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Encyclopedia > Thera eruption
Satellite image of Thera
Satellite image of Thera

The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. 1630-1600 BC geologically; 1550 BC archaeologically) has become the most famous single event in the Aegean Sea before the fall of Troy. The eruption would likely have caused a significant climate upset for the eastern Mediterranean region. It was one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth during the last few thousand years. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC Events and trends 1633 BC - Egypt: End of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties of Egypt, start of... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of... The Aegean Sea. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Ancient Greek Τροία Troia, also Ίλιον Ilion; Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Since the closest civilization to Thera at this time was Minoan Crete, this is often colloquially labeled the "Minoan eruption". The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ...

Contents

Physical effects of the eruption

The violent eruption was centred on a small island just north of the existing island of Nea Kameni in the centre of the caldera. The caldera itself was formed several hundred thousand years ago by collapse of the centre of a circular island caused by the emptying of the magma chamber during an eruption. It has been filled several times by ignimbrite since then and the process repeated, most recently 21,000 years ago. The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano and then collapsed again during the Minoan eruption. Before the eruption, the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera. The eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia, and between Therasia and Thera, creating two new channels. Nea Kameni is a small uninhabited greek island of volcanic origin located in the Bay of Santorini It was first formed in 16th century through volcanic eruptions, and was enlarged the same way. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Ignimbrite is a compact volcanic pyroclastic rock typically of rhyolitic composition. ... Therasia, also known as Thirasia (Greek: Θηρασία), is a small Greek island west of Santorini in the Cyclades. ...


On Santorini, there is a deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption; it is up to 60 metres thick overlying the soil marking the ground level before the eruption. The layer is divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption. Tephra refers to air-fall material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition or fragment size. ...


A series of warning earthquakes must have been alarming enough and early enough before the eruption for all the residents to pack up and move out, as not a single body has been found at the Akrotiri site. (The single body found on Therasia has now been identified as a much earlier funerary burial.) The thinness of the first ash layer and the likelihood of this layer being eroded by winter rains indicate that the volcano may have given warning at most months in advance and not years as previously believed [1]. It remains to be seen if further excavations will show bodies of people huddled along the coast, too late to get off in a boat to escape the volcano's fury, akin to the finds at Herculaneum, which was buried by the much smaller eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.


In a classic Plinian eruption marked by columns of smoke and ash extending high into the stratosphere, the Minoan eruption created a plume 30-35 km in height, and magma coming into contact with the shallow marine embayment would have caused a violent phreatic eruption. The eruption also generated a 35 to 150 m high tsunami (estimates vary) that devastated the north coast of Crete, 110 km (70 mi) away. The impact of the tsunami pummelled coastal towns such as Amnisos, where building walls have been knocked out of alignment. The tsunami would also certainly have eliminated every timber of the Minoan fleet along Crete's northern shore. On the island of Anaphi, 27 km to the east, ash layers 10 feet deep have been found, as well as pumice layers on slopes 250 meters above sea level. Elsewhere in the Mediterranean there are pumice deposits that could be caused by the Thera eruption [2]. Ash layers in cores drilled from the seabed and from lakes in Turkey, though, show that the heaviest ashfall was towards the east and northeast of Santorini. (Ash found in Crete is now known to have been from a precursory phase of the eruption, some weeks or months before the main eruptive phases, and would have had little impact [3]. Santorini ash deposits were at one time claimed to have been found in the Nile delta, but this is now known to be a misidentification [4].) Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... Crete (Greek: Κρήτη Kríti; Turkish: Girit) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Amnisos (also Amnissos, House of the Lilies) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan villa on Crete. ...


The volume of ejecta is estimated to have been up to four times what was blown into the stratosphere by Krakatau in 1883, a well-recorded event, placing the VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of the Thera eruption at 6. Every vestige of life is likely to have been eliminated or smothered in the Thera ashfall, leaving an island that had essentially been sterilized, as was Krakatau. Recent archaeological research by a team of international scientists in 2006 have revealed that the Santorini event was even more massive than previously thought. It expelled 61 cubic kilometres of magma and rock into Earth's atmosphere compared to previous estimates of only 39 cubic kilometres in 1991.[5] Only the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption of 1815 released more material into the atmosphere. An early 19th century image of Krakatoa. ... For other meanings of Ve, see Ve (disambiguation). ... Mount Tambora is a stratovolcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa. ...


