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Encyclopedia > Theodosius I
Theodosius I
Emperor of the Roman Empire
A coin of Theodosius I
Reign August 378 - 15 May 392 (emperor in the east, with Gratian and Valentinian II in the west);
15 May 392 - 17 January 395 (whole empire)
Full name Flavius Theodosius
Born 11 January 347
Cauca, modern Spain
Died 17 January 395
Milan
Buried Milan
Predecessor Valens (in the east); Valentinian II in the west
Successor Arcadius in the east;
Honorius in the west
Wife/wives 1) Aelia Flaccilla (?-385)
2) Galla, daughter of Valentinian I
Issue By 1)Arcadius, Honorius and Pulcheria (?-385)
By 2) Galla Placidia
Dynasty Theodosian
Father Theodosius the Elder
Mother Thermantia
An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. 1836.
An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. 1836.

Flavius Theodosius (January 11, 347 - January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 until his death. Reuniting the eastern and western portions of the empire, Theodosius was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. After his death, the two parts split permanently. Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Image File history File links Theodosius_I._Roman_Coin. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Aelia Flaccilla. ... Galla, daughter of Valentinian II and Justina, second wife of Theodosius I, and mother of Galla Placidia. ... Medallion of Valentinian I. Solidus minted by Valens in ca. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Born 378, Died 385. ... Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... The Theodosian dynasty was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. ... Count Theodosius, also known as Flavius Theodosius, a senior military officer serving in the western part of the Roman Empire. ... Emperor Theodosius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Emperor Theodosius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Council of Sardica Council of Philippopolis Births John Chrysostom, bishop Eunapius, Greek Sophist and historian Deaths Categories: 347 ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ...


He is also known for making Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire. This article is becoming very long. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ...

Contents

Career

Born in Cauca (modern Coca, Spain), to a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder, Theodosius accompanied his father to Britannia to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368. He was military commander (dux) of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Cauca. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship (if any) between it and his father's death is unclear. It is possible that he was dismissed from his command by the emperor Valentinian I after the loss of two of Theodosius' legions to the Sarmatians in late 374. Count Theodosius, also known as Flavius Theodosius, a senior military officer serving in the western part of the Roman Empire. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Great Conspiracy is a term given to a yearlong war that occurred in Roman Britain near the end of the Roman occupation of the island. ... Events Earthquake in Nicaea Births Deaths Categories: 368 ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ... Medallion of Valentinian I. Solidus minted by Valens in ca. ... Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire. ... Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ...


From 364 to 375, the Roman Empire was governed by two co-emperors, the brothers Valentinian I and Valens; when Valentinian died in 375, his sons, Valentinian II and Gratian, succeeded him as rulers of the Western Roman Empire. In 378, after Valens was killed in the Battle of Adrianople, Gratian appointed Theodosius to replace the fallen emperor as co-augustus for the East. Gratian was killed in a rebellion in 383. After the death in 392 of Valentinian II, whom Theodosius had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole emperor, defeating the usurper Eugenius on September 6, 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus. Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ... Medallion of Valentinian I. Solidus minted by Valens in ca. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... A coin of Gratian. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... For other uses, see Battle of Adrianople (disambiguation). ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Visigoths Western Roman Empire Franks Commanders Theodosius I, Stilicho, Alaric Eugenius†, Arbogast† Casualties Unknown Eugenius killed, Arbogast commits suicide The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between September 5-6 394, between the army of the Eastern Emperor...


Family

By his first wife, Aelia Flaccilla, he had two sons, Arcadius and Honorius and a daughter, Pulcheria; Arcadius was his heir in the east and Honorius in the west. Both Pulcheria and Aelia Flaccilla died in 385. By his second wife, Galla, daughter of the emperor Valentinian I, he had a daughter, Galla Placidia, the mother of Valentinian III. Aelia Flaccilla. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Born 378, Died 385. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Galla, daughter of Valentinian II and Justina, second wife of Theodosius I, and mother of Galla Placidia. ... Medallion of Valentinian I. Solidus minted by Valens in ca. ... Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ...


