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Theseus (Greek Θησεύς) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). Theseus was a founder-hero, like Perseus, Cadmus or Heracles, all of whom battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order. As Heracles was the Dorian hero, Theseus was the Ionian founding hero, considered by Athenians as their own great reformer. His name comes from the same root as θεσμός ("thesmos"), Greek for institution. He was responsible for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens, represented in his journey of labours. Because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos ("Aphrodite of all the People") and Peitho on the southern slope of the Akropolis. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For the 1997 film, see Trojan War (film). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... This article is about the poem by Homer. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits helped establish the hegemony of Zeus and the Twelve... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... See also Gorgona, for the Colombian/Italian islands. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiation ceremonies held every five years for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... A mystery religion is any religion with an arcanum, or body of secret wisdom. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, the Centaurs (Greek: Κένταυροι) are a race of creatures composed of part human and part horse. ... Dragons play a role in Greek mythology. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... In Greek mythology, Aegeus, also Aigeus, Aegeas or Aigeas, was the father of Theseus and an Athenian King. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits helped establish the hegemony of Zeus and the Twelve... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... [[Im Category: ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Synoikismos roughly means dwelling together in Greek. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ... Acropolis (Gr. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Aphrodite (&#7944;&#966;&#961;&#959;&#948;&#8145;&#8189;&#964;&#951;, risen from sea-foam) is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. ... In Greek mythology, Peitho (persuasion) was the personification of persuasion and seduction. ...


In The Frogs, Aristophanes credited him with inventing many everyday Athenian traditions. If the theory of a Minoan hegemony[1] is correct he may have been based on Athens' liberation from this political order rather than on an historical individual. Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs Frogs (Βάτραχοι (Bátrachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ...


In Plutarch's vita of Theseus, he makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape and the love of Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes (mid-sixth century), Demon (ca 300), Philochorus and Cleidemus (both fourth century).[2] Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Vita or VITA can refer to any of a number of things: Vita (Latin for life) can also refer to a brief biography, often that of a saint (i. ... Pherecydes (in Greek: &#934;&#949;&#961;&#949;&#967;&#8059;&#948;&#951;&#962;) was the name of: Pherecydes of Syros, a pre-Socratic philosopher and author from the island of Syros, by some believed to have influenced Pythagoras Pherecydes of Leros, an historian and mythologic writer from the island of Leros... Philochorus, of Athens, Greek historian during the 3rd century BC, was a member of a priestly family. ... Cleidemus (Kleidemos) was a Greek author of the mid-fourth century BCE who produced a lost book called Atthis (named for the mother of Erichthonius), dealing with the traditional origins of Athenian law and institutions. ...

Theseus and Aethra, by Laurent de La Hyre
Theseus and Aethra, by Laurent de La Hyre

Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, found a bride, Aethra who was the daughter of Troezen's king Pittheus, at Troezen, a small city southwest of Athens. On their wedding night, Aethra waded through the sea to the island Sphairia that rests close to the coast and lay there with Poseidon (god of the sea, and of earthquakes). By the understanding of sex in antiquity, the mix of semen gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature; such double fatherhood, one father immortal, one mortal, was a familiar feature of Greek heroes.[3] When Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. But before leaving, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told her that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were hero enough, and take the weapons for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. At Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had fled Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne Jason, and had taken up a new consort in Aegeus. Priestess and consort together represented the old order at Athens. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1878, 277 KB) Description: Title: de: Theseus und Äthra Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 141 × 118,5 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Budapest Current location (gallery): de: Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1878, 277 KB) Description: Title: de: Theseus und Äthra Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 141 × 118,5 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Budapest Current location (gallery): de: Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum Other notes... Laurent de La Hyre (February 27, 1606 - December 28, 1656) was a French painter, born at Paris. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... In Greek mythology, Pittheus was a son of Pelops and father of Aethra. ... Troezen (TREE-zun) is a city in Argolis located southwest of Athens and a few miles south of Methana. ... Poros (Greek: Πόρος) is a small Greek island-pair in the southern part of the Saronic Gulf, at a distance about 48 km (32 miles) south from Piraeus and separated from the Peloponnese by a 200-metre wide sea channel. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... // Greek mythological characters (Most of the gods and goddesses had Roman equivalents. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... Modern multi-colored Sandalette Yoga sandals In some parts of the United States, this type of sandal is referred to in slang as the mandal in that it is worn primarily by men. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ...