Dating the volcanic eruption

The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for aligning the entire chronology of the 2nd millennium BC in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region. However, its exact date is unknown. Current opinion based on radiocarbon dating indicates that the eruption occurred between about 1630 and 1600 BC. These dates, however, conflict with the usual date from archaeology, which is around 1550 BC. Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to ca 60,000 years. ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC Events and trends 1633 BC - Egypt: End of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties of Egypt, start of... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of... (Redirected from 1550 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and Trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, came...


There are numerous archaeological chronologies for the Late Bronze Age, each based on a point of origin for a given material culture. International commerce shipped material culture from Crete, mainland Greece, Cyprus, and Canaan to contexts throughout the eastern Mediterranean. If the Thera eruption could be dated and then associated with a given layer of Cretan (or other) culture, chronologists could use that layer of culture to date other events. Since Thera's material culture at the time of destruction was most like the "Late Minoan IA (LMIA)" culture on Crete, LMIA is the baseline for relative chronology elsewhere. The eruption also aligns with Late Cycladic I (LCI) and Late Helladic I (LHI) - but before "Peloponnesian LHI". (c.f. On the Late Helladic I of Akrotiri, Thera) As of 1989, Akrotiri had also yielded fragments of nine Syro-Palestinian "Middle Bronze II (MBII)" gypsum vessels. Summary of Evidence for the Absolute Chronology of the Early Part of the Aegean Late Bronze Age Derived from Historical Egyptian Sources For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars believe the radiocarbon dates to be problematic or completely wrong. Some suggest re-scaling archaeological chronologies with the radiocarbon dates. Others look for a compromise between the archaeological and radiocarbon dates for best fits of both sets of data. Re-scaling archaeological chronologies is controversial, because revising the Aegean Bronze Age chronology could require, by association, revising the well-established conventional Egyptian chronology. The debate about the date continues. This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ...


It has long been hoped that information from Greenland ice cores and dendrochronology would determine the date exactly. A large eruption, identified in ice cores and dated to 1644 BC +/- 20 years was suspected to be Santorini. Tree ring data shows that a large event interfering with normal tree growth in America occurred in 1629-1628 BC [6]. These events had formerly been associated together. Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree ring patterns. ...


But volcanic ash retrieved from an ice core demonstrated that this was not from Santorini[7]; hence, the 1644 BC date is incorrect. Instead, separate Greenland ice-core samples suggest that there was another eruption in about 1623 BC.[8] That last agrees better with the date from dendrochronology.


On 28 April 2006, the journal Science published two research papers arguing that new radiocarbon ages required an eruption date between 1627 and 1600 BC. The research published by Manning et al. in their Science paper analysed 127 samples of wood, bone, and seed collected from various locations in the Aegean, including Santorini, Crete, Rhodes and Turkey. The samples were analysed at three separate labs in Oxford, Vienna, and Heidelberg in order to minimise the chance of a radiocarbon dating error. Manning's research offered a broad dating for the Thera event between 1660 to 1613 BC.[9] The other Science paper, by Friedrich et al., narrows the time-line for the eruption of Thera to between 1627-1600 BC on a 95% probability, which was facilitated by the rare discovery of an olive tree which had been buried alive on Santorini under a layer of lava rock. [10] Because the tree grew on the island, though, it cannot be certain that its growth was unaffected by volcanic degassing (which would render the radiocarbon ages too early).


The same issue of the journal Science also includes an article quoting eminent archaeologists (Peter Warren and Manfred Bietak) expressing strong scepticism on the new information. At present, then, there is still a dispute between those who believe the radiocarbon data and those who believe in the traditional Aegean chronology. Now that the new radiocarbon dates are published, they will need to be considered by other scholars. It is worth noting that in the past a definitive date for the eruption of Thera has been claimed many times; yet later analysis has always shown such claims to be flawed in some way due to difficulties with radiocarbon methodology or other reasons. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn at the present time.


The "Aniakchak eruption"?

