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Encyclopedia > Theology
Part of a series on
God
God

General approaches
Agnosticism · Atheism
Deism · Dystheism
Henotheism · Ignosticism
Monism · Monotheism
Natural theology · Nontheism
Pandeism · Panentheism
Pantheism · Polytheism
Theism · Theology
Transtheism
This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1212x750, 396 KB) Behind the cloud style crepuscular rays, taken in my neighborhood. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Ignosticism (often confused with apathetic agnosticism or apatheism) is the view that the question of the existence of God is meaningless because it has no verifiable (or testable) consequences and should therefore be ignored. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pandeism (Greek πάν, pan = all and Latin deus = God, in the sense of deism), is a term used at various times to describe religious beliefs. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; ; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Transtheism is the belief in one or more deities. ...


Specific conceptions
Ahura Mazda
Alaha · Allah
Amaterasu· Susano-o
Baal · Bhagavan
Demiurge . Deus
Deva (Buddhism) · Deva (Hinduism)
God in Buddhism · God in Sikhism
Great Architect of the Universe · Holy Spirit
Holy Trinity · Jesus, the Christ
Krishna · Monad
Kami
Nüwa 女媧 · Oneness (concept)
Pangu 盤古 · Shang Ti
SUMMUM · Supreme Being
Tetragrammaton · The Absolute
The All · Alpha and Omega
The Lord · Creator deity
Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ilah. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Susanowo (Japanese: 須佐之男) (also transliterated as Susa-No-O and - incorrectly - Susano) in Shinto is the god of the Sea and storms. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Bhagavan, also written Bhagwan or Bhagawan, from the Sanskrit nt-stem (nominative/vocative ) (hindi sandhi vichchhed:भ्+अ+ग्+अ+व्+आ+न्+अ)literally means: भ bh=bhoo soil अ a=agni fire ग g=gagan sky वा va=vaayu air न n=neer water BHAGAVAN is said to be composed up of all five matters other meanings possessing fortune, blessed, prosperous... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... dEUS is an indie rock band based in Antwerp, Belgium, currently consisting of Tom Barman (vocals and guitar), Klaas Janzoons (keyboards and violin), Stéphane Misseghers (drums), Alan Gevaert (bass) and Mauro Pawlowski (guitar and vocals). ... This article is about Buddhist deities. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... Buddhism is usually regarded as a religion without an absolute God who created the universe ex nihilo (from nothing) and to whom devotion and worship are due (although veneration and worship of the Buddhas do play a major role in both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism). ... The fundamental belief of Sikhism is that God exists, not merely as an idea or concept, but as a Real Entity, indescribable yet knowable and perceivable to anyone who is prepare to dedicate the time and energy to become perceptive to His persona. ... Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) is a term used within Freemasonry to denominate the Supreme Being which each member individually holds an adherence to. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Look up Monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... For the character Nu Wa in the Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi, see Nu Wa Niang Niang Nüwa iconograph in Shan Hai Jing In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧; Simplified Chinese: 女娲; Pinyin: nÇšwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... In Chinese mythology, Nüwa (Traditional Chinese: 女媧 Simplified Chinese: 女娲 Pinyin: nÇšwā) is mythological character best known for reproducing people after a great calamity. ... Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pangu (Traditional: 盤古; Simplified: 盘古; pinyin: PángÇ”) was the first living being and the creator of all in Chinese mythology. ... Shang Di or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above, Sovereign Above, or Lord On High, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Chinese Christianity for the Supreme Deity. ... Summum is a religion begun in 1975. ... The term Supreme Being is often defined simply as God,[1] and it is used with this meaning by theologians of many religious faiths, including, but not limited to, Christianity,[2] Islam,[3] Hinduism,[4] Deism[5] and Scientology. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... The Absolute is the totality of things, all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... The All is the Hermetic version of God, to some and not to others. ... Alpha and Omega is an appellation of Jesus in the book of Revelation (22:13) where he is also called the first and the last, the beginning and the end. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


General practices
Animism · Esotericism
Gnosis · Hermeticism
Metaphysics · Mysticism
New Age · Philosophy
New Thought
Religion
The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hermeticism should not be confused with the concept of a hermit. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... New Thought describes a religiophilosophical movement that developed in the United States during the late 19th century, originating with the metaphysical healing practices of Phineas Parkhurst Quimby and the “mental science” of Warren Felt Evans, a Swedenborgian minister. ...


