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Encyclopedia > Thermosphere

The thermosphere is the layer of the earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. Within this layer, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization. (see also: ionosphere). It is the fourth atmospheric layer from earth. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... [fAgot png|thumb|200px|right|Atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ...


The thermosphere, named from the Greek θερμός (thermos) for heat, begins about 80 km above the earth. At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass (see turbosphere). Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation by the small amount of residual oxygen still present. Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 2,000°C. Radiation causes the air particles in this layer to become electrically charged (see ionosphere), enabling radio waves to bounce off and be received beyond the horizon. At the exosphere, beginning at 500 to 1,000km above the earth's surface, the atmosphere blends into space. The few particles of gas here can reach 2,500°C (4500°F) during the day. Even though the temperature is so high, one would not feel warm in the thermosphere. A normal thermometer would read significantly below 0°C. This is due to the distance between the few molecules that are present. The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The turbosphere (or homosphere) is that portion of the atmosphere that is sufficiently well-stirred by atmospheric motion that long-lived gases are well-mixed and do not appreciably separate by weight. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... [fAgot png|thumb|200px|right|Atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers. ... It has been suggested that List of temperature sensors be merged into this article or section. ...


The dynamics of the lower thermosphere (below about 120 km) is dominated by atmospheric tide which is driven, in part, by the very significant diurnal heating. The atmospheric tide dissipates above this level since molecular concentrations do not support the coherent motion needed for fluid flow. Atmospheric tides (sometimes known as air tides or atmospheric oscillations) are global-scale periodic atmospheric oscillations. ...


The International Space Station has a stable orbit within the upper part of the thermosphere, between 320 and 380 kilometers. The Northern Lights also occur in the upper thermosphere. International Space Station insignia ISS Statistics Crew: 3 As of June 20, 2007 Perigee: 319. ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks,Alaska For other uses, see Aurora (disambiguation). ...


See also

Earth's atmosphere Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) The Kármán line is an internationally designated altitude commonly used to define outer space. ... The Thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earths energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere. ... Atmospheric tides (sometimes known as air tides or atmospheric oscillations) are global-scale periodic atmospheric oscillations. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...

  Troposphere | Stratosphere | Mesosphere | Thermosphere | Exosphere   Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... [fAgot png|thumb|200px|right|Atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers. ...

  Tropopause | Stratopause | Mesopause | Thermopause / Exobase   The tropopause is a boundary region in the atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... The stratopause is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sfaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... The Thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earths energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere. ... The exosphere (from the Greek words exo = out(side) and sphaira = ball) is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. ...

  Ozone layer | Turbopause | Ionosphere   The ozone layer is the part of the Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earths atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thermosphere (178 words)
The thermosphere (literally "heat sphere") is the outer layer of the atmosphere, separated from the mesosphere by the mesopause.
Within the thermosphere temperatures rise continually to well beyond 1000°C. The few molecules that are present in the thermosphere receive extraordinary amounts of energy from the Sun, causing the layer to warm to such high temperatures.
Therefore, since the air is so thin within the thermosphere, such temperature values are not comparable to those of the troposphere or stratosphere.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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