Even if the c. 1645 BC ice core is non-Theran, it still represents a volcanic eruption that could potentially affect climate. Recent dendrochronological findings further show that growth anomalies at Porsuk in Anatolia might have occurred in c. 1645 BC, and not c. 1628 BC. (A Dendrochronological Framework for the Assyrian Colony Period) These unusually wet (and therefore, in this latitude, cold) summers, if volcanic in origin, could be the result of climate change from a non-Theran eruption. Porsuk is a district of EskiÅŸehir Province of Turkey. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia (or Anatolian Peninsula) is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asiatic portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, the Thrace. ...


N. Pierce and others in 2003 published an article entitled "Reinterpretation of Greenland Ice-core data recognises the presence of late Holocene Aniakchak tephra" in the Proceedings of the SCIEM 2000 Euro-conference. Aniakchak is a volcano in Alaska. This possibility is still in dispute.


Effects on human civilizations

Volcanic eruptions can impact human civilizations by earthquakes, ashfall, tsunamis, and worldwide climatic effects such as volcanic winters. The impact of Santorini's massive eruption on civilizations of its time are not well understood and are still open to speculation. A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption (hence the name). ...


Impact on Minoan civilization

Tsunamis from the pyroclastic flows and caldera collapse would have devastated the navy and ports of the Minoans on the north side of Crete. As the Minoans were a sea power and depended on their naval and merchant ships for their livelihood, the Thera eruption must have impacted the Minoans to some degree. Whether these effects were enough to trigger the downfall of the Minoans is under intense debate. Early conclusions held that the ash falling on the eastern half of Crete may have choked off plant life, causing starvation. It was alleged that 7-11 cm of ash fell on Kato Zakro, while 0.5 cm fell on Knossos. However, when field examinations were carried out, this theory has lost some credibility, as no more than 5 mm had fallen anywhere in Crete (Callender, 1999). The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2600 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture, which drew upon the Minoans. ...


Earlier historians and archaeologists may have thought this because of the depth of pumice found on the sea floor. Recently, though, it has been established this came from a lateral crack in the volcano below sea level (Pichler & Friedrich, 1980). Also, Significant Minoan remains have been found above the LM I-era Thera ash layer, implying that the Thera eruption did not cause the immediate downfall of the Minoans. The Mycenaean conquest of the Minoans occurred in LM II not many years after the eruption, though; and many archaeologists speculate that the eruption induced a crisis in Minoan civilization, which allowed the Mycenaeans to conquer them.


For instance, Jan Driessen (in Aegaeum 22) argues for "Crisis Cults on Minoan Crete" at the end of LM I, by which the palaces adopted a "Kouros"-god from the hills in addition to the Minoan goddess. One of these new idols, at Palaikastro, was subsequently vandalised. (But note that Driessen thinks that the kouros-god here and elsewhere is Diktaian Zeus; he is more likely Welchanos - c.f. Mark Alonge, "The Palaikastro Hymn and the modern myth of the Cretan Zeus", 2005.) This hints at a domestic crisis of spirit with factional strife, before the coming of the Greeks later in LM II. The great kouros of Samos, the largest surviving kouros in Greece (Samos Archaeological Museum) A kouros (plural kouroi) is a statue of a male youth, dating from the Archaic Period of Greek sculpture (about 650 BC to about 500 BC). ...


Chinese records

Some scientists correlate a volcanic winter from the Minoan eruption with Chinese records documenting the collapse of the Xia dynasty in China. According to the Bamboo Annals, the collapse of the dynasty and the rise of the Shang dynasty (independently approximated to 1618 BC) was accompanied by "'yellow fog, a dim sun, then three suns, frost in July, famine, and the withering of all five cereals". This article is about the extremely ancient Chinese dynasty whose existence has yet to be thoroughly confirmed by archaeology. ... The Bamboo Annals (Zhushu jinian) is a chronicle of ancient China. ... The Shāng Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yīn Dynasty (殷代) (ca. ... (Redirected from 1618 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1660s BC 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1610s BC ...


Impact on Egyptian history

Oddly, there are no surviving Egyptian records of the eruption. The absence of such records is sometimes attributed to the general disorder in Egypt around the Second Intermediate Period. The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ...


