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Encyclopedia > Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. The word thermometer is derived from two smaller word fragments: thermo from the Greek for heat and meter from Greek, meaning to measure. A thermometer has two important elements, the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a value (e.g. the scale on a mercury thermometer). Industrial thermometers commonly use electronic means to provide a digital display or input to a computer. Image File history File links Emblem-contradict. ... Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology 1592 - Galileo Galilei builds a crude thermometer using the contraction of air to draw water up a tube 1612 - Santorre Santorio puts thermometer to medical use 1643 - Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer 1714 - Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury in glass thermometer... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3112x1927, 748 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3112x1927, 748 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... A mercury-in-glass thermometer is a thermometer consisting of mercury, in a glass tube. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The temperature gradient in a given direction from a given spatial starting point is the rate at which temperature changes relative to distance in that direction from that point. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ...


Thermometers can be divided into two groups according to the level of knowledge about the physical basis of the underlying thermodynamic laws and quantities. For primary thermometers the measured property of matter is known so well that temperature can be calculated without any unknown quantities. Examples of these are thermometers based on the equation of state of a gas, on the velocity of sound in a gas, on the thermal noise (see Johnson–Nyquist noise) voltage or current of an electrical resistor, and on the angular anisotropy of gamma ray emission of certain radioactive nuclei in a magnetic field. Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Look up anisotropy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings Magnetostatics Electrodynamics Electrical Network Tensors in Relativity This box:      In physics, the magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. ...


Secondary thermometers are most widely used because of their convenience. Also, they are often much more sensitive than primary ones. For secondary thermometers knowledge of the measured property is not sufficient to allow direct calculation of temperature. They have to be calibrated against a primary thermometer at least at one temperature or at a number of fixed temperatures. Such fixed points, for example, triple points and superconducting transitions, occur reproducibly at the same temperature. In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...


Internationally agreed temperature scales are based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers. The most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990. It extends from 0.65 K to approximately 1358 K (−272.5 °C to 1085 °C). The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the kelvin and Celsius temperature scales. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early history

Various authors have credited the invention of the thermometer to Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), Cornelius Drebbel, Robert Fludd, Galileo Galilei or Santorio Santorio. But the thermometer was not a single invention, it was a development. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 981 KB) Galileo Thermometer detail File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thermometer Galileo thermometer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 981 KB) Galileo Thermometer detail File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Thermometer Galileo thermometer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... A Galileo thermometer, Galilean thermometer, or thermoscope is a thermometer made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid. ... (c. ... Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel (Alkmaar, 1572 - London, November 7, 1633) was the Dutch inventor of the first navigable submarine in 1620. ... Robert Fludd Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (1574, Bearsted, Kent – September 8, 1637, London) was a prominent English Paracelsian physicist, astrologer, and mystic. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Engraving of Sanctorius of Padua Santorio Santorio (March 29, 1561–February 22, 1636), also called Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, and various combinations of these names, was an Italian physiologist, physician, and professor. ...


Philo and Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air, expand and contract and described a demonstration, in which a closed tube partially filled with air had its end in a container of water.[1] The expansion and contraction of the air caused the position of the water/air interface to move along the tube. Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c. ...


Early air thermometers, instruments used to measure the hotness and coldness of the air with a tube in which the level of water is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the air, were developed by the Muslim scientist Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (known as Avicenna in the West) in the early 11th century,[2][3] and by several European scientists in the 16th and 17th centuries, notably Galileo Galilei. As a result, devices were shown to produce this effect reliably, and the term thermoscope was adopted because you could see changes in sensible heat (the concept of temperature was yet to arise). The difference between a thermoscope and a thermometer is that the latter has a scale[4]. Though Galileo is often said to be the inventor of the thermometer, what he produced was a thermoscope. In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... (c. ... Galileo redirects here. ... A Galileo thermometer, Galilean thermometer or thermoscope is a thermometer made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


Galileo also discovered that objects (glass spheres filled with aqueous alcohol) of slightly different densities would rise and fall, which is nowadays the principle of the Galileo thermometer (shown). Today such thermometers are calibrated to a temperature scale. Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... A Galileo thermometer, Galilean thermometer, or thermoscope is a thermometer made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid. ...


The first clear diagram of a thermoscope was published in 1617 by Giuseppe Biancani: the first showing a scale and thus constituting a thermometer was by Robert Fludd in 1638. This was a vertical tube, with a bulb at the top and the end immersed in water. The level of water in the tube is controlled by the expansion and contraction of the air, so it is what we would now call an air thermometer.[5] Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Giuseppe Biancani (in Latin, Josephus Blancanus) (1566-1624) was an Italian Jesuit astronomer, mathematician, and selenographer, after whom the Blancanus crater, on the Moon, is named. ... Robert Fludd Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (1574, Bearsted, Kent – September 8, 1637, London) was a prominent English Paracelsian physicist, astrologer, and mystic. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...


The first person to put a scale on a thermoscope is variously said to be Franceso Sagredo[6] or Santorio Santorio[7] in about 1611 to 1613. Engraving of Sanctorius of Padua Santorio Santorio (March 29, 1561–February 22, 1636), also called Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, and various combinations of these names, was an Italian physiologist, physician, and professor. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...


The word thermometer (in its French form) first appeared in 1624 in La Récréation Mathématique by J. Leurechon, who describes one with a scale of 8 degrees[8]. Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ...


