humans at levels 100 times the recommended intake resulted in headache, convulsions, weakness, paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia and allergic reactions.[15]


Diagnostic testing

A positive diagnosis test for thiamine deficiency can be ascertained by measuring the activity of the enzyme transketolase in erythrocytes. Thiamine can also be seen directly in whole blood following the conversion of thiamine to a fluorescent thiochrome derivative. However, this test may not reveal the deficiency in diabetic patients.[12][16] Transketolase, an enzyme that transfer a 2 Carbon unit(the critical part that determine it is a ketone)from a ketose to an aldose. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...


Thiamine phosphate derivatives

There are four known natural thiamine phosphate derivatives: thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) or thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and the recently discovered adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP). Thiamine monophosphate is a thiamine derivative. ... Cocarboxylase is the diphosphoric ester of thiamin (thiamine). ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found in most organisms, bacteria, fungi, plants and animals 1. ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated ATP, was discovered in Escherichia coli where it may account for up to 15 - 20 % of total thiamine under carbon starvation. ...


Thiamine pyrophosphate

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), also known as thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), and cocarboxylase is a coenzyme for several enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation (decarboxylation and subsequent conjugation to Coenzyme A) of alpha-keto acids. Examples include: Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Cocarboxylase is the diphosphoric ester of thiamin. ... Coenzyme A Coenzymes are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ... A Decarboxylation is any chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is split off from a compound as carbon dioxide (CO2). ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ...

TPP is synthesized by the enzyme thiamin pyrophosphokinase, which requires free thiamin, magnesium, and adenosine triphosphate. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Pyruvate dehydrogenase is an enzyme (E1) in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). ... Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (aka α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... The branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex is a combination of enzymes responsible for the degradation of the branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). ... 2-Hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase is a peroxisomal enzyme involved in the catabolism of phytanoic acid. ... Transketolase, an enzyme that transfer a 2 Carbon unit(the critical part that determine it is a ketone)from a ketose to an aldose. ... The pentose phosphate pathways Nonoxidative phase The pentose phosphate pathway (also called Phosphogluconate Pathway, or Hexose Monophosphate Shunt [HMP shunt]) is a process that serves to generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5-carbon) sugars. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme(EC 4. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...


Thiamine triphosphate

Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) was long considered a specific neuroactive form of thiamin. However, recently it was shown that ThTP exists in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals suggesting a much more general cellular role. In particular in E. coli it seems to play a role in response to amino acid starvation. Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found in most organisms, bacteria, fungi, plants and animals 1. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... u fuck in ua ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ...


Adenosine thiamine triphosphate

Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP) or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate has recently been discovered in Escherichia coli where it accumulates as a result of carbon starvation. In E. coli, AThTP may account for up to 20 % of total thiamin. It also exists in lesser amounts in yeast, roots of higher plants and animal tissues. Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated ATP, was discovered in Escherichia coli where it may account for up to 15 - 20 % of total thiamine under carbon starvation. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ...


Genetic diseases

Genetic diseases of thiamin transport are rare but serious. Thiamin Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness (TRMA)[17] is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene SLC19A2,[18] a high affinity thiamine transporter. TRMA patients do not show signs of systemic thiamin deficiency, suggesting redundancy in the thiamin transport system. This has led to the discovery of a second high affinity thiamin transporter, SLC19A3.[19][20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... SLC19A2 is a thiamine transporter. ... SLC19A3 is a thiamine transporter. ...


Research

High doses

The RDA in most countries is set at about 1.4 mg. However, tests on volunteers at daily doses of about 50 mg have claimed an increase in mental acuity.[21] Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...


Thiamin as an insect repellent

Some studies suggest that taking thiamin 25 to 50 mg three times per day is effective in reducing mosquito bites. A large intake of thiamin produces a skin odor that is not detectable by humans, but is disagreeable to female mosquitoes.[22] Thiamin takes more than 2 weeks before the odor fully saturates the skin. With the advances in topical preparations there is an increasing number of thiamin based repellent products. There is anecdotal evidence of thiamin products being effective in the field (Australia, US and Canada),[citation needed] but one study found thiamin had no effect.[23]


Autism

A 2002 pilot study administered thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD) rectally to ten autism spectrum children, and found beneficial clinical effect in eight.[24] This study has not been replicated and a 2006 review of thiamin by the same author did not mention thiamin's possible effect on autism.[25] The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


