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Encyclopedia > Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning "heat" and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning "power") is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics.[1][2] Roughly, heat means "energy in transit" and dynamics relates to "movement"; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy and how energy instills movement. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.[3] For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Thermodynamic efficiency (e) is defined as: where W is the absolute value of the work done in one thermodynamic cycle. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...

Typical thermodynamic system - heat moves from hot (boiler) to cold (condenser), (both not shown) and work is extracted, in this case by a series of pistons.
Typical thermodynamic system - heat moves from hot (boiler) to cold (condenser), (both not shown) and work is extracted, in this case by a series of pistons.

The starting point for most thermodynamic considerations are the laws of thermodynamics, which postulate that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat or work.[4] They also postulate the existence of a quantity named entropy, which can be defined for any system.[5] In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of system and surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, which in turn are related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes. Image File history File links Triple_expansion_engine_animation. ... Image File history File links Triple_expansion_engine_animation. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... In thermodynamics, work is the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another without an accompanying transfer of entropy. ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to entropy. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is defined as that part of the universe that is under consideration. ... In a thermodynamics problem, the surroundings, or environment, are anything not part of the system. ... In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. ... In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U, or sometimes E, is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. ... A spontaneous process in chemical reaction terms is one which occurs with the system releasing free energy in some form (often, but not always, heat) and moving to a lower energy, hence more thermodynamically stable, state. ...


With these tools, thermodynamics describes how systems respond to changes in their surroundings. This can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, and even black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, and materials science to name a few.[6][7] Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... In physics, a phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ... The first edition of Transport Phenomena was published in 1960, two years after having been preliminarily published under the title Notes on Transport Phenomena based on mimeographed notes prepared for a chemical engineering course taught at the University of Wisconsin during the academic year 1957-1958. ... This article is about the astronomical body. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ...

Contents

History

Sadi Carnot (1796-1832): the father of thermodynamics
Sadi Carnot (1796-1832): the father of thermodynamics

A brief history of thermodynamics begins with Otto von Guericke who in 1650 built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and created the world's first ever vacuum (known as the Magdeburg hemispheres). He was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly thereafter, Irish physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump.[8] Using this pump, Boyle and Hooke noticed the pressure-temperature-volume correlation. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Then, in 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a bone digester, which was a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (495x742, 88 KB) Summary Source:http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (495x742, 88 KB) Summary Source:http://www. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... The 1698 Savery Engine - the worlds first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin. ... Otto von Guericke Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke) [] (November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician. ... The Roots blower is one example of a vacuum pump A vacuum pump is a pump that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaspar Schotts sketch of Otto von Guerickes Magdeburg hemispheres experiment. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Denis Papin Denis Papin (22 August 1647 - c. ... Denis Papins steam digester (1679) The steam digester (or bone digester, and also known as Papin’s digester) is a high-pressure cooker invented by French physicist Denis Papin in 1679. ...


Later designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine. He did not, however, follow through with his design. Nevertheless, in 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time. One such scientist was Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", who in 1824 published Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, a discourse on heat, power, and engine efficiency. The paper outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, and Motive power. This marks the start of thermodynamics as a modern science.[1] Thomas Savery (c. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... In the history of thermodynamics, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power (French title: Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance) is an 1824, 45-page publication by French physicist Sadi Carnot... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... In thermodynamics, motive power is an agency, as water or steam, used to impart motion. ...


The term thermodynamics was coined by James Joule in 1858 to designate the science of relations between heat and power.[1] By 1849, "thermo-dynamics", as a functional term, was used in William Thomson's paper An Account of Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat.[9] The first thermodynamic textbook was written in 1859 by William Rankine, originally trained as a physicist and a civil and mechanical engineering professor at the University of Glasgow.[10] James Prescott Joule (December 24, 1818–October 11, 1889) was an English physicist, born in Salford, near Manchester. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... There have been a number of people named William Thomson: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, usually known as Lord Kelvin, was a 19th century British physicist. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William John Macquorn Rankine (July 2, 1820 - December 24, 1872) was a Scottish engineer and physicist. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ...