The above instruments suffered from the disadvantage that they were also barometers, i.e. sensitive to air pressure. In about 1654 Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, made sealed tubes part filled with alcohol, with a bulb and stem, the first modern-style thermometer, depending on the expansion of a liquid, and independent of air pressure[9]. Many other scientists experimented with various liquids and designs of thermometer. A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Ferdinando II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. ...


However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique - there was no standard scale. In 1665 Christian Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards, and in 1694 Carlo Renaldini proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In 1701 Isaac Newton proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and body temperature. Finally in 1724 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit produced a temperature scale which now (slightly adjusted) bears his name. He could do this because he manufactured thermometers, using mercury (which has a high coefficient of expansion) for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption. In 1742 Anders Celsius proposed a scale with zero at the melting point and 100 degrees at the boiling point of water[10]. Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens (approximate pronunciation: HOW-khens; SAMPA /h9yGEns/ or /h@YG@ns/) (April 14, 1629–July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, also called Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (May 24, 1686 - September 16, 1736), was a physicist and an engineer, who most of his life worked in Netherlands and for whom the Fahrenheit scale of temperature is named. ... This article is about the element. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Anders Celsius The observatory of Anders Celsius, from a contemporary engraving. ...


In 1866 Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt invented a clinical thermometer that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty[11]. 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt was born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, the son of Thomas Allbutt, Vicar of Dewsbury and Susan Wooler. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...


Types of thermometers

Mercury-in-glass thermometer
Mercury-in-glass thermometer
Cooking thermometers used to measure the temperature of steamed milk

Thermometers have been built which utilise a range of physical effects to measure temperature. Most thermometers are originally calibrated to a constant-volume gas thermometer. Temperature sensors are used in a wide variety of scientific and engineering applications, especially measurement systems. Temperature systems are primarily either electrical or mechanical, occasionally inseparable from the system which they control (as in the case of a mercury thermometer). Image File history File links Close up of the bulb of a maximum thermometer. ... Image File history File links Close up of the bulb of a maximum thermometer. ... Close up of a maximum thermometer. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,139 × 759 pixels, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of milk thermometers taken by User:Tijuana Brass. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,139 × 759 pixels, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of milk thermometers taken by User:Tijuana Brass. ... Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. ... A mercury-in-glass thermometer is a thermometer consisting of mercury, in a glass tube. ...

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Close up of a maximum thermometer. ... This article is about the temperature-sensitive mechanical device. ... Resistance thermometers are a type of temperature sensor and are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many lower temperature industrial applications (below 600°C). ... A Galileo thermometer, Galilean thermometer, or thermoscope is a thermometer made of a sealed glass cylinder containing a clear liquid. ... Infrared thermometers offer a great method for accurately and quickly measuring temperature of objects at a distance and/or in motion. ... A liquid crystal thermometer or plastic strip thermometer is a type of thermometer that contains heat-sensitive (thermochromic) liquid crystals in a plastic strip that change color to indicate different temperatures. ... Unlike most conventional mercury thermometers, a reversing thermometer is able to record a given temperature to be viewed at a later time. ... The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an okay common form of body temperature (thermometer) used in electronic robot. ... A Maximum Minimum thermometer, also known as Six’s thermometer after its inventor. ... NTC thermistor, bead type, insulated wires Thermistor symbol A thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure temperature changes, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperature. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... In physics, a Coulomb blockade, named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is the increased resistance at small bias voltages of an electronic device comprising at least one low-capacitance tunnel junction. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...

Specialist uses of thermometers

A candy thermometer, also known as a sugar thermometer, is a thermometer used to measure the temperature and therefore stage of a cooking sugar solution. ... A meat thermometer with a dial. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...

See also

Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology 1592 - Galileo Galilei builds a crude thermometer using the contraction of air to draw water up a tube 1612 - Santorre Santorio puts thermometer to medical use 1643 - Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer 1714 - Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury in glass thermometer... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. ... A thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure temperature changes, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperature. ... This article or section should include material from Thermocouples applied In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used kind of temperature sensor. ... Thermogenerators are current sources which convert heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy. ... The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an okay common form of body temperature (thermometer) used in electronic robot. ...

Notes

  1. ^ T. D. McGee (1988) Principles and Methods of Temperature Measurement ISBN 0471627674
  2. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 191
  3. ^ Fatima Agha Al-Hayani (2005). "Islam and Science: Contradiction or Concordance", Zygon 40 (3), p. 565-576.
  4. ^ T. D. McGee (1988) Principles and Methods of Temperature Measurement page 3, ISBN 0471627674
  5. ^ T. D. McGee (1988) Principles and Methods of Temperature Measurement, pages 2-4 ISBN 0471627674
  6. ^ J. E. Drinkwater (1832)Life of Galileo Galilei page 41
  7. ^ The Galileo Project: Santorio Santorio
  8. ^ R. P. Benedict (1984) Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3rd ed, ISBN 0-471-89383-8
  9. ^ R. P. Benedict (1984) Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3rd ed, ISBN 0-471-89383-8
  10. ^ R. P. Benedict (1984) Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3rd ed, ISBN 0-471-89383-8
  11. ^ Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, Encyclopædia Britannica

Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

References

  • History Channel - Invention - Notable Modern Inventions and Discoveries
  • About - Thermometer - Thermometers - Early History, Anders Celsius, Gabriel Fahrenheit and Thomson Kelvin.
  • http://jnnp.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/74/10/1443

External links

Look up Thermometer in
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Measuring instruments (temperature)

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Science Projects - Make A Thermometer (620 words)
A thermometer is an instrument that measures the temperature.
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After you're done with your thermometer, dispose of the liquid properly and rinse the bottle well.
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