Related topics
Chaos · Cosmos
Cosmic egg · Existence
God and gender · God complex
God the Sustainer · Spiritual evolution
Problem of evil · Euthyphro dilemma
Theodicy · Transcendence
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... This entry discusses how the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam deal with God and gender. ... A god complex is a colloquial term used to portray a perceived character flaw as if it were a psychological complex. The person who is said to have a god complex does not believe he is God, but is said to act so arrogantly that he might as well believe... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Euthyphro dilemma. ... The Euthyphro dilemma is found in Platos dialogue Euthyphro, in which Socrates asks Euthyphro: Is the pious (τὸ ὅσιον) loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods? (10a) In monotheistic terms, this is usually transformed into: Is what is moral... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ...

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Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. The origin of the word theology comes from late middle English (originally applying only to Christianity) from French théologie, from Latin theologia, from Greek: θεολογία, theologia, from θεός, theos or God + λόγος or logos, "words", "cause", "sayings," or "discourse" + suffix ια, ia, "state of", "property of", "place of". It is widely understood to mean literally "the study of God." For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Gods can refer to: Plurality of Gods (see polytheism); Postulated preternatural beings (see deity); The upper levels of a theatre (see the gods); A 1991 video game (see Gods (video game)); A sixties rock band (see The Gods (band)). An internet term, common among usenet veterans, for those who engage... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... Look up saying in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Theologians use philosophical analysis and argument to understand, explain, test, critique, defend or promote any of a myriad of religious topics. Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian understand more truly his or her own religious tradition,[1] understand more truly another religious tradition,[2] make comparisons between religious traditions,[3] defend a religious tradition, facilitate reform of a particular tradition,[4] assist in the propagation of a religious tradition,[5] or draw on the resources of a tradition to address some present situation or need,[6] or for a variety of other reasons. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An explanation is a statement which points to causes, context, and consequences of some object, process, state of affairs, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Apologists are authors, writers, editors of scientific logs or academic journals, and leaders known for taking on the points in arguments, conflicts or positions that are either placed under popular scrutinies or viewed under persecutory examinations. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ...


The word 'theology' has classical Greek origins, but was slowly given new senses when it was taken up in both Greek and Latin forms by Christian authors. It is the subsequent history of the term in Christian contexts, particularly in the Latin West, that lies behind most contemporary usage, but the term can now be used to speak of reasoned discourse within and about a variety of different religious traditions.[7] Various aspects both of the process by which the discipline of ‘theology’ emerged in Christianity and the process by which the term was extended to other religions are highly controversial. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Contents

History of the term

See the main article on the History of theology, particularly for the history of Jewish, Christian and Islamic theology. This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ...


The word "theology" originated from the Ancient Greek theologia, literally “study of divine things" with *'divine' being whatever is believed to be the underlying creative or sustaining force in the universe. *{Ultimately from an Indo-European word meaning “shining.”}[2] but its meaning shifted as it was used (in Greek and in Latin) in European Christian thought in the Patristic period, the Middle Ages and Enlightenment, before being taken up more widely. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...