Thus Theseus was raised in the land of his mother. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's arms . His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the weapons back to the king and claim his birthright. To get to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy in the shapes of thieves and bandits. Young, brave and ambitious, Theseus decided to go by the land route, and defeated a great many bandits along the way. The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... Hermes Psykhopompos: sitting on a rock, the god is preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld, Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ...


At the first site, which was Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Aesculapius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the "clubber" Periphetes, who beat his opponents into the Earth, and took from him the stout staff that often identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Asclepius was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... In Greek mythology, Periphetes, also known as Corynetes or the Club-Bearer, was a son of Hephaestus and Anticleia. ...


At the Isthmian entrance to the Netherworld was a robber named Siris. He would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees which were bent down to the ground, and then let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method. He then raped Siris's daughter, Perigune, fathering the child Melanippus. For other meanings of the word underworld see Underworld (disambiguation) In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly-dead souls go. ... In Greek mythology, Siris or Sinis was killed by Theseus. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... In Greek mythology, Perigune was a daughter of Siris. ... In Greek mythology, there were three people named Melanippus: Son of Agrius, killed by Heracles Son of Perigune and Theseus Son of Astacus, defended Thebes in the Seven Against Thebes. ...

Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow, with Phaea, on an Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440-430 BCE
Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow, with Phaea, on an Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440-430 BCE

In another deed north of Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea. Some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2280 × 1715 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 797 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2280 × 1715 pixel, file size: 2. ... Kylix may mean: Kylix (drinking cup), a type of drinking cup used in ancient Greece Kylix programming tool This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America. ...


Near Megara an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them, where they were eaten by a sea monster (or, in some versions, a giant turtle). Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Sciron, also known as the Foot-Washer, was an elderly robber killed by Theseus. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ...


Another of these enemies was Cercyon, King at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and then killed him instead. In interpretations of the story that follow the formulas of Frazer's The Golden Bough, Cercyon was a "year-King", who was required to do annual battle for his life, for the good of his kingdom, and was succeeded by the victor. Theseus overturned this archaic religious rite by refusing to be sacrificed. Cercyon (boars tail) is a figure in Greek mythology. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ...


The last bandit was Procrustes, who had a bed which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He then made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, although it is not said whether he cut Procrustes to size or stretched him to fit. In Greek mythology, Procrustes (the stretcher), also known as Damastes (subduer) and Polypemon (harming much), was a bandit from Attica. ...


Each of these sites was a very sacred place already of great antiquity when the deeds of Theseus were first attested in painted ceramics, which predate the literary texts.

Contents

Medea and the Marathonian Bull

When Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him hospitality but was suspicious of the young, powerful stranger's intentions. Aegeus's wife Medea recognized Theseus immediately as Aegeus' son and worried that Theseus would be chosen as heir to Aegeus' kingdom instead of her son Medus. She tried to arrange to have Theseus killed by asking him to capture the Marathonian Bull, an emblem of Cretan power. In Greek mythology, Aegeus, also Aigeus, Aegeas or Aigeas, was the father of Theseus and an Athenian King. ... In Greek mythology, Medus was the son of Medea. ... Heracles capturing the Cretan Bull. ...


On the way to Marathon, Theseus took shelter from a storm in the hut of an ancient woman named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to Zeus if Theseus was successful in capturing the bull. Theseus did capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecale's hut, she was dead. In her honor Theseus gave her name to one of the demes of Attica, making its inhabitants in a sense her adopted children. Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/ Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathón) is a town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... In Greek mythology, Hecale was an old woman who offered succor to Theseus on his way to capture the Marathonian Bull. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ...


When Theseus returned victorious to Athens, where he sacrificed the Bull, Medea tried to poison him. At the last second, Aegeus recognized the sandals, shield, and sword, and knocked the poisoned wine cup from Theseus's hand. Thus father and son were reunited.