Scholars J. G. Benett and A. G. Galanopoulos suggest connections between the Thera eruption and the calamities of the Admonitions of Ipuwer, a text from Lower Egypt during the Middle Kingdom or Second Intermediate Period. (During the Second Intermediate Period, Lower Egypt came under the rule of "Hyksos" from Canaan.) The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All[1] is an ancient Egyptian poem preserved in a single papyrus, Leiden Papyrus I 344, which is housed in the National Archeological Museum in Leiden, Netherlands. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 1991 BC and 1648 BC. The Eleventh Dynasty Information needed. ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Others link heavy rainstorms that devastated much of Egypt and were described on the Tempest Stela of Ahmose I to short term climatic changes caused by the Theran eruption [11] [1]. The theory is not supported by current archaeological evidence which show no pumice layers at Avaris or elsewhere Lower Egypt during the reigns of Ahmose I and Thutmosis III. It has been argued that the damage from this storm may have been caused by an earthquake caused by the Thera Eruption; however, it has also been argued on account of the verbs used in the stela--specifically entering, dismantling, hacking up, and toppling, all words which indicate human defacement--that the damage was caused during war with the Hyksos, and the storm reference is merely an exaggerated figurative reference to chaos, upon which the Pharaoh was imposing order.[2] There is a consensus that Egypt, being far away from areas of significant seismic activity, would not be significantly affected by an earthquake in the Aegean.[3] Furthermore, other documents, like Hatshepsut's Speos Armedios, depict similar storms, but are clearly speaking figuratively, not literally.[4] It is thus considered likely that this stele is just another such reference to the Pharaoh overcoming the powers of chaos and darkness. Contrarily, it was recorded on the verso of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus that during Ahmose's Hyksos campaign, "the sky rained," which was an extremely rare event in ancient Egypt, and could quite possibly indicate a literal storm.[5] nomen or birth name Ahmose I (also known as Amosis I) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... nomen or birth name Ahmose I (also known as Amosis I) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... The Aegean Sea. ... Maat-ka-re[1] Truth is the Soul of Re Nomen Hatshepsut[1] Who Loved Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesetkau [1] Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I Mother Queen Ahmose Died 1458 BC Burial KV20 Major...


Greek traditions

Oxford scholar J. V. Luce suggested in 1969 that the eruption of Thera and volcanic fallout inspired myths of the Titanomachy in Hesiod's Theogony. The background of the Titanomachy is known to derive from the Kumarbi cycle, a Bronze Age Hurrian epic from the Lake Van region; but the Titanomachy itself could have picked up elements of western Anatolian folk memory as the tale spread westward. Mott Greene compared Hesiod's lines with volcanic activity, citing Zeus' thunderbolts as volcanic lightning, the boiling earth and sea as a breach of the magma chamber, immense flame and heat as evidence of phreatic explosions, among many other descriptions. Greene concluded that Theogony "leaves no doubt that the phenomena described are volcanic eruptions." In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans, was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony (in Greek) Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of ancient Greek religion. ... The Hurrian father of the gods. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ...


Deucalion's flood is dated in the chronology of Saint Jerome to ca. 1460 BC. Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Saint-Jérôme, Quebec is a town in Quebec, near Mirabel, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of Montreal along Autoroute des Laurentides. ...


Biblical traditions

One interesting possibility for the effects of Thera's eruption is the origin of the story of the ten plagues to which Egypt was subjected, as proposed by historian J.G. Bennett Jr. According to the Bible, Egypt was beset by such misfortunes as the transforming of their water supply to blood, the infestations of frogs, gnats, and flies, darkness, and violent hail. These effects are compatible with the catastrophic eruption of a volcano in different ways. While the "blood" may have been red tide which is poisonous to human beings, the frogs could have been displaced by the eruption, and their eventual death would have given rise to large numbers of scavenging insects. The darkness could have been the resulting volcanic winter, and the hail the large chunks of ejecta spewn from the volcano. The tsunami that resulted from the Thera eruption is also speculated to have caused the parting of the sea that allowed the Israelites, under Moses, safe passage of the Red Sea, possibly devastating the Egyptian army with the returning wave. The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: מכות מצרים, Makot Mitzrayim) or the Ten Plagues (עשר המכות, Eser Ha-Makot) are the ten calamities inflicted upon Egypt by God in the Biblical story recounted the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12, in order to convince Pharaoh (possibly Ramesses II, making the pharaoh of the Oppression Horemheb... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ... Possible Exodus Routes. ...


