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Encyclopedia > Thermopylae
View of the Thermopylae pass from the area of the Phocian Wall. In ancient times the coastline would have been much closer to the mountain.
View of the Thermopylae pass from the area of the Phocian Wall. In ancient times the coastline would have been much closer to the mountain.
The source of this stream is a hot spring. In the background, you can see buildings of the modern baths. In ancient times the springs created a swamp.
The source of this stream is a hot spring. In the background, you can see buildings of the modern baths. In ancient times the springs created a swamp.

Thermopylae (IPA pronunciation: [θə(r)'mɒpəli]) (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic Θερμοπύλες: "hot gateway") is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It derives its name from several natural hot water springs. It is primarily known for the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC in which an outnumbered Greek force of roughly 7,000 men temporarily held off advancing Persians under Xerxes, numbering in the hundreds of thousands, and the term since has been used to reference heroic resistance against a more powerful enemy[1]. Thermopylae was a clipper ship built in 1868 by Walter Hood & Co of Aberdeen to the design of Bernard Weymouth of London for the White Star Line of Aberdeen. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Katharevousa (Greek Καθαρεύουσα, IPA: ) is a form of the Greek language, created during the early 19th century by Adamantios Korais (1748-1833). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ...

Contents

Characteristics

The location is a near-mandatory passage in the main north-south road between Lokris and Thessaly in Greece with excellent defensive terrain. For this reason it has been the site of several battles. Locris (Greek, Modern: Lokrida, Ancient: Lokris) was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of two districts. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


In the time of Leonidas in 481 BC, the pass was a narrow track (probably about 14 metres/yards wide) under the cliff. In modern times, the deposits of the Spercheios River have widened it to a breadth of 2 to 5 kilometers (1 to 3 miles).[2] The short part of the path has thus migrated to the East so the battle of Spercheios in 10th century between the forces of Samuil of Bulgaria and the Byzantine general Nikephoros Ouranos took place more to the north, while the 1821 revolution Battle of Alamana and the Hani of Gravia were very close, they did not take place on Thermopylae. Leonidas can refer to: Leonidas I, king of Sparta, ruled c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sediment. ... The Spercheios (Greek: Σπερχειός, Latin: Spercheus) is a river in Thessaly, Greece. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Commanders Samuil of Bulgaria Nicephorus Uranos Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Heavy Unknown The battle of Spercheios (Bulgarian: битка при Сперхей) took place in 996, on the shores of the river of the same name in present-day central Greece. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Samuil redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nikephoros Ouranos (Gr. ... ... Combatants Greece Ottoman Empire Commanders Athanasios Diakos, Panourgias Panourgias, Yiannis Dyovouniotis Omer Vryonis Strength 1,500 irregulars 9,000 troops Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Alamana was fought between the Greeks and the Turks during the Greek War of Independence. ... Gravia (Γραβιά) is a municipality in Phocis, Greece. ...


A main highway now splits the pass, with a modern-day monument of Leonidas on the east side of the highway. It is directly across the road from the hill where Simonides of Ceos's epitaph is engraved in stone at the top ("Tell it in Sparta, thou that passes by/Here, faithful to her charge, her soldiers lie").[3] Thermopylae is part of the infamous "horseshoe of Maliakos" also known as the "horseshoe of death": it is the narrowest part of the highway connecting the north and the south of Greece. It has many turns and has been the site of many vehicular accidents. Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ...


The hot springs from which the pass derives its name still exist close to the foot of the hill.


Battles

Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David (1814)
Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David (1814)
Modern monument of Leonidas and the Spartans in Thermopylae.
Modern monument of Leonidas and the Spartans in Thermopylae.
Modern monument of the 700 Thespians at Thermopylae.
Modern monument of the 700 Thespians at Thermopylae.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1508, 308 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jacques-Louis David Leonidas I Battle of Thermopylae La Grande Armée Histories (Herodotus) User:Markaci/Nudity ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1508, 308 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Jacques-Louis David Leonidas I Battle of Thermopylae La Grande Armée Histories (Herodotus) User:Markaci/Nudity ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 365 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1168 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 365 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1168 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Greeks and Persians

Main article: Battle of Thermopylae

Thermopylae is primarily known for the battle that took place there in 480 BC, in which an outnumbered combined Greek force of approximately 7,000 held off the advancing Persians under Xerxes for three days before being betrayed. A local named Ephialtes revealed a mountain pass that allowed Xerxes to outflank the Greeks. Leonidas sent the main army in retreat while a small band of Spartans, Thespians and Helots stayed behind and resisted the advance to the last man. For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Xerxes the Great (Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 485 BC–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Ephialtes (disambiguation). ...