Theseus and the Minotaur on 6th-century black-figure pottery

(From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... (From user talk:MyRedDice), Yes, all my images are in public domain. ... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ...

Minotaur

King Minos of Crete had waged war with the Athenians and was successful. He then demanded that, at nine-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, who was half man half beast and who lived in the Labyrinth. In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος, Minótauros) was a creature that was said to be part man and part bull. ...


On the third occasion, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. King Minos' daughter Ariadne, out of love for Theseus, gave him a sword and a ball of string to find his way back through the maze. In Greek mythology, Aegeus, also Aigeus, Aegeas or Aigeas, was the father of Theseus and an Athenian King. ... Drinking scene with Dionysus and Ariadne on his lap. ...


Theseus was successful and managed to escape with all of the children and Ariadne. On the return journey Theseus abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos. The next day Ariadne realized that Theseus had only used her and she cursed him to forget to change the black sail to white. Naxos (Greek: Νάξος; Italian: Nicsia; Turkish: Nakşa) is a Greek island, the largest island (428 km²) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean. ...


Seeing the black sail, Aegeus committed suicide by throwing himself into the sea (hence named Aegean). Theseus and the other Athenian youths returned safely. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ship of Theseus

According to some accounts, the ship Theseus took on his return to Athens was kept in service for many years. However, as wood wore out or rotted it was replaced until it was unclear how much of the original ship actually remained. Philosophical questions about the nature of identity in circumstances like this are sometimes referred to as a Ship of Theseus Paradox This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ship of Theseus is a paradox also known as Theseus paradox. ...


Pirithous

Theseus's best friend was Pirithous, prince of the Lapiths. Pirithous had heard stories of Theseus's courage and strength in battle but wanted proof, so he rustled Theseus's herd of cattle and drove it from Marathon, and Theseus set out in pursuit. Pirithous took up his arms and the pair met to do battle, but were so impressed with each other they took an oath of friendship and joined the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. In Iliad I, Nestor numbers Pirithous and Theseus "of heroic fame" among an earlier generation of heroes of his youth, "the strongest men that Earth has bred, the strongest men against the strongest enemies, a savage mountain-dwelling tribe whom they utterly destroyed." No trace of such an oral tradition, which Homer's listeners would have recognized in Nestor's allusion, survived in literary epic. Later, Pirithous was preparing to marry Hippodamia. The centaurs were guests at the wedding feast, but got drunk and tried to abduct the women, including Hippodamia. The Lapiths won the ensuing battle. In Greek mythology, Pirithous (also transliterated as Perithoos or Peirithoos) was the King of the Lapiths and husband of Hippodamia. ... In Greek mythology, the Lapiths were a semi-legenday, semi-historical race, whose home was in Thessaly in the valley of the Peneus. ... Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/ Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathón) is a town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... The Calydonian Hunt shown on a Roman frieze (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) The Calydonian Boar is one of a genre of chthonic monsters in Greek mythology, each set in a specific locale, which must be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. ... In Greek mythology, the Centaurs (Greek: Κένταυροι) are a race of creatures composed of part human and part horse. ...


Theseus and Pirithous meet Hades

Theseus and Pirithous pledged themselves to marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen and together they kidnapped her, intending to keep her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus's mother, Aethra, and travelled to the underworld, domain of Persephone and her husband, Hades. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and laid out a feast, but as soon as the two visitors sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them fast. In some versions, the stone itself grew and attached itself to their thighs. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


When Heracles came into Hades for his twelfth task, he freed Theseus but the earth shook when he attempted to liberate Pirithous, and Pirithous had to remain in Hades for eternity. When Theseus returned to Athens, he found that the Dioscuri had taken Helen and Aethra back to Sparta. When Heracles had pulled Theseus from the chair where he was trapped, some of his thigh stuck to it; this explains the supposedly lean thighs of Athenians. Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... In Greek mythology, Pirithous (also transliterated as Perithoos or Peirithoos) was the King of the Lapiths and husband of Hippodamia. ... Castor (or Kastor) and Polydeuces (sometimes called Pollux), were in Greek mythology the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. ... In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ...


