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Encyclopedia > Theophylline

Theophylline chemical structure
Theophylline Drawn from a public domain pdb file File links The following pages link to this file: Theophylline Categories: GFDL images ...

3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione (or 1,3-dimethylxanthine)
CAS number
58-55-9
ATC code
R03DA04
Chemical formula C7H8N4O2
Molecular weight 180.16 Da
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism Via P450 enzymes
Elimination half life 8 hours (varies btw. subjects)
Excretion  ?
Pregnancy category Australia: A
USA: C
Legal status P [UK], available without prescription
Delivery  ?

Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to caffeine. It is naturally found in black tea and green tea. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Half-Life is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game developed by Valve Software and published by Sierra Studios in 1998, based on a heavily-modified Quake game engine. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterised by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Flash point N/A RTECS number EV6475000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Caffeine (sometimes called mateine when found in mate, and theine when found in tea) is a xanthine alkaloid found in the... Black tea Black tea is a true tea (i. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ...


The main actions of theophylline are:

The use of theophylline is complicated by the fact that it interacts with various drugs, chiefly cimetidine and phenytoin, and that it has a narrow therapeutic index, so its use must be monitored to avoid toxicity. It can also cause nausea, diarrhœa, increase in heart rate, arrhythmias and CNS excitation. Its toxicity is increased by erythromycin, cimetidine and fluoroquinolones. Smooth muscle is a type of non-striated muscle, found within the walls of hollow organs; such as blood vessels, bladders, uteri. ... Inotropic: Affecting the force of muscle contraction. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Cimetidine is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits the production of acid in the stomach. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... The therapeutic index of a medication is a comparison of the amount that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxic effects. ... Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ...


The main therapeutic uses of theophylline are:

  • chronic obstructive diseases of the airways
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • bronchial asthma.

A proposed mechanism of action includes a non-specific inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzymes, producing an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP; however, this is not known with certainty.[1][2][3] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterised by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... Asthma is an immunological disease which causes difficulty in breathing. ... A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM. TIM is catalytically perfect, meaning its conversion rate is limited, or nearly limited to its substrate diffusion rate. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ...


Theophylline has been shown to inhibit TGF-beta mediated conversion of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in COPD and asthma via cAMP-PKA pathway and suppresses COL1 mRNA which codes for the protein Collagen. (Yano, Biochem and Biophys Res Comm V341-3, 2006) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterised by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
theophylline - Asthma symptoms, relief therapies, treatment and medications on MedicineNet.com (614 words)
Theophylline can also be helpful in patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are partially related to reversible airway narrowing.
Theophylline can also be used in treating patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are related to reversible airway narrowing.
Theophylline should be used cautiously in patients with high blood pressure, peptic ulcer disease, seizure disorders, and serious heart disease, especially with heart rhythm problems.
Theophylline - definition of Theophylline in Encyclopedia (82 words)
Theophylline is a drug, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, that is widely used in therapy for respiratory diseases.
It is naturally found in fl tea and green tea.
The use of theophylline is complicated by the fact that it interacts with various drugs, chiefly cimetidine and phenytoin
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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