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Encyclopedia > Theory of knowledge
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This article is part of the
International Baccalaureate
series.

Theory of Knowledge (TOK) is a high school epistemology course taken by all International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme students. The course discusses how the student is able to know something. The student is described as a "knower" who attempts to find knowledge, where knowledge, as defined by Plato, is "justified true belief". International Baccalaureate logo. ... The International Baccalaureate (IB) is a group of three educational programmes and their respective examinations, as established by the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). ... The International Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Programme (PYP) is an educational programme created and managed by the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) for students aged 3 to 12. ... The International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP) is a five-year educational programme intended for students aged approximately 11 to 16 (grades 6-10 in the United States). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: International Baccalaureate The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (often referred to as just IB) is an educational programme taught in one of three languages - English, French or Spanish - and is intended for students in their final two years of secondary school, often before entering... The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is an international non-profit educational foundation, founded in 1968 in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The United World Colleges Logo The United World Colleges (UWC) are a group of ten international high schools. ... This is a list of acronyms connected with the three International Baccalaureate programmes: the IB Diploma Programme, the IB Middle Years Programme and the IB Primary Years Programme. ... This is a list of notable people affiliated with the International Baccalaureate, including IBO directors-general, presidents of the IBO Council of Foundation, and notable graduates of one or more of the three IB programmes. ... A total of 1469 schools (as of September 2005) offer one or more of the three International Baccalaureate (IB) programmes; the majority of these offer the IB Diploma Programme. ... The Group One of IB Diploma Programme subjects, subtitled language A1, refers to the native language or otherwise best language of the student - thus, language A1. ... The Group Two of IB Diploma Programme subjects, subtitled second language, refers to the one or more foreign languages that each Diploma candidate is required to study. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: International Baccalaureate The Group Three of IB Diploma Programme subjects, subtitled individuals and societies, consists of the humanities and social sciences. ... The Group Four of IB Diploma Programme subjects, subtitled experimental sciences, consists of the three core sciences. ... The Group Five of IB Diploma Programme subjects, subtitled mathematics and computer science consists of four levels of mathematics courses and an elective computer science course. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: International Baccalaureate The Group Six of IB Diploma Programme subjects is subtitled the arts and electives. In group six, students can take any of the subjects offered in the other five groups. ... The Extended Essay (EE) is one of the requirements of the IB Diploma Programme. ... Creativity, Action, Service (usually referred to as just CAS) is a component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, with the aim of providing a counterbalance to the academic rigour of the educational programme. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Epistemology is the branch of philosophy which studies the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge. ... The IB World School logo The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (often incorrectly referred to as just the IB) is an educational programme taught in one of three languages - English, French or Spanish - and is intended for students in their final two years of secondary school, often before entering university. ...


The course uses the four Ways of Knowing (WOK): perception, emotion, reason, and language. Also used are the following six Areas of Knowledge (AOK), which are put here in the form of a spectrum, the two ends of which are labelled "objective" and "subjective", from left to right respectively: mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, ethics, history, and the arts. Also the course discusses Problems of Knowledge (POK), or limitations of knowledge, concerning the WOK and AOK. PSYCHOLOGY In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... It has been suggested that Feeling be merged into this article or section. ... Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the higher cognitive faculties of the human mind. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Ethics (from Greek ἦθος meaning custom) is the branch of axiology, one of the four major branches of philosophy, which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to distinguish that which is right from that which is wrong. ... For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... Venus de Milo exhibited in the Louvre museum, France. ...


The course teaches nine reasons for justification of things one claims to know: logic, sensory perception, revelation, faith, memory, consensus, authority, intuition, and self-awareness. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the Book of Revelation. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... Consensus has two common meanings. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ... Intuition has many but close meanings across many cultures, including: Quick and ready insight seemingly independent of previous experiences and empirical knowledge Immediate apprehension or cognition Knowledge or conviction gained immediately and without detailed consideration The power or faculty of attaining knowledge or cognition immediately without thought and inference. ... Self-awareness is the ability to perceive ones own existence, including ones own traits, feelings and behaviours. ...


Also studied are the three known truth tests: coherence, correspondence, and pragmatic. Coherence is from Latin cohaerere = stick together, to be connected with, logically consistent. ... Correspondence may refer to: In the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, correspondence is the relationship between spiritual and physical realities. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


These nine justifications and three truth tests are key to the introduction of TOK.


The course is formulated and centered around one main question: How do you know? One is supposed to use the Ways of Knowing and the Areas of Knowledge to discuss how one acquires, perceives, and applies knowledge and how reliable can it be. Another questions central to the ideas of ToK, relating specifically to the application of knowledge is: 'What is your obligation as a knower?' Questions that may be discussed may include examples such as 'How do you know that the scientific method is a valid method of gaining knowledge?' or 'What is the reason for having historical knowledge, and how is it applied in life?'


At the completion of the course, students give an internally assessed oral presentation of about 10 minutes and write an essay of 1,200 to 1,600 words that will be assessed externally by the IBO. The presentation follows a topic of the student's choosing while the paper must discuss one of 10 pre-determined topics that are changed each year. In both cases the student is required to provide ample discussion of the POK, AOK, and WOK concerning their topic as well as critical evaluation of their conclusions. The International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) is an international non-profit educational foundation, founded in 1968 in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


TOK, like Creativity, Action, Service, is a required course for students in the IB Diploma Programme, and a good final score in both TOK and the Extended Essay may help the student receive up to three extra points towards their diploma. Creativity, Action, Service (usually referred to as just CAS) is a component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, with the aim of providing a counterbalance to the academic rigour of the educational programme. ... The Extended Essay (EE) is one of the requirements of the IB Diploma Programme. ...


A final grade in TOK is necessary to receive the IB Diploma. A failing grade or lack of a grade in TOK constitutes disqualification of a candidate for an IB Diploma.


External links

  • A high school ToK instructor's resource page for the subject
  • A useful site containing resources, activities and a forum

  Results from FactBites:
 
Epistemology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4383 words)
A priori knowledge is knowledge gained or justified by reason alone, without the direct or indirect influence of any particular experience (here, experience usually means observation of the world through sense perception.
Pragmatism about knowledge holds that what is important about knowledge is that it solves certain problems that are constrained both by the world and by human purposes.
Theory of Knowledge An introduction to epistemology, exploring the various theories of knowledge, justification, and belief.
Theory of Knowledge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (441 words)
Theory of Knowledge (TOK) is a high school epistemology course taken by all International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme students.
TOK, like Creativity, Action, Service, is a required course for students in the IB Diploma Programme, and a good final score in both TOK and the Extended Essay may help the student receive up to three extra points towards their diploma.
A failing grade or lack of a grade in TOK constitutes disqualification of a candidate for an IB Diploma.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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