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Encyclopedia > Therapsida
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Therapsids
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Synapsida
Order: Therapsida
Broom, 1905
Suborders
Biarmosuchia
Dinocephalia
Eotheriodontia
Anomodontia
Gorgonopsia
Therocephalia
Cynodontia

Therapsids, previously known as the "mammal-like reptiles", are an order of synapsids. Traditionally, synapsids were referred to as reptiles, however when the term is used cladistically the taxon also includes the mammals, which are descended from the cynodont therapsids. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Placozoa (trichoplax) Subregnum Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (parasitic to flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicatas Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subgroups †Conodonta Hyperoartia   Petromyzontidae (lampreys) †Pteraspidomorphi †Thelodonti †Anaspida †Cephalaspidomorphi   †Galeaspida   †Pituriaspida   †Osteostraci Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)   †Placodermi   Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)   †Acanthodii   Osteichthyes (bony fish)     Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish)     Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)       Actinistia (coelacanths)       Dipnoi (lungfish)       Tetrapoda (four-limbed vertebrates)         Amphibia (amphibians)         Amniota (amniotic embryo)           Sauropsida (reptiles)             Aves (birds)           Synapsida (mammal... Groups See text. ... Clades Caseasauria Eupelycosauria Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a class of amniotes (the other being the sauropsids) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Image:Broom R.jpg Robert Broom Prof. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of Therapsids. ... Gorgonopsia is a Suborder of synapsids. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ... Mammal-like reptiles is a term used to describe the prehistoric animals that appear to be the reptilian ancestors of mammals. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Clades Caseasauria Eupelycosauria Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a class of amniotes (the other being the sauropsids) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Orders See text. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ...


Therapsids became the dominant land animals during the Middle Permian, and consisted of three major clades, the dinocephalians, the herbivorous anomodonts, and the mostly carnivorous theriodonts, with the carnivorous biarmosuchians as a paraphyletic assemblage of primitive forms. After a brief burst of evolutionary diversity, the dinocephalians died out in the later Middle Permian (Guadalupian), but the anomodont dicynodonts and the theriodont gorgonopsians and therocephalians flourished, and were joined at the very end of the Permian by the first cynodonts. The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of Therapsids. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Guadalupian - the second of the three epoches of the Permian, it lasted from about 270 to 260 million years ago. ... Dicynodonta is a taxon within the Therapsids or mammal-like reptiles. ... Gorgonopsia is a Suborder of synapsids. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ...


Like all land animals, the therapsids were seriously affected by the end Permian extinction event, with the very successful gorgonopsians dying out altogether, and the remaining groups being represented by only one or two families of a few species each surviving into the Triassic. Of these, the dicynodonts, now represented by a single family of large stocky herbivores, the Kannemeyeridae, and the medium-sized cynodonts (including both carnivorous and herbivorous forms), flourished worldwide throughout the Early and Middle Triassic, but then died out across much of Pangea at the end of the Carnian (Late Triassic), although they continued for some time longer in the wet equatorial band and the south. The Permian-Triassic extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 252 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary of the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage In zoology, a herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plant matter (rather than meat). ... Kannemeyeridae: A family of large, stocky, beaked and sometimes tusked dicynodonts, they were the dominant large terrestrial herbivores through most of the Triassic period. ... Map of Pangæa Pangaea (Greek for all lands) is the name Alfred Wegener used to refer to the supercontinent that existed during the Mesozoic era, before the process of plate tectonics separated the component continents. ... The Carnian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 228 +/- 2 to 216. ...


Some exceptions were the yet still further derived eucynodonts. At least three groups of them survived. Families   Tritylodontidae   Tritheledontidae   a number of other families Ref. ...

  1. The extremely mammal-like family, Tritylodontidae, survived into the Early Cretaceous.
  2. An extremely mammal-like family, Tritheledontidae, are unknown later than the Early Jurassic.
  3. The third group, Morganucodon and similar animals, were stem-mammals.

The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... The Jurassic period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 200 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Triassic to 146 Ma at the beginning of the Cretaceous. ... Morganucodon is a genus which lived during the Upper Triassic in (at least) Wales, England, east Asia, and perhaps South Africa. ...

Taxonomy

  • Class Synapsida
  • ORDER THERAPSIDA
    • Suborder Biarmosuchia
      • Family Eotitanosuchidae
    • Eutherapsida

Groups Caseasauria Eupelycosauria    Sphenacodontia       Therapsida          (...mammals) Synapsids (fused arch), formerly known as mammal-like reptiles, are a group of amniotes (reptiles and all their ancestors) that developed one hole in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Ma) during the late Carboniferous. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Gorgonopsia is a Suborder of synapsids. ... Gorgonopsia is a Suborder of synapsids. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of Therapsids. ... Dicynodonta is a taxon within the Therapsids or mammal-like reptiles. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes...

External links

References

  • Kemp, T.S. 2005. The origin and evolution of mammals. Oxford University Press.
  • Benton, M. J. (2004), Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd
  • Carroll, R. L. (1988) Vertebrate Paleontology & Evolution, W.H. Freeman & Company, NY
  • Romer, A.S. (1966) Vertebrate Paleontology University of Chicago Press, 1933; 3rd ed.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Therapsida (730 words)
Quite simply, the three principal radiations within the Therapsida appear to be based on three solutions to the problem of bringing the food-processing surfaces of the upper and lower jaws into closer contact in order to achieve a more efficient system than existed in the sphenacodontids for subdividing both plant and animal foodstuffs.
Therapsida - by Jack Conrad - includes an up to date Cladogram, essay, and technical diagnosis of the group
Therapsida - cladogram and short bibliography - Mikko K. Haaramo
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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