Phaedra and Hippolytus

Phaedra, Theseus's first wife, bore Theseus two sons, Demophon and Acamas. While these two were still in their infancy, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus, Theseus's son by Antiope(Shakespeare confused the two names of these Amazons; the Queen Hippolyta and her sister Antiope, saying Hippolyta was the one who married him when in fact it was Antiope).[dubious ] According to some versions of the story, Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite to become a devotee of Artemis, so Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as punishment. He rejected her out of chastity. Alternatively, in Euripides' version, Hippolytus, Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her mistress's love and he swore he would not reveal the nurse as his source of information. To ensure that she would die with dignity, Phaedra wrote to Theseus on a tablet claiming that Hippolytus had raped her before hanging herself. Theseus believed her and used one of the three wishes he had received from Poseidon against his son. The curse caused Hippolytus's horses to be frightened by a sea monster (usually a bull) and drag their rider to his death. Artemis would later tell Theseus the truth, promising to avenge her loyal follower on another follower of Aphrodite. In a third version, after Phaedra told Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her, Theseus killed his son himself, and Phaedra committed suicide out of guilt, for she had not intended for Hippolytus to die. In yet another version, Phaedra simply told Theseus Hippolytus had raped her and did not kill herself, and Dionysus sent a wild bull which terrified Hippolytus's horses. Alexandre Cabanels painting Phaedra (1880) In Greek mythology, Phaedra is the daughter of Minos, wife of Theseus and the mother of Demophon and Acamas. ... In Greek mythology, Demophon referred to two different kings: one of Eleusis and the other, Athens Demophon was a son of King Celeus and Queen Metanira. ... In Greek mythology, Acamas (unwearying) was the son of Phaedra and Theseus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Hippolytus (also known as Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ...


A cult grew up around Hippolytus, associated with the cult of Aphrodite. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their hair to him. The cult believed that Asclepius had resurrected Hippolytus and that he lived in a sacred forest near Aricia in Latium. The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... Aricia was, according to Greek mythology, niece of Aegeus. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


Other stories and his death

According to some sources, Theseus also was one of the Argonauts, although Apollonius of Rhodes states in the Argonautica that Theseus was still in the underworld at this time. With Phaedra, Theseus fathered Acamas, who was one of those who hid in the Trojan Horse during the Trojan War. Theseus welcomed the wandering Oedipus and helped Adrastus to bury the Seven Against Thebes. Lycomedes of the island of Skyros threw Theseus off a cliff after he had lost popularity in Athens. In 475 BC, in response to an oracle, Cimon of Athens, having conquered Skyros for the Athenians, identified as the remains of Theseus "a coffin of a great corpse with a bronze spear-head by its side and a sword." (Plutarch, Life of Cimon, quoted Burkert 1985, p. 206) The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... In Greek mythology, Acamas (unwearying) was the son of Phaedra and Theseus. ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... For the 1997 film, see Trojan War (film). ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Adrastus, or Adrastos (he who stands his ground, son of Talaus) was one of the three kings at Argos, along with Iphis and Amphiaraus, who was married to Adrastus sister Eriphyle. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... In Greek mythology, Lycomedes (also known as Lycurgus) was the King of Skyros during the Trojan War. ... Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is the southernmost island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC Years: 480 BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC 476 BC - 475 BC - 474 BC 473 BC... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


Books

Mary Renault's The King Must Die (1958) is a dramatic retelling of the Theseus legend through the return from Crete to Athens. While fictional, it is generally faithful to the spirit and flavor of the best-known variations of the original story. The sequel is The Bull from the Sea (1962), about the hero's later career. Theseus is also a prominent character as the Duke of Athens in William Shakespeare's plays, A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Two Noble Kinsmen. Shakespeare draws on Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Giovanni Boccaccio's Teseida, whence the use of the anachronistic term "Duke": when Boccaccio and Chaucer were writing in the fourteenth century, there was an actual Duke of Athens. Hippolyta also appears in both plays. Mary Renault (pronounced Ren-olt[1]) (4 September 1905 – 13 December 1983) born Mary Challans, was an English writer best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. ... Who keeps notice, and images may not be displayed. ... The Bull from the Sea is the sequel to Mary Renaults The King Must Die. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... The Two Noble Kinsmen is a play written in 1613 by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare in collaboration. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


John Dempsey's "Ariadne's Brother: A Novel on the Fall of Bronze Age Crete" (Athens, Greece: Kalendis 1996, 679pp., ISBN 960-219-062-0) tells the Minoan Cretan version of these events based on both archaeology and myth.