The combined Greek force included 300 Spartans, 4,900 additional heavy infantry from Arcadia, Corinth, Thespiae, Phocis, Tegea, Mantinea, Mycenae, Phleious, and Thebes, an unspecified amount from the Opuntian Locrians and a number of slaves (each hoplite could be expected to have at least one lightly armed retainer)[4]. Arcadia or Arkadía (Greek Αρκαδία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a region of Greece in the Peloponnesus. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Thespiae (Greek Θεσπιαι, Thespiai) was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. ... Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα/Fokída, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς/Phokis; named after the Greek mythological personage Phocus) is an ancient district of central Greece and a prefecture of modern Greece located in Sterea Hellas, one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece. ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ... Mantinea is a city in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ...


Although the Persians were many in number, and their manpower clearly exceeded that of the Greeks, estimates of their actual strength vary widely, from an army as small as 20,000 to as large as 5,000,000 (Greek historian Herodotus numbered the Persian army at 2,000,000); the most widely accepted number is between 200,000 and 300,000.


The Thermopylae defensive position was chosen by the Athenian leader, Themistocles, because it was possible in that location for Greek naval and land forces to provide each other with mutual support in the face of vastly superior Persian numbers. The Greek navy fought a parallel holding action in the narrow area between Euboea and the mainland, preventing the Persians from using their navy to bypass and surround the Thermopylae position (Battle of Artemisium) Greek land forces gave equal protection to the naval contingent. The loss of the Thermopylae position forced the Greek navy to retreat back to Athens. Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480...


Greeks and Gauls

In 279 BC a Gallic army led by a Brennus (not to be confused with the Brennus who sacked Rome in 387 BC) successfully defeated a Greek army under the Athenian Calippus. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC - 279 BC - 278 BC 277 BC 276... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Brennus, Gaul, leader of the army of Gauls who in 279 BC invaded Macedonia and northern Greece. ... A sculpture, depicting this Brennus that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus, a chieftain of the Senones of the Adriatic coast of Italy, who in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC - 387 BC - 386 BC 385 BC...


Roman-Seleucid wars

In 191 BC Antiochus III the Great of Syria attempted in vain to hold the pass against the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio. Less famous is the confrontation of 353 BC/352 BC during the Third Sacred War when 5,000 Athenian hoplites and 400 horsemen denied passage to the forces of Philip II of Macedon and the battle of 267 when the Heruli defeated the Greek force that tried to stop them. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Combatants Roman Republic Seleucid Empire Commanders Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Antiochus III the Great Strength 22,000 10,500 and some allies Casualties 200 10,000 killed and prisoners The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 480 BC between a Spartan and Persian army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio... Manius Acilius Glabrio was a Roman consul, general, and member of a plebeian family. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350... Abdera passes to Macedon. ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek religious organization that was formed to support specific temples or sacred places. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Events Goths launch one of the first major barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ...


Greek War of Independence

Main article: Battle of Alamana

In 1821, a force of Greek fighters led by Athanasios Diakos made a stand near the pass to stop a force of 8,000 Turks from marching down from Thessaly to put down revolts in Roumeli and the Peloponnese. Diakos, after making a last stand at the bridge of Alamana with 48 of his men, was captured and killed. Combatants Greece Ottoman Empire Commanders Athanasios Diakos, Panourgias Panourgias, Yiannis Dyovouniotis Omer Vryonis Strength 1,500 irregulars 9,000 troops Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Alamana was fought between the Greeks and the Turks during the Greek War of Independence. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Athanasios Diakos (1788-1821). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ...