Classical thermodynamics

Classical thermodynamics is the original early 1800s variation of thermodynamics concerned with thermodynamic states, and properties as energy, work, and heat, and with the laws of thermodynamics, all lacking an atomic interpretation. In precursory form, classical thermodynamics derives from chemist Robert Boyle’s 1662 postulate that the pressure P of a given quantity of gas varies inversely as its volume V at constant temperature; i.e. in equation form: PV = k, a constant. From here, a semblance of a thermo-science began to develop with the construction of the first successful atmospheric steam engines in England by Thomas Savery in 1697 and Thomas Newcomen in 1712. The first and second laws of thermodynamics emerged simultaneously in the 1850s, primarily out of the works of William Rankine, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). ass hole ... Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... Thomas Savery (c. ... Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... William John Macquorn Rankine (July 2, 1820 - December 24, 1872) was a Scottish engineer and physicist. ... Rudolf Clausius - physicist and mathematician Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 – August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician. ... There have been a number of people named William Thomson: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, usually known as Lord Kelvin, was a 19th century British physicist. ...


Statistical thermodynamics

With the development of atomic and molecular theories in the late 19th century, thermodynamics was given a molecular interpretation. This field is called statistical thermodynamics, which can be thought of as a bridge between macroscopic and microscopic properties of systems.[11] Essentially, statistical thermodynamics is an approach to thermodynamics situated upon statistical mechanics, which focuses on the derivation of macroscopic results from first principles. It can be opposed to its historical predecessor phenomenological thermodynamics, which gives scientific descriptions of phenomena with avoidance of microscopic details. The statistical approach is to derive all macroscopic properties (temperature, volume, pressure, energy, entropy, etc.) from the properties of moving constituent particles and the interactions between them (including quantum phenomena). It was found to be very successful and thus is commonly used. Statistical mechanics is the application of statistics, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Phenomenological thermodynamic is a branch of thermodynamics concerned with the study and analysis of actual phenomena with avoidance of full interpretation, explanation, and evaluation of microscopic, i. ...


Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. During the years 1873-76 the American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs published a series of three papers, the most famous being On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, in which he showed how thermodynamic processes could be graphically analyzed, by studying the energy, entropy, volume, temperature and pressure of the thermodynamic system, in such a manner to determine if a process would occur spontaneously.[12] During the early 20th century, chemists such as Gilbert N. Lewis, Merle Randall, and E. A. Guggenheim began to apply the mathematical methods of Gibbs to the analysis of chemical processes.[13] Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New Haven – April 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. ... In the history of thermodynamics, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances is a 300-page paper written by American mathematical-engineer Willard Gibbs. ... A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to entropy. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... Merle Randall was an American physical chemist famous for his work, over the period of 25 years, in measuring free energy calculations of compounds with Gilbert N. Lewis. ... Edward Armand Guggenheim (1901 - 1970) was a English thermodynamicist and professor of chemistry at the University of Reading, noted for his 1933 publication of the Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of Willard Gibbs, a 206 page, detailed study, with text, figures, index, and preface by F. G. Donnan, showing how...


Thermodynamic systems

Main article: Thermodynamic system

An important concept in thermodynamics is the “system”. Everything in the universe except the system is known as surroundings. A system is the region of the universe under study. A system is separated from the remainder of the universe by a boundary which may be imaginary or not, but which by convention delimits a finite volume. The possible exchanges of work, heat, or matter between the system and the surroundings take place across this boundary. Boundaries are of four types: fixed, moveable, real, and imaginary. Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x818, 88 KB) Summary Creator: Libb Thims (user:wavesmikey) Date Created: 11/29/05 URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (931x818, 88 KB) Summary Creator: Libb Thims (user:wavesmikey) Date Created: 11/29/05 URL: http://www. ... In thermodynamics, a boundary is a real or imaginary volumetric demarcation region drawn around a thermodynamic system across which quantities such as heat, mass, or work can flow. ... In thermodynamics, work is the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another without an accompanying transfer of entropy. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ...