  • The term θεολογια theologia is used in Classical Greek literature, with the meaning "discourse on the gods or cosmology"[8]
  • Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike, physike and theologike, with the latter corresponding roughly to metaphysics, which for Aristotle included discussion of the nature of the divine[9]
  • Drawing on Greek sources, the Latin writer Varro influentially distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical (concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance).[10]
  • Christian writers, working within the Hellenistic mould, began to use the term to describe their studies. It appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, however, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but -using a slightly different sense of the root logos meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message" - one who speaks the words of God - logoi toy theoy.[11]
  • Other Christian writers used this term with several different ranges of meaning.
    • Some Latin authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine followed Varro's threefold usage, described above.[12]
    • In patristic Greek sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God.[13]
    • In some medieval Greek and Latin sources, theologia (in the sense of "an account or record of the ways of God") could refer simply to the Bible.[14]
    • In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or (more precisely) the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition (the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard's Sentences, a book of extracts from the Church Fathers).[15]
  • It is the last of these senses (theology as the rational study of the teachings of a religion or of several religions) that lies behind most modern uses (though the second - theology as a discussion specifically of a religion's or several religions' teachings about God - is also found in some academic and ecclesiastical contexts; see the article on Theology Proper).
  • 'Theology' can also now be used in a derived sense to mean 'a system of theoretical principles; an (impractical or rigid) ideology'[16]

Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral, physical, or mental development in a particular direction. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... Peter Lombards seminal work, on which his reputation rests. ... Theology Proper is the term used to distinguish the study of God the Father in a Trinitarian system. ...

Theology and religions other than Christianity

Averroes, like many important Muslims who wrote about God, is not usually associated with "Theology"
Averroes, like many important Muslims who wrote about God, is not usually associated with "Theology"

In academic theological circles, there is some debate as to whether theology is an activity peculiar to the Christian religion, such that the word 'theology' should be reserved for Christian theology, and other words used to name analogous discourses within other religious traditions.[17] It is seen by some to be a term only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a deity (a theos), and to presuppose belief in the ability to speak and reason about this deity (in logia) - and so to be less appropriate in religious contexts which are organized differently (i.e. religions without a deity, or which deny that such subjects can be studied logically). (Hierology has been proposed as an alternative, more generic term.) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Hierology (Greek ιερος, hieros, sacred or holy, + λογος, logos, word or reason) refers to analysis and explanation of the sacred traditions or religions of the peoples of any time or place that tries to reconcile faith with reason. ...

Adi Shankara (centre), 788 to 820, founder of Advaita Vedanta, one of the major schools of Hindu philosophy.

Adi Sankara File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adi Sankara File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ... Events Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. ... Events Michael II succeeds Leo V as Byzantine Emperor The Historia Brittonum is written (approximate date) Births Rhodri Mawr (the Great), ruler of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date) Photius I, patriarch of Constantinople (approximate date) Deaths December 24: Leo V, Byzantine Emperor (assassinated) Shankara, Hinduist teacher Tang Xian Zong, emperor of... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ...

Analogous discourses

  • Some academic inquiries within Buddhism, dedicated to the rational investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy to the term Buddhist theology, since Buddhism lacks the same conception of a theos. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of 'theology' is appropriate, can only do so, he says, because 'I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God ... I take "theology" not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course atheological, rejecting as it does the notion of God.'[18]
  • There is, within Hindu philosophy, a solid and ancient tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God (termed Brahman in some schools of Hindu thought) and of the Atman (soul). The Sanskrit word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana (meaning, view or viewpoint). Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India for centuries, has in recent decades also been taken on by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College. See also: Krishnology
  • In Islam, theological discussion which parallels Christian theological discussion has been a minor and even slightly disreputable activity, named "Kalam"; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of Islamic law, or "Fiqh". 'Kalam ... does not hold the leading place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for "theology" in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam.' (L. Gardet)[19]
  • In Judaism the historical absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflection has happened within the context of the Jewish community and synagogue, rather than within specialised academic institutions. Nevertheless Jewish theology has been historically very active and highly significant for Christian and Islamic Theology. Once again, however, the Jewish analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law and Jewish Biblical commentaries.