Steven Pressfield's "Last of the Amazons" is a fictional account of Theseus meeting and subsequent marriage to Antiope and the ensuing war. Theseus also appears as a major character in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Knight's Tale Steven Pressfield is an American author, predominatedly of military historical fiction set in classical antiquity. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... The Knights Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ...


Jorge Luis Borges also presents an interesting variation of the myth, from the Asterion's point-of-view, in a short story, "La Casa de Asterion" ("The House of Asterion"), which depends for its full effect on the reader's not knowing the identity of the narrator. Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer. ... The House of Asterion is a story by Jorge Luis Borges. ...


The Cretan Chronicles are an alternative, interactive version of the legend of Theseus and the Minotaur. The reader controls Theseus's brother Altheus, who learns from Hermes Theseus was killed by the Minotaur and takes up his brother's quest to slay the beast. Overview The Cretan Chronicles is a trilogy of single-player role-playing fantasy gamebooks written by John Butterfield, David Honigmann and Philip Parker, published in the mid to late 1980s. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


Gene Wolfe's The Book of the New Moon contains a retelling of the story of Theseus and the Minotaur, about a student who makes a son from dreams and sends him off to fight an ogre who, unlike the minotaur, has a head like a castle and a body like a ship. In order to save a young maiden, the young man of dreams defeats the ogre by blinding him with burning tar and then returns to the island where the student lives. Sadly the student sees the sails, blackened by the burning tar, and, thinking his created son is dead, throws himself from his bed, for "no man lives long when his dreams are not here." Gene Wolfe (born May 7, 1931, New York, New York) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Minoan cultural dominance is reflected in the ceramic history, but not necessarily political dominance
  2. ^ Edmund P. Cueva, "Plutarch's Ariadne in Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe" American Journal of Philology 117.3 (Fall 1996) pp. 473-484.
  3. ^ Of a supposed Parnassos, founder of Delphi, Pausanias observes, "Like the other heroes, as they are called, he had two fathers; one they say was the god Poseidon, the human father being Cleopompus." (Descriprion of Greece x.6.1).

Delphi (Greek , [ðe̞lˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

References

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Theseus
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Theseus
  • Plutarch, Theseus online version
  • Apollodorus
  • Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985
  • Kerenyi, Karl, The Heroes of the Greeks 1959
  • Ruck, Carl A.P. and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, ch. IX "Theseus: making the new Athens 1994, pp. 203-222.
Preceded by
Aegeus
King of Athens Succeeded by
Menestheus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Theseus - LoveToKnow 1911 (1777 words)
Theseus was now declared heir to the throne, and the Pallantids, 2 who had hoped to succeed to the childless king, conspired against Theseus, but he crushed the conspiracy.
While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.
Theseus now carried out a political revolution in Attica by abolishing the semi-independent powers of the separate townships and concentrating those powers at Athens, and he instituted the festival of the Panathenaea,3 as a symbol of the unity of the Attic race.
Theseus, Greek Mythology Link - www.maicar.com (2770 words)
When Theseus had killed, or at least mastered the beast, Medea, who by then had reached great achievements in the field of criminality (having killed her brother, the king of Iolcus, and her own children by Jason) decided to get rid of the young man as well by means of poison.
Yet Theseus and his accomplice Pirithous are still believed to have gone to Sparta, seizing Helen as she was dancing in a temple of Artemis.
Theseus' mother then became the handmaid of Helen, but at the end of the Trojan War she was taken back to Athens by Demophon 1 and Acamas 1, sons of Theseus.
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