Diplomatic policy with the Goths

The East was quiet during the reign of Theodosius. The Goths and their allies entrenched in the Balkans consumed his attention. The Gothic crisis was bad enough that his co-Emperor Gratian relinquished control of Illyrian provinces and retired to Trier in Gaul to let Theodosius operate without hindrance. A major weakness in the Roman position after the defeat at Adrianople was in recruiting barbarians to fight against barbarians. Theodosius was reduced to the expensive expedient of shipping his recruits to Egypt and replacing them with more seasoned Romans, but there were still switches of allegiance that resulted in military setbacks. Gratian sent generals to clear Illyria of Goths, and Theodosius was able finally to enter Constantinople on November 24, 380, after two seasons in the field. The final treaties with the remaining Goth forces, signed October 3, 382, permitted large contingents of Goths to settle along the Danube frontier in the diocese of Thrace and largely govern themselves. Many would serve in Roman legions and others, as foederati, would join for a single campaign, while bands of Goths switching loyalties became a destabilizing factor in the internal struggles for control of the Empire. In the last years of Theodosius' reign, one of their emerging leaders named Alaric, participated in Theodosius' campaign against Eugenius in 394, only to resume his rebellious behaviour against Theodosius' son and eastern successor, Arcadius, shortly after Theodosius' death. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... The city of Trier (Latin: Augusta Treverorum; French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier; Italian: ; Spanish: ) is situated on the western bank of the Moselle River in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... // Barbarian is a pejorative term for an uncivilized, uncultured person, either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos perceived as having an inferior level of civilization, or in an individual reference to a brutal, cruel, insensitive person whose behaviour is unacceptable in the purportedly civilized... Map of Constantinople. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ...


Civil wars in the Empire

The administrative divisions of the Roman Empire in 395, under Theodosius I.
The administrative divisions of the Roman Empire in 395, under Theodosius I.

After the death of Gratian in 383, Theodosius' interests turned to the Western Roman Empire, for the usurper Magnus Maximus had taken all the provinces of the West except for Italy. This self-proclaimed threat was hostile to Theodosius' interests, since the reigning emperor Valentinian II, Maximus' enemy, was his ally. When Maximus invaded Italy in 387, Theodosius decided to finish him off, and that he did the following year. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2316x1861, 807 KB) Description: Das römische Reich zum Zeitpunkt des Todes Theodosius I. 395 n. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2316x1861, 807 KB) Description: Das römische Reich zum Zeitpunkt des Todes Theodosius I. 395 n. ... A coin of Gratian. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Magnus Maximus. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ...


Trouble arose again, after Valentinian died, and the magister militum Arbogast elected Eugenius. Eugenius started a progam of restoration of the Pagan faith, and sought, in vain, Theodosius' recognition. Theodosius campaigned against Eugenius, whose army was defeated at the Battle of the Frigidus. Theodosius became the only emperor. Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Flavius Arbogastes (d. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a term which, from a western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Visigoths Western Roman Empire Franks Commanders Theodosius I, Stilicho, Alaric Eugenius†, Arbogast† Casualties Unknown Eugenius killed, Arbogast commits suicide The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between September 5-6 394, between the army of the Eastern Emperor...


Theodosius the patron

Theodosius offers a laurel wreath to the victor, on the base of the obelisk in the Hippodrome (Istanbul).

Theodosius oversaw the raising in 390 of the Egyptian obelisk from Karnak. As Imperial spoils, it still stands in the Hippodrome, the long racetrack that was the center of Constantinople's public life and scene of political turmoil. Re-erecting the monolith was a challenge for the technology that had been honed in siege engines. The obelisk, still recognizably a solar symbol, was removed to Alexandria in the first flush of Christian triumphalism at mid-century, but then spent a generation lying at the docks while people figured how to ship it to Constantinople, and was cracked in transit nevertheless. The white marble base is entirely covered with bas-reliefs documenting the Imperial household and the engineering feat itself. Theodosius and the imperial family are separated from the nobles among the spectators in the Imperial box with a cover over them as a mark of their status. The naturalism of the Roman tradition in such scenes is giving way to a conceptual art: the idea of order, decorum and respective ranking, expressed in serried ranks of faces, is beginning to oust the mere transitory details of this life, celebrated in Pagan portraiture. Christianity had only just been appointed the new state religion. Theodosius I, depicted on the base of a column in Istanbul. ... Theodosius I, depicted on the base of a column in Istanbul. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris For the obelisk punctuation mark, see dagger (typography). ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... The Hippodrome today The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the largest city in Europe. ... Alternative use: Race track Racetrack is a pencil and paper game, nominally for two players. ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... Helios in his chariot In Greek mythology the sun was personified as Helios or Helius (Greek Ἥλιος / ἥλιος). Homer often calls him Titan and Hyperion. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ... It has been suggested that Portrait painting be merged into this article or section. ...


Nicene Christianity becomes the state religion

Theodosius promoted Nicene Trinitarianism within Christianity and Christianity within the empire. He established Christianity as the only legitimate imperial religion, initiating the downfall of traditional Roman religion.