A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Buddhist philosophy is the branch of Eastern philosophy based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, a. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ä€tmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, founded in 1997, is an independent academy for the study of Hindu culture, religion, languages, literature, philosophy, history, arts and society. ... Bhaktivedanta College is a Vaishnava university administered by ISKCON. The college opened in 2002 and aspires to be a Krishna institution. ... Krishnology (also spelled Krishnaology) is an academic neo-logism for Krishna Theology. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Theology and the Academy

Theology has a significantly problematic position within Academia that is not shared by any other subject. Most universities founded before the modern era grew out of the church schools and monastic institutions of Western Europe during the High Middle Ages (e.g. University of Bologna, Paris University and Oxford University). They were founded to train young men to serve the church in Theology and Law (often Church or Canon law). At such Universities Theological study was incomplete without Theological practice, including preaching, prayer and celebration of the Mass. Ancient Universities still maintain some of these links (e.g. having Chapels and Chaplains) and are more likely to teach Theology than other institutions. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I&#8211... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Preaching is the most important element in the protestant churches. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... A chapel is a church other than a parish church, often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... A chaplain is a priest or military unit, a private chapel, a ship, a prison, a hospital, a parliament and so on. ...


During the High Middle Ages theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences", and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including Philosophy) existed primarily to help with theological thought. For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... The quadrivium comprised the four subjects taught in medieval universities after the trivium. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ...


With the Enlightenment, universities began to change, teaching a wide range of subjects, especially in Germany, and from a Humanistic perspective. Theology was no longer the principal subject and Universities existed for many purposes, not only to train Clergy for established churches. Theology thus became unusual as the only subject to maintain a confessional basis in otherwise secular establishments. ... Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...


As a result theology is often distinguished from many other established Academic disciplines that cover the same subject area. Those who contend it is different sometimes claim that it is distinguished by viewpoint (suggesting that theology is studied from within a faith, rather than from without) and by practical involvement (suggesting theology cannot be truly studied or understood without a practical faith - an idea that would have been familiar to some of the early Christian Church Fathers, who described the theologian as a person who "truly prays."). Others would claim that theology involves taking seriously claims internal to a religious tradition on their own terms, as topics for investigation and analysis - studying people's beliefs about God, rather than necessarily studying God, perhaps - even if that inquiry is not carried out by one who is committed to the relevant tradition, or involved in practice flowing from it. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers...


Nevertheless theology should be distinguished from the following disciplines;

All of these normally involve studying the historical or contemporary practices or ideas of one or several religious traditions using intellectual tools and frameworks which are not themselves specifically tied to any religious tradition, but are (normally) understood to be neutral or secular. The Major religious groups of the world. ... Religious studies is the designation commonly used in the English-speaking world for a multi-disciplinary, secular study of religion that dates to the late 19th century in Europe (and the influential early work of such scholars as Friedrich Max Müller, in England, and Cornelius P. Tiele, in the... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... The History of religions refers to the Religiongeschichteschule, a Nineteenth century German school of thought which was the first to systematically study religion as a socio-cultural phenomenon. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ...


Even when it is distinguished from these other disciplines, however, some hold that the very idea of an academic discipline called 'theology', housed in institutions like Universities, is an inherently secular, Western notion.[20] Noting that 'reasoned discourse about religion/God' is an idea with a very particular intellectual pedigree, with at least some roots in Graeco-Roman intellectual culture, they argue that this idea actually brings with it deep assumptions which we can now see to be related to ideas underlying 'secularism': i.e., the whole idea of reasoned discourse about God/religion suggests the possibility of a common intellectual framework or set of tools for investigating, comparing and evaluating traditions - an idea with a strong affinity for a 'secular' worldview in which religions are seen as particular choices, set within an overarching religiously neutral public sphere. They argue that even those who pursue this discourse as a way of deepening their commitment to and expertise in their own tradition, perhaps even so as to become promoters and propagators of it, often do so in a way which underlines this same 'secular' atmosphere - by assuming the communicability of their religious views (as explored and explained by theological discourse) within a neutral intellectual market-place. George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ...