World War II

In 1941 during World War II the ANZAC forces delayed the invading German forces in the area enough to allow the evacuation of the British expeditionary force to Crete. This conflict also became known as the Battle of Thermopylae, probably because the two sides were aware only of the name of this site in the entire Phthiotis region. Such was the fame of Thermopylae that the sabotage of the Gorgopotamos bridge in 1942 was referred in German documents of the era as "the recent sabotage near Thermopylae". Combatants ANZAC Corps, Australian Forces Nazi Germany Commanders General Bernard Freyberg George Vasey  ??? The Battle of Thermopylae during World War II occurred in 1941 following the retreat from the Olympus and Servia passes. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ... Phthiotis, or (Greek, Modern: Φθιώτιδα - Fthiótida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Φθιώτις) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Gorgopotamos (Γοργοπόταμος) is a municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Note

  1. ^ OED entry for Thermopylae.
  2. ^ John C. Kraft; George Rapp, Jr.; George J. Szemler; Christos Tziavos; Edward W. Kase. The Pass at Thermopylæ, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 14, No. 2. (1987), pp. 181–198.
  3. ^ http://collections.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.1261
  4. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 7.202

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...

References

  • Cartledge, Paul, Thermopylae; the Battle that Changed the World, Overlook Press, New York, 2006
  • "Thermopylae, Battle of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 24 May 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9380602>.

See also

The Hot Gates is the title of a collection by William Golding, author of Lord of the Flies. ... Gates of Fire is a 1998 novel by Steven Pressfield that recounts the Battle of Thermopylae through Xeones, a Spartan squire and the lone survivor of the battle. ... 300 is a 2007 film adaptation of the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, and is a fictionalized retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae. ...

External links

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Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... 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For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... // Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BC?–630 BC) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... The Charioteer of Delphi, Delphi Archaeological Museum. ... The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) The Ancient Greek word kouros meant a male youth, and is used by Homer to refer to young soldiers. ... The Lady of Auxerre, an example of a kore Kore (Greek - maiden), plural korai, is the name given to a type of ancient Greek sculpture of the archaic period, the female equivalent of a kouros. ... The Kritios boy belongs to the Late Archaic period and is considered the precursor to the later classical sculptures of athletes. ... The Doryphoros of Polykleitos The Doryphoros (Greek δορυφόρος, lit. ... Statue of Zeus The Greek sculptor Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall Statue of Zeus in about 435 bc. ... Townley Discobolus, London, British Museum, with incorrectly restored head defying the balance of the figure The Discobolus of Myron (discus thrower Greek Δισκοβόλος του Μύρωνα) is a famous Roman marble copy of a lost Greek bronze original, completed during the zenith of the classical period between 460-450 BC. Myrons Discobolus was... -1... The statue of Laocoön and His Sons, also called the Laocoön Group, is a monumental marble sculpture, now in the Vatican Museums, Rome. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Death of Sarpedon, painted by Euphronios Euphronios was a Greek painter and potter of red-figure vases, active in Athens between 520 and 470 BC, the time of the Persian Wars. ... Polykleitos (or Polycletus, Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus) the Elder was a Greek sculptor of the 5th century BC and the early 4th century BC. Next to famous Phidias, Myron and Kresilas he is the most important sculptor of the Classical antiquity. ... Minotaur, from a fountain in Athens, reflecting Myrons lost group of Theseus and the Minotaur (National Archeological Museum, Athens) Myron of Eleutherae (Greek Μύρων) working 480-444 BCE, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-fifth century BCE.[1] He was born in Eleutherae on the borders of Boeotia and... Cavalry from the Parthenon Frieze, West II, British Museum. ... Praxiteles of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus, was the greatest of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC, who has left an imperishable mark on the history of art. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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TheHistoryNet | MHQ | Battle of Thermopylae: Leonidas the Hero (1284 words)
In the slaughtering pen at Thermopylae -- as the narrow killing fields might be called -- a king died and a legend was born.
Thermopylae is the prototype of many a last stand, from Roncesvalles to the Alamo to Isandlhwana to Bastogne.
Thermopylae is narrowest at its two ends, the so-called East and West Gates, while the mountains are sharpest in the center of the pass, at the so-called Middle Gate (all modern appellations).
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