Nicene Creed

In the 4th century, the Christian Church was wracked with controversy over the divinity of Jesus Christ, his relationship to God the Father, and the nature of the Trinity. In 325, Constantine I convened the Council of Nicea, which asserted that Jesus, the Son, was equal to the Father, one with the Father, and of the same substance (homoousion in Greek). The council condemned the teachings of the theologian Arius: that the Son was a created being and inferior to God the Father, and that the Father and Son were of a similar substance (homoiousion in Greek) but not identical (see Nontrinitarian). Despite the council's ruling, controversy continued. By the time of Theodosius' accession, there were still several different church factions that promoted alternative Christology. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... This page is about the title or the Divine Person. For the Christian figure, see Jesus. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Within Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a perichoresis of three persons (hypostases, personae): Father, the Son (incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit, and thus is sometimes used by Christians as a name for... Bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Emperor in 306 Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicea in Bithynia (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Nontrinitarianism or antitrinitarianism is the doctrinal description applied to rejection of the Trinitarian doctrine that God subsists as three distinct persons in the Holy Trinity. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology which studies and attempts to define Jesus the Christ. ...


Arians

While no mainstream churchmen within the Empire explicitly adhered to Arius or his teachings, there were those who still used the homoiousion formula, as well as those who attempted to bypass the debate by merely saying that Jesus was like (homoi in Greek) God the Father. All these non-Nicenes were frequently labeled as Arians (i.e., followers of Arius) by their opponents, though they would not have identified themselves as such. (For a succinct survey of the situation just before Theodosius' accession, see Lenski). Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. ...

On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, the co-ruler of Theodosius in 379-392, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos.
On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, the co-ruler of Theodosius in 379-392, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos.

The Emperor Valens had favored the group who used the homoi formula; this theology was prominent in much of the East and had under the sons of Constantine the Great gained a foothold in the West. Theodosius, on the other hand, cleaved closely to the Nicene Creed: this was the line that predominated in the West and was held by the important Alexandrian church. Image File history File links Valentinian II. 375-392 AD. AV Solidus (4. ... Image File history File links Valentinian II. 375-392 AD. AV Solidus (4. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... Jesus is usually depicted with a round halo bearing a cross, as in this dome mosaic from the Church of Daphni in Athens. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ...


Establishment of Nicene orthodoxy

Two days after Theodosius arrived in Constantinople, (November 24, 380), Theodosius expelled the non-Nicene bishop, Demophilus of Constantinople, and surrendered the churches of that city to Gregory Nazianzus, the leader of the small Nicene community there, an act which provoked rioting. Theodosius had just been baptized, by bishop Acholius of Thessalonica, during a severe illness, as was common in the early Christian world. In February he and Gratian published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria (i.e., the Nicene faith). The move was mainly thrust at the various beliefs that had arisen out of Arianism, but smaller dissident sects, such as the Macedonians, were also prohibited. November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... Demophilus (d. ... An icon of Saint Gregory Nazianzen the theologian holding a Gospel Book Saint Gregory Nazianzen (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ...


Although much of the church hierarchy in the East had held non-Nicene positions in the decades leading up to Theodosius' accession[citation needed], he managed to impose Nicene uniformity during his reign. Later Nicene writers took special glee in the ignominious death of Valens, the Arians' protector, and indeed his defeat probably damaged the standing of the Homoian faction.


Persecution of Paganism

For the first part of his rule, Theodosius seems to have ignored the semi-official standing of the Christian bishops; in fact he had voiced his support for the preservation of temples or Pagan statues as useful public buildings. Then, in a series of decrees called the "Theodosian decrees" he progressively declared that those Pagan feasts that had not yet been rendered Christian ones were now to be workdays (in 389). In 391, he outlawed blood sacrifice and decreed "no one is to go to the sanctuaries, walk through the temples, or raise his eyes to statues created by the labor of man"[citation needed]. The temples that were thus closed could be declared "abandoned", as Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria immediately noted in applying for permission to demolish a site and cover it with a Christian church, an act that must have received general sanction, for mithraea forming crypts of churches, and temples forming the foundations of 5th century churches appear throughout the former Roman Empire. Theodosius participated in actions by Christians against major Pagan sites: the destruction of the gigantic Serapeum of Alexandria and its library by a mob in around 392, authorized by Theodosius (extirpium malum) and described in exultant detail by Christian propagandists, was only the most spectacular such occasion (see Brown)[citation needed]. The destruction of the greatest temple in Alexandria gave encouragement to Christian vigilantism and mob action in other centers, often spurred on by the local bishops, as early hagiographies proudly relate. Events All Pagan buildings in Alexandria, including the library, are destroyed Births Geiseric, king of the Vandals and Alans (approximate date) Deaths Gregory Nazianzus, theologian Categories: 389 ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... Mithras and the Bull: This fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy (3rd century) shows the tauroctony and the celestial lining of Mithras cape Mithraism was a mystery religion present in the Roman world. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Serapeum of Alexandria in Ptolemaic Egypt was a temple built by Ptolemy III (reigned 246–222 BC) and dedicated to Serapis, the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god who was made the protector of Alexandria. ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...