References

  1. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008; pg.266
  2. ^ Combs GF. The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. 3rd Ed. Elsevier: Boston, 2008.
  3. ^ McGuire, M. and K.A. Beerman. Nutritional Sciences: From Fundamentals to Foods. 2007. California: Thomas Wadsworth.
  4. ^ Combs, G.F. The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 2008. San Diego: Elsevier
  5. ^ Combs, G.F. The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 2008. San Diego: Elsevier
  6. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008; pg.268
  7. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008
  8. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008
  9. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 3rd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 2008
  10. ^ "Thiamin", Jane Higdon, Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute
  11. ^ National Research Council. 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Seventh Revised Ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  12. ^ a b Thornalley PJ (2005). "The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) in diabetic complications". Curr Diabetes Rev 1 (3): 287-98. PMID 18220605. 
  13. ^ Diabetes problems 'vitamin link', BBC News, Tuesday, 7 August 2007
  14. ^ Martin, PR, Singleton, CK, Hiller-Sturmhofel, S (2003). "The role of thiamine deficiency in alcoholic brain disease" Alcohol Research and Health. 27:134-142
  15. ^ Combs,G. F. Jr. The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 2nd Edition. Ithaca, NY: Elsevier Academic Press; 1998
  16. ^ Researchers find vitamin B1 deficiency key to vascular problems for diabetic patients, University of Warwick
  17. ^ Thiamine Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia with severe diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness (TRMA) PMID 249270
  18. ^ SLC19A2 PMID 603941
  19. ^ SLC19A3 PMID 606152
  20. ^ Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 249270
  21. ^ Thiamine's Mood-Mending Qualities, Richard N. Podel, Nutrition Science News, January 1999.
  22. ^ Pediatric Clinics of North America, 16:191, 1969
  23. ^ Ives AR, Paskewitz SM (2005). "Testing vitamin B as a home remedy against mosquitoes". J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 21 (2): 213–7. PMID 16033124. 
  24. ^ Lonsdale D, Shamberger RJ, Audhya T (2002). "Treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide: a pilot study" (PDF). Neuro Endocrinol. Lett 23 (4): 303–8. PMID 12195231. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  25. ^ Lonsdale D (2006). "A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 3 (1): 49–59. PMID 16550223. 

The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism // A11A Multivitamins, combinations A11AA Multivitamins with minerals A11AA01 Multivitamins and iron A11AA02 Multivitamins and calcium A11AA03 Multivitamins and other minerals, including combinations A11AA04 Multivitamins and trace elements A11AB Multivitamins, other combinations A11B Multivitamins, plain A11BA Multivitamins... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... Tretinoin is the acid form of vitamin A and so also known as all-trans retinoic acid or ATRA. It is a drug commonly used to treat acne vulgaris and keratosis pilaris. ... Carotene is a terpene, an orange photosynthetic pigment, important for photosynthesis. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Ergocalciferol (Deltalin®, Eli Lilly and Company) is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D2. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone precursor that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Calcidiol, calcifediol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25–hydroxy–vitamin D, is a prehormone which is produced by the metabolism of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and which is converted by the kidneys into calcitriol (1,25-vitamin D), a steroid hormone. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Chemical structure of Tocotrienol Tocotrienols – Together with Tocopherols, compose the vitamin E family. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Phylloquinone is a polycyclic aromatic ketone, based on 1,4-naphthoquinone, with 2-methyl and 3-phytyl functional groups. ... Menatetrenone (INN) is a menaquinone compound used as a hemostatic agent and as adjunctive therapy for the pain of osteoporosis. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion®) is a precursor to thiamine (i. ... Benfotiamine (rINN, also known as benfotiamine or benphothiamine) is an allithiamin, a naturally-occurring lipophilic form of thiamine. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide of niacin (vitamin B3) which has the chemical formula C6H6N2O. Niacinamide is a derivative of vitamin B-3 can be used for the treatment of arthritis by aiding the body in its production of cartilage. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Panthenol is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus the provitamin of B5. ... Pantethine (Bis-pantethine) or Co-enzyme pantethine is a dimeric form of vitamin B5, composed of two molecules of pantothenic acid linked by cysteamine bridging groups. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Main article: vitamin B6 Pyridoxine is one of the compounds that can be called vitamin B6, along with Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine. ... Pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal-5-phosphate) is a cofactor of many enzymatic reactions. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) is a natural analog of vitamin B12, a basic member of the cobalamin family of compounds. ... Chemical structure of Vitamin B12 The term vitamin B12 (or B12 for short) is used in two different ways. ... Cobamamide (also known as adenosylcobalamin and dibencozide) is a coenzyme (active) form of cyanocobalamin (denatured form). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Thiamine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (602 words)
Thiamine was first discovered in 1910 by Umetaro Suzuki of Japan when researching how rice bran cured patients of Beriberi.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase, and transketolase.
TPP is synthesized by the enzyme thiamine pyrophosphokinase, which requires free thiamine, magnesium, and adenosine triphosphate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m