Theological studies in different institutions

In Europe, the traditional places for the study of theology have been universities and seminaries. Typically the Protestant state churches have trained their ministers in universities while the Roman Catholic church has used seminaries as well as universities for both the clergy and the laity. However, the secularization of European states has closed down the theological faculties in many countries while the Catholic church has increased the academical level of its priests by founding a number of pontifical universities. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... A faculty is a division within a university. ...


In some countries, some state-funded Universities have theology Departments (sometimes, but not always, Universities with a medieval or early-modern pedigree), which can have a variety of formal relationships to Christian churches, or to institutions within other religious traditions. These range from Departments of Theology which have only informal or ad-hoc links to religious institutions (see, for instance, several Theology departments in the UK) to countries like Finland and Sweden, which have state universities with faculties of theology training Lutheran priests as well as teachers and scholars of religion - although students from the latter faculties can also go on to typical graduate careers such as marketing, business or administration, even if this is frowned upon by some. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


Quotations

  • Theology is "faith seeking understanding (fides quaerens intellectum)." - Anselm of Canterbury
  • "Theology is the effort to explain the unknowable in terms of the not worth knowing." - H. L. Mencken
  • "Theology is what connects the Divine to the mind." - Heather Lawrence in G.T.U current newsletter.
  • "An authentic theology will not allow man to be obsessed with himself." - Thomas F. Torrance in Reality and Scientific Theology
  • "Theology announces not just what the Bible says but what it means." - J. Kenneth Grider in A Wesleyan-Holiness Theology (Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1994), p. 19.
  • "God is whole, more or less a theological being." - Jerimiah Minderson
  • "I have no use for cranks who despise music, because it is a gift of God. Music drives away the Devil and makes people gay; they forget thereby all wrath, unchastity, arrogance, and the like. Next after theology, I give to music the highest place and the greatest honor." — Martin Luther, quoted in Martin Marty, Martin Luther, 2004, p. 114.
  • "A professorship of theology should have no place in our institution." - Thomas Jefferson, on the University of Virginia, which he founded.

Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... i still feel like being nice H.L. Mencken who: journalist, satirist, social critic, cynic, and freethinker, what: most influential American writers of the early 20th century. ... Thomas Forsyth Torrance (1913- ) is a 20th century Christian theologian born to Scottish missionary parents in Chengtu, Szechuan, China. ... J. Kenneth Grider is a 20th century Christian theologian primarily associated with the followers of John Wesley who are part of the Holiness movement. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Martin E. Marty (b. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ...