Basically, the “boundary” is simply an imaginary dotted line drawn around the volume of a something in which there is going to be a change in the internal energy of that something. Anything that passes across the boundary that effects a change in the internal energy of that something needs to be accounted for in the energy balance equation. That “something” can be the volumetric region surrounding a single atom resonating energy, such as Max Planck defined in 1900; it can be a body of steam or air in a steam engine, such as Sadi Carnot defined in 1824; it can be the body of a tropical cyclone, such as Kerry Emanuel theorized in 1986 in the field of atmospheric thermodynamics; it could also be just one nuclide (i.e. a system of quarks) as some are theorizing presently in quantum thermodynamics. In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U, or sometimes E, is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of... “Planck” redirects here. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Kerry Emanuel is an American Professor of Meteorology currently working at MIT in Boston. ... In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. ... A nuclide (from lat. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, quantum thermodynamics is the study of heat and work dynamics in quantum systems. ...


For an engine, a fixed boundary means the piston is locked at its position; as such, a constant volume process occurs. In that same engine, a moveable boundary allows the piston to move in and out. For closed systems, boundaries are real while for open system boundaries are often imaginary. There are five dominant classes of systems:

  1. Isolated Systems – matter and energy may not cross the boundary.
  2. Adiabatic Systems – heat must not cross the boundary.
  3. Diathermic Systems - heat may cross boundary.
  4. Closed Systems – matter may not cross the boundary.
  5. Open Systems – heat, work, and matter may cross the boundary (often called a control volume in this case).

As time passes in an isolated system, internal differences in the system tend to even out and pressures and temperatures tend to equalize, as do density differences. A system in which all equalizing processes have gone practically to completion, is considered to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control volume. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium when it is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. ...


In thermodynamic equilibrium, a system's properties are, by definition, unchanging in time. Systems in equilibrium are much simpler and easier to understand than systems which are not in equilibrium. Often, when analysing a thermodynamic process, it can be assumed that each intermediate state in the process is at equilibrium. This will also considerably simplify the situation. Thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state are said to be reversible processes. In thermodynamics, a reversible process (or reversible cycle if the process is cyclic) is a process that can be reversed by means of infinitesimal changes in some property of the system. ...


Thermodynamic parameters

The central concept of thermodynamics is that of energy, the ability to do work. As stipulated by the first law, the total energy of the system and its surroundings is conserved. It may be transferred into a body by heating, compression, or addition of matter, and extracted from a body either by cooling, expansion, or extraction of matter. For comparison, in mechanics, energy transfer results from a force which causes displacement, the product of the two being the amount of energy transferred. In a similar way, thermodynamic systems can be thought of as transferring energy as the result of a generalized force causing a generalized displacement, with the product of the two being the amount of energy transferred. These thermodynamic force-displacement pairs are known as conjugate variables. The most common conjugate thermodynamic variables are pressure-volume (mechanical parameters), temperature-entropy (thermal parameters), and chemical potential-particle number (material parameters).. Thermodynamic potentials Maxwell relations Bridgmans equations Exact differential (edit) In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy. ... The first law of thermodynamics, a generalized expression of the law of the conservation of energy, states: // Description Essentially, the First Law of Thermodynamics declares that energy is conserved for a closed system, with heat and work being the forms of energy transfer. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Thermodynamic potentials Maxwell relations Bridgmans equations Exact differential (edit) In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy. ...