Saint Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius, Anthony van Dyck.
Saint Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius, Anthony van Dyck.

By decree in 391, Theodosius ended the subsidies that had still trickled to some remnants of Greco-Roman civic Paganism too. The eternal fire in the Temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum was extinguished, and the Vestal Virgins were disbanded. Taking the auspices and practicing witchcraft were to be punished. Pagan members of the Senate in Rome appealed to him to restore the Altar of Victory in the Senate House; he refused. After the last Olympic Games in 393, Theodosius cancelled the games, and the reckoning of dates by Olympiads soon came to an end. Now Theodosius portrayed himself on his coins holding the labarum. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x3385, 1044 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Theodosius I ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x3385, 1044 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Theodosius I ... Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius, Ambrosius episcopus Mediolanensis; Italian: SantAmbrogio) (c. ... Self Portrait With a Sunflower Sir Anthony (Anton) van Dyck (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England. ... The Sacred fire of Vesta, the Roman goddess of the hearth and goddess of fire, was an eternal flame which burned within the Temple of Vesta on the Roman Forum. ... Vesta may refer to: The goddess Vesta in Roman mythology equivalent to Greek Hestia The asteroid 4 Vesta, named for the Roman deity. ... This page refers to the main forum in the centre of Rome. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the... Categories: Ancient Rome | Classical oracles | Historical stubs ... Witchcraft, in various historical, religious and mythological contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire, which ended in the 6th century AD. The word Senatus is derived from the Latin word senex, meaning old man or elder. ... The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) bearing a gold statue of the goddess Victory. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games were an athletic and religious celebration held in the Greek town of Olympia from (historically) as early as 776 BC to 393 AD. There were 292 Ancient Olympic Games. ... Events Gao Zu succeeds Tai Zu as Emperor of the Later Qin Empire in China. ... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ...


The apparent change of policy that resulted in the "Theodosian decrees" has often been credited to the increased influence of Ambrose, bishop of Milan. The personal piety of Theodosius cannot be assessed. It is worth noting that in 390 Ambrose had excommunicated Theodosius, who had recently ordered the massacre of several thousand inhabitants of Thessalonica, in response to the assassination of his military governor stationed in the city, and that Theodosius performed several months of public penance. The specifics of the decrees were superficially limited in scope, specific measures in response to various petitions and accusations from the increasingly militant Christians throughout his administration[citation needed]. ok Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius, Ambrosius episcopus Mediolanensis; Italian: SantAmbrogio) (c. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ...


Theodosian women

Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... Serena was a noblewoman of the late Western Roman Empire. ... Flavius Stilicho (c. ...

Death

Theodosius died in Milan, in 395. Ambrose preached a panegyric at his funeral. Milan (Italian: Milano; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Saint Ambrose, (Latin: Sanctus Ambrosius, Ambrosius episcopus Mediolanensis; Italian: SantAmbrogio) (c. ... A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ...


See also

  • Carranque, Spain, the site of a villa attributed to Maternus Cinigius, uncle of Theodosius. Includes marble from the Emperor's quarries.

Carranque is a town in the Toledo province, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. ...

References

  • Brown, Peter, The Rise of Western Christendom, 2003, p. 73-74
  • Lenski, Noel, Failure of Empire, U. of California Press, 2002, ISBN 0-520-23332-8, pp. 235-237.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Theodosius I
  • De Imperatoribus Romanis, Theodosius I
Preceded by
Valens
Roman Emperor
379January 17, 395
with Gratian, Valentinian II, Arcadius and Honorius
Succeeded by
Honorius and Arcadius


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Arcadius, holding a labarum, defeating an enemy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Theodosius I. - Wikipedia (3989 words)
In Sirmium ernannte Gratian Theodosius zunächst zum Heermeister über Illyrien.
Inwiefern eine zielgerichtete Förderung seitens Theodosius erfolgte, ist heute nicht mehr klar zu beantworten.
Adolf Lippold: Theodosius I., in: Pauly-Wissowa RE Supplementband 13, Sp.
Theodosius I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1722 words)
Theodosius was the last ruler of a united Roman Empire - after the division between his heirs it was never again ruled by a single man. He is also known for making Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire.
Theodosius and the Imperial family are separated from the nobles among the spectators in the Imperial box with a cover over them as a mark of their status.
Theodosius, on the other hand, cleaved closely to the Nicene Creed: this was the line that predominated in the West and was held by the important Alexandrian church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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