See also

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Ascetical theology is the organized study or presentation of spiritual teachings found in Scripture and the Church Fathers that help the faithful to more perfectly follow Christ and attain to Christian perfection. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hierology (Greek ιερος, hieros, sacred or holy, + λογος, logos, word or reason) refers to analysis and explanation of the sacred traditions or religions of the peoples of any time or place that tries to reconcile faith with reason. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... The Latin phrase Odium theologicum, literally meaning theological hatred, is the name given to the particular rancor and hatred generated by disputes over theology. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Process theology (also known as neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947). ... In Christianity, Propitiation is a theological term denoting that by which God is rendered propitious, i. ... Queer Theology is exploration of the nature of God and human-kinds relationship with God through the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (although, as used within this field of theology, the term Queer can extend beyond LGBT people). ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Constructive Theology is the re-definition of what has historically been known as Systematic theology. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ... Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of the ancient Greeks, ca 700 BC. // Hesiods Theogony a large-scale synthesis of a vast variety of local Greek traditions concerning the gods, organized as a narrative that tells how they came to be and how... Georges Rouaults Head of Christ Theology and the Arts (or, Theological Aesthetics) is an academic subdiscipline of theological studies which examines the relationship between: theology (i. ... The Earth is called Urantia in The Urantia Book. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ See, e.g., Daniel L. Migliore, Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004)
  2. ^ See, e.g., Michael S. Kogan, 'Toward a Jewish Theology of Christianity' in The Journal of Ecumenical Studies 32.1 (Winter 1995), 89-106; available online at [1]
  3. ^ See, e.g., David Burrell, Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994)
  4. ^ See, e.g., John Shelby Spong, Why Christianity Must Change or Die (New York: Harper Collins, 2001)
  5. ^ See, e.g., Duncan Dormor et al (eds), Anglicanism, the Answer to Modernity (London: Continuum, 2003)
  6. ^ See, e.g., Timothy Gorringe, Crime, Changing Society and the Churches Series (London:SPCK, 2004)
  7. ^ See, for example, Contemporary Jewish Theology: A Reader, ed Elliott Dorff and Louis Newman (Oxford: OUP, 1998), Ignaz Goldziher's Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law (Princeton University Press, 1981), Roger Jackson and John J. Makransky's Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars (London: Curzon, 2000), and Jose Pereira, Hindu Theology (New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan, 1991)
  8. ^ Lidell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon''
  9. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Epsilon.
  10. ^ As cited by Augustine, City of God, Book 6, ch.5.
  11. ^ This title appears quite late in the manuscript tradition for the Book of Revelation: the two earliest citations provided in David Aune's Word Biblical Commentary 52: Revelation 1-5 (Dallas: Word Books, 1997) are both 11th Century - Gregory 325/Hoskier 9 and Gregory 1006/Hoskier 215; the title was however in circulation by the 6th Century - see Allen Brent ‘John as theologos: the imperial mysteries and the Apocalypse’, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 75 (1999), 87-102.
  12. ^ See Augustine reference above, and Tertullian, Ad Nationes, Book 2, ch.1.
  13. ^ Gregory of Nazianzus uses the word in this sense in his fourth-century Theological Orations; after his death, he was himself called 'the Theologian' at the Council of Chalcedon and thereafter in Eastern Orthodoxy - either because his Orations were seen as crucial examples of this kind of theology, or in the sense that he was (like the author of the Book of Revelation) seen as one who was an inspired preacher of the words of God. (It is unlikely to mean, as claimed in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers introduction to his Theological Orations, that he was a defender of the divinity of Christ the Word.) See John McGukin, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2001), p.278.
  14. ^
    Albert the Great, patron saint of Roman Catholic Theologians
    Albert the Great, patron saint of Roman Catholic Theologians
    See e.g., Hugh of St. Victor, Commentariorum in Hierarchiam Coelestem, Expositio to Book 9: 'theologia, id est, divina Scriptura' (in Migne's Patrologia Latina vol.175, 1091C).
  15. ^ See the title of Peter Abelard's Theologia Christiana, and - perhaps most famously, of Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica
  16. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1989 edition, 'Theology' sense 1(d), and 'Theological' sense A.3; the earliest reference given is from the 1959 Times Literary Supplement 5 June 329/4: 'The "theological" approach to Soviet Marxism...proves in the long run unsatisfactory.'
  17. ^ See, for example, the initial reaction of Dharmachari Nagapriya in his review of Jackson and Makrasnky's Buddhist Theology (London: Curzon, 2000) in Western Buddhist Review 3
  18. ^ Jose Ignacio Cabezon, 'Buddhist Theology in the Academy' in Roger Jackson and John J. Makransky's Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars (London: Routledge, 1999), pp.25-52.
  19. ^ L. Gardet, 'Ilm al-kalam' in The Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. P.J. Bearman et al (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 1999).
  20. ^ See, for instance, debates on the Talk page for this article between Stevertigo, Mahigton and Totalthinker in 2006.

Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy) Albertus Magnus (1193? - 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ... Hugh of St. ... Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... The Patrologia Latina is an enormous work published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... The Summa Theologica (also widely known as the Summa Theologiae) is the most famous work of St. ...

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at:
  • Conservative Theological Research
  • The Theologian: the internet journal for integrated theology
  • Christian Classics Library

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