Thermodynamic instruments

There are two types of thermodynamic instruments, the meter and the reservoir. A thermodynamic meter is any device which measures any parameter of a thermodynamic system. In some cases, the thermodynamic parameter is actually defined in terms of an idealized measuring instrument. For example, the zeroth law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This principle, as noted by James Maxwell in 1872, asserts that it is possible to measure temperature. An idealized thermometer is a sample of an ideal gas at constant pressure. From the ideal gas law PV=nRT, the volume of such a sample can be used as an indicator of temperature; in this manner it defines temperature. Although pressure is defined mechanically, a pressure-measuring device, called a barometer may also be constructed from a sample of an ideal gas held at a constant temperature. A calorimeter is a device which is used to measure and define the internal energy of a system. A thermodynamic instrument is any device which facilitates the quantitative measurement of thermodynamic systems. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... The zeroth law of thermodynamics may be succintly stated as: If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance — eponymously named Maxwells equations — including an important modification (extension) of the Ampères... A common mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. ...


A thermodynamic reservoir is a system which is so large that it does not appreciably alter its state parameters when brought into contact with the test system. It is used to impose a particular value of a state parameter upon the system. For example, a pressure reservoir is a system at a particular pressure, which imposes that pressure upon any test system that it is mechanically connected to. The earth's atmosphere is often used as a pressure reservoir.


It is important that these two types of instruments are distinct. A meter does not perform its task accurately if it behaves like a reservoir of the state variable it is trying to measure. If, for example, a thermometer, were to act as a temperature reservoir it would alter the temperature of the system being measured, and the reading would be incorrect. Ideal meters have no effect on the state variables of the system they are measuring.


Thermodynamic states

Main article: Thermodynamic state

When a system is at equilibrium under a given set of conditions, it is said to be in a definite state. The state of the system can be described by a number of intensive variables and extensive variables. The properties of the system can be described by an equation of state which specifies the relationship between these variables. State may be thought of as the instantaneous quantitative description of a system with a set number of variables held constant. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In physics and chemistry, an intensive quantity (also referred to as an intensive variable) is a physical quantity whose value does not depend on the amount of the substance for which it is measured. ... In physics and chemistry, an extensive quantity (also referred to as an extensive variable) is a physical quantity whose value is proportional to the size of the system it describes. ... In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. ...


Thermodynamic processes

A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. Typically, each thermodynamic process is distinguished from other processes, in energetic character, according to what parameters, as temperature, pressure, or volume, etc., are held fixed. Furthermore, it is useful to group these processes into pairs, in which each variable held constant is one member of a conjugate pair. The seven most common thermodynamic processes are shown below: A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. ... Thermodynamic potentials Maxwell relations Bridgmans equations Exact differential (edit) In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy. ...

  1. An isobaric process occurs at constant pressure.
  2. An isochoric process, or isometric/isovolumetric process, occurs at constant volume.
  3. An isothermal process occurs at a constant temperature.
  4. An adiabatic process occurs without loss or gain of heat.
  5. An isentropic process (reversible adiabatic process) occurs at a constant entropy.
  6. An isenthalpic process occurs at a constant enthalpy. Also known as a throttling process or wire drawing.
  7. A steady state process occurs without a change in the internal energy of a system.

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant; . The heat transferred to the system does work but also changes the internal energy of the system: according to the first law of thermodynamics, where W is work done by the system, E is internal energy, and... Isochoric Process in the PV-diagram An isochoric process, also called an isometric process or an isovolumetric process, is a thermodynamic process in which the volume stays constant; . This implies that the process does no pressure-volume work, since such work is defined by , where P is pressure (no minus... An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system stays constant: ΔT = 0. ... In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. ... An isentropic process (a combination of the Greek word iso -same- and entropy) is one during which the entropy of working fluid remains constant. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In software, a throttling process, or a throttling controller as it is sometimes called, is responsible for regulating the rate at which application processing is conducted, either fixedly or dynamically. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... HELLO EVERYONE!! Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. ...

The laws of thermodynamics

In thermodynamics, there are four laws of very general validity, and as such they do not depend on the details of the interactions or the systems being studied. Hence, they can be applied to systems about which one knows nothing other than the balance of energy and matter transfer. Examples of this include Einstein's prediction of spontaneous emission around the turn of the 20th century and current research into the thermodynamics of black holes. The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... Einstein redirects here. ... Spontaneous emission is the process by which a molecule in an excited state drops to the ground state, resulting in the creation of a photon. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ...


The four laws are:

If two thermodynamic systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
The change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the sum of the amount of heat energy supplied to the system and the work done on the system.
The total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value.
As a system asymptotically approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes virtually cease and the entropy of the system asymptotically approaches a minimum value; also stated as: "the entropy of all systems and of all states of a system is zero at absolute zero" or equivalently "it is impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature by any finite number of processes".
See also: Bose–Einstein condensate and negative temperature.

The zeroth law of thermodynamics may be succintly stated as: If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium. ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium when it is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. ... In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation between two elements of a set which groups them together as being equivalent in some way. ... The first law of thermodynamics, a generalized expression of the law of the conservation of energy, states: // Description Essentially, the First Law of Thermodynamics declares that energy is conserved for a closed system, with heat and work being the forms of energy transfer. ... Look up conservation of energy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U, or sometimes E, is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... In thermodynamics, thermodynamic work is the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another. ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to entropy. ... The third law of thermodynamics (hereinafter Third Law) states that as a system approaches the zero absolute temperature (hereinafter ZAT), all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value. ... Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder, and no heat energy remains in a substance. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... See also Asymptotic analysis but contrast asymptotic curve. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter formed by a system of bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvin or −273. ... In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperatures; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be a negative quantity. ...

Thermodynamic potentials

As can be derived from the energy balance equation on a thermodynamic system there exist energetic quantities called thermodynamic potentials, being the quantitative measure of the stored energy in the system. The five most well known potentials are: This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Internal energy U,
Helmholtz free energy A=U-TS,
Enthalpy H=U+PV,
Gibbs free energy G=U+PV-TS,
Grand potential Phi_{G}=U-TS-mu N,

Potentials are used to measure energy changes in systems as they evolve from an initial state to a final state. The potential used depends on the constraints of the system, such as constant temperature or pressure. Internal energy is the internal energy of the system, enthalpy is the internal energy of the system plus the energy related to pressure-volume work, and Helmholtz and Gibbs energy are the energies available in a system to do useful work when the temperature and volume or the pressure and temperature are fixed, respectively. In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U, or sometimes E, is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of... In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the “useful” work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature. ... t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Quotes & humor

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Thermodynamics is a funny subject. The first time you go through it, you don't understand it at all. The second time you go through it, you think you understand it, except for one or two small points. The third time you go through it, you know you don't understand it, but by that time you are so used to it, it doesn't bother you any more.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ...

See also

Physics Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

Related branches

In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. ... This article is about the study of energy transformation in Biology and related subjects. ... In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black hole event horizons. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... ass hole ... Equilibrium Thermodynamics (Latin: aequalis = level and libra = weight or balance + Greek: thermos = heat and dynamis = power) is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems as they approach equilibrium. ... Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics concerned with studying time-dependent thermodynamic systems, irreversible transformations and open systems. ... Phenomenological thermodynamic is a branch of thermodynamics concerned with the study and analysis of actual phenomena with avoidance of full interpretation, explanation, and evaluation of microscopic, i. ... Sigmund Freud - the central founder of psychodynamics Psychodynamics is the application of the principles of thermodynamics to psychology. ... In the physical sciences, quantum thermodynamics is the study of heat and work dynamics in quantum systems. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of statistics, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... In the natural sciences, thermoeconomics is the physics of economic value. ...

Lists and timelines

The 1698 Savery Engine - the worlds first engine built by Thomas Savery as based on the designs of Denis Papin. ... This is a list of important publications in physics, organized by field. ... A list of notable textbooks in statistical mechanics, arranged by date. ... A timeline of events related to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ...

Other

The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... The Debye-Hückel equation, named for its developers Peter Debye and Erich Hückel, provides one way to obtain activity coefficients . ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... Diagram illustrating the Legendre transformation of the function f(x) . The function is shown in red, and the tangent line at x0  is shown in blue. ... In thermodynamics, the Onsager reciprocal relations express the equality of certain relations between flows and forces in thermodynamical systems out of equilibrium, but where a notion of local equilibrium exists. ... A phase boundary describes the interface two substances that can remain in contact indefinitely (that is to say, at equilibrium) without mixing, as when oil meets water or air meets stone. ... The philosophy of thermal and statistical physics is one of the major subdisciplines of the philosophy of physics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... For more elaboration on these equations see: thermodynamic equations. ... Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature. ... In thermodynamics, there are a large number of equations relating the various thermodynamic quantities. ... Here is a partial list of thermodynamic properties of fluids: temperature [K] density [kg/m3] specific heat at constant pressure [J/kg·K] specific heat at constant volume [J/kg·K] dynamic viscosity [N/m²s] kinematic viscosity [m²/s] thermal conductivity [W/m·K] thermal diffusivity [m²/s] volumetric... Thermodynamic databases contain information about thermodynamic properties for substances, the most important being enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. ...

Wikibooks

References

  1. ^ a b c Perrot, Pierre (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856552-6. 
  2. ^ Clark, John, O.E. (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-4616-8. 
  3. ^ Clausius, Ruldolf (1850). On the Motive Power of Heat, and on the Laws which can be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat. Poggendorff's Annalen der Physick, LXXIX (Dover Reprint). ISBN 0-486-59065-8. 
  4. ^ Van Ness, H.C. (1969). Understanding Thermodynamics. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-63277-6. 
  5. ^ Dugdale, J.S. (1998). Entropy and its Physical Meaning. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0-7484-0569-0. 
  6. ^ Smith, J.M.; Van Ness, H.C., Abbott, M.M. (2005). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-310445-0. 
  7. ^ Haynie, Donald, T. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79549-4. 
  8. ^ Partington, J.R. (1989). A Short History of Chemistry. Dover. ISBN 0-486-65977-1. 
  9. ^ Kelvin, William T. (1849) "An Account of Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat - with Numerical Results Deduced from Regnault's Experiments on Steam." Transactions of the Edinburg Royal Society, XVI. January 2. Scanned Copy
  10. ^ Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2005). Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-310768-9. 
  11. ^ Nash, Leonard K. (1974). Elements of Statistical Thermodynamics, 2nd Ed.. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-44978-5. 
  12. ^ Gibbs, Willard (1993). The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, Volume One: Thermodynamics. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 0-918024-77-3. 
  13. ^ Lewis, Gilbert N.; Randall, Merle (1923). Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.. 

James Riddick Partington (June 20, 1886 - 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry. ...

Further reading

  • Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2002). Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-238332-1. 
  • Kroemer, Herbert; Kittel, Charles (1980). Thermal Physics. W. H. Freeman Company. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9. 
  • Goldstein, Martin; Inge, F (1993). The Refrigerator and the Universe. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-75325-9. 
  • Dunning-Davies, Jeremy (1997). Concise Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications. Horwood Publishing. ISBN 1-8985-6315-2. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Thermodynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2240 words)
Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics.
Essentially, statistical thermodynamics is an approach to thermodynamics situated upon statistical mechanics, which focuses on the derivation of macroscopic results from first principles.
Thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state are said to be reversible processes.
Thermodynamics - definition of Thermodynamics in Encyclopedia (1768 words)
Thermodynamics is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes.
Thermodynamic laws are of very general validity, and they do not depend on the details of the interactions or the systems being studied.
While this is a fundamental concept of thermodynamics, the need to state it explicitly as a law was not perceived until the first third of the 20th century, long after the first three laws were already widely in use, hence the zero numbering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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