Association with Atlantis

Starting with Spyridon Marinatos' 1939 landmark paper, this cataclysm at Santorini and its possibility to have caused the fall of the Minoan Civilization centered on Crete is sometimes regarded as a likely source or inspiration for Plato's story of Atlantis. Detractors of the theory say that Santorini and Crete combined would not be the size of Plato's Atlantis, and the date of the Minoan collapse does not match Plato's dates for the fall of Atlantis. Scholars such as James W. Mavor and A. G. Galanopoulos argue that the error in date and size could be caused by a mistranscription of the Ancient Egyptian or Mycenaean Linear B symbol for "hundred" as "thousand" (the former is unlikely because there would be little confusion in the visual appearance of hieroglyphic symbols of Egyptian numeric values). Spyridon Nikolaou Marinatos (November 4, 1901 - October 1, 1974) was one of the premier Greek archaeologists of the 20th century, whose most notable discovery was the site of the Minoan port city on the island of Thera destroyed and preserved by the massive volcanic eruption, ca 1650-1600 BCE, spawning... The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2600 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture, which drew upon the Minoans. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Atlantis (Greek: , Island of Atlas) is the name of an island first mentioned and described by the classical Greek philosopher Plato. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Linear B script sample Linear B is a script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of Greek. ...


References

  1. ^ Hans Goedicke, Studies about Kamose and Ahmose (Baltimore, 1995), chapter 3.; Karen Polinger Foster and Robert K. Ritner, "Texts, Storms, and the Thera Eruption," JNES 55 (1996), 1-14; M.H.Wiener and J.P. Allen, "Separate Lives: The Ahmose Tempest Stela and the Theran Eruption," JNES 57(1998) 1-28; Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume Three: "Chronology" (Proceedings of the Third International Congress, Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989), pp. 232 - 235.
  2. ^ Wiener, Malcolm H. and Allen, James P. The Ahmose Tempest Stela and the Thera Eruption Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 1998) p.20
  3. ^ ibid p. 20
  4. ^ ibid p.24
  5. ^ Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. p. 420. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1992.
  • Balter, M (2006). 'New carbon dates support revised history of ancient Mediterranean', Science, vol. 312, pp. 508-509.
  • Driessen, JM & MacDonald, CF (1997). The troubled island: Minoan Crete before and after the Santorini eruption (= Aegaeum, vol. 17), Liège: Université de Liège.
  • Forsyth, PY (1997). Thera in the Bronze Age, New York: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-4889-3
  • Friedrich, WL (1999). Fire in the Sea: Natural History and the Legend of Atlantis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65290-1
  • Greene, MT (1992). Natural Knowledge in Preclassical Antiquity, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  •   Guichard, F et al. (1993). 'Tephra from the Minoan eruption of Santorini in sediments of the Black Sea', Nature, vol. 363, pp. 610-612.
  •   Heiken, G & McCoy, F (1990). 'Precursory Activity to the Minoan Eruption, Thera, Greece', in DA Hardy (ed.), Thera and the Aegean World III, vol 2, London: The Thera Foundation, pp. 79-88.
  •   Keenan, DJ (2003). 'Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera', Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, vol. 4, p. 1097.
  • Manning, SW et al. (2006). 'Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700–1400 B.C.', Science, vol. 312, pp. 565-569.

External links

  • Santorini Decade Volcano — Santorini's geology and volcanic history, the Minoan eruption and the legend of Atlantis
  • Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera — research paper showing that the volcanic ash from the second half of the 17th century BC retrieved from Greenlandic ice, previously thought to be from Santorini, must in fact be from some other volcano.
  • The Thera (Santorini) Volcanic Eruption and the Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Bronze Age - A WWW companion site to: Sturt W. Manning, A Test of Time: the volcano of Thera and the chronology and history of the Aegean and east Mediterranean in the mid second millennium BC.
  • Review: Sturt W. Manning—A Test of Time (Oxbow, 1999) by Manfred Bietak [Bibliotheca Orientalis 61: 199-222 (2004)]. This is a detailed highly-critical review of the archaeological aspects of Manning's 1999 book.
  • Ancient Crete more Ancient than Thought? May 9, 2006 by John Wilford, New York Times
  • Date of the largest volcanic eruption in the Bronze Age finally pinpointed Århus University press release about the olive tree of Friedrich et al.
  • VolcanoWorld Information about the eruption with photographs
  • Thera 2006 Expedition – exploration of the submarine deposits and morphology of Santorini